Scholars before Ibn Taymiyah on whether dead can benefit or not

Scholars before Ibn Taymiyyah saying dead can not benefit or asking help from Auliyah is not allowed and venerating graves leads to kufr, you should always ask Allah for help.

  1. Umar bin al Khattab.
  2. Ibn Abbas
  3. Mujahid
  4. at-Tabari
  5. Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jeylani
  6. Qaadi Baydawi
  7. al Qurtubi
  8. Ibn Qudama
  9. al Izz bin Abdus Salam
  10. al Razi 
  11. al Nawawi
  12. Abu Shaama teacher of al Nawawi
  13. Muḥyiddin ibn Arab
  14. Ibn Aqil 
  15. ibn Jawzi
  16. al Ghazaali
  17. Fatawa-Bazaazia by Imam Kurduree d 642 h
  18. Ibn Abdul Barr 
  19. Scholars at the time of Giyath ud din bin Sultan Salah ud din  Ayyubi ordered to destroy the shrines.
  20. Abul Hasan Asharee (260 h to 324 h) 
  21. Abul Fath al Busti (330 h to 400 h) student of Ibn Hibban
  22. Ibn Abi Duniya
  23. Fudayl bin Iyad 
  24. Ibn Rushd
  25. at-Tabarani
  26. The Hanafi Jurist ابن مازة البخاري أبو المعالي

(616 h) 

  1. Ibn Hazm

 

Before going further I want to clarify that you may not find explicit hukm of istigatha through dead because it was not widespread among Muslims due to which scholars didn’t talk about it in detail but you may find explicit statements where they said the dead whether pious or not, they can not benefit.

 

  1. Umar bin al Khattab.

Abu al-Aaliyah (rahimahullah) said

حدثنا أحمد قال : نا يونس بن بكير عن أبي خلدة بن دينار قال : نا أبو العالية قال لما فتخنا تستر وجدنا في بيت مال الهرمزان سريراً عليه رجل ميت عند رأسه مصحف له فأخذنا المصحف فحملنا إلى عمر بن الخطاب فدعا له كعباً فنسخه بالعربية فأنا أول رل من العرب قرأته مثلما أقرأ القرآن هذا فقلت لأبي العالية: ما كان فيه ؟ فقال سيرتكم وأموركن ولحون كلامكم وما هو كائن بعد قلت : فما صنعتم بالرجل ؟. قال حفرنا بالنهار ثلاثة عشر قبراً متفرقة فلما كان الليل دفناه وسوينا القبور كلها لتعمية على الناس لا ينبشونه ، قلت وما يرجون منه ؟قال: كانت السماء إذا جست عليهم برزوا بسريره فيمطرون قلت من كنتم تظنون الرجل ؟ قال رجل يقال له دنيال فقلت ، منذ كم وجدتموه مات ؟ قال : منذ ثلاثمائة سنة قلت : ما كان تغير بشيء ؟ قال : لا إلا شعيرات من قفاه ، إن لحوم الأنبياء لاتبليها الأرض ولا تأكلها السباع

Abul Aalia said: “When Tastar was invaded, we found, in the treasure house of Al-Harmazan, a bed on which lay a dead man, with a holy script at his bedside. We took the scripture to Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. He called Ka’b and he translated it into Arabic, and I was the first Arab to read it. I read it as I read the Quran.” Here, I (i.e. Khalid Ibn Dinar) said to Abul Aalia: “What was in it?” He said: “Life history, annals, songs, speech, and what is to come.” I asked: “And what did you do with the man?” He said: “We dug in the river bank thirteen separate graves. At nightfall we buried him and leveled all the graves in order to mislead people for they would tamper with him.” I asked: “And what did they want from him?” He said: “When the sky was cloudless for them, they went out with his bed, and it rained.” I asked: “Who did you think the man was?” He said: “A man called Daniel.” I asked: “And for how long had he been dead when you found him?” He said: ‘Three hundred years.” I asked: “Did not anything change on him?” He said: “No, except for the hairs of his face (beard and mustache); the skin of the prophets is not harmed by the earth, nor devoured by hyenas.”

[Narrated by Ibne Abi Duniya, Muhammad bin Ishaq in Maghazi, Al-Bayhaqi in Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwah (1/381),Mentioned by Ibne Kathir in his book Stories of the Prophets and Authenticated]

Ibn Katheer Authenticated in the stories of the Prophet and said:

وَهَذَا إِسْنَادٌ صَحِيحٌ إِلَى أَبِي الْعَالِيَةِ، وَلَكِنْ إِنْ كَانَ تَارِيخُ وَفَاتِهِ مَحْفُوظًا مِنْ ثَلَاثِمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ فَلَيْسَ بِنَبِيٍّ بَلْ هُوَ رَجُلٌ صَالِحٌ، لِأَنَّ عِيسَى بن مَرْيَمَ لَيْسَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَبِيٌّ بِنَصِّ الْحَدِيثِ الَّذِي فِي الْبُخَارِيِّ، وَالْفَتْرَةُ الَّتِي كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمَا أَرْبَعُمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ، وَقِيلَ سِتُّمِائَةٍ وَقِيلَ سِتُّمِائَةٍ وَعِشْرُونَ سَنَةً، وَقَدْ يَكُونُ تَارِيخُ وَفَاتِهِ مِنْ ثَمَانِمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ وَهُوَ قَرِيبٌ مِنْ وَقْتِ دَانْيَالَ، إِنْ كَانَ كَوْنُهُ دَانْيَالَ هُوَ الْمُطَابِقَ لِمَا فِي نَفْسِ الْأَمْرِ، فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ يَكُونُ رَجُلًا آخَرَ إِمَّا مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ أَوِ الصَّالِحِينَ، وَلَكِنْ قَرُبَتِ الظُّنُونُ أَنَّهُ دَانْيَالُ لِأَنَّ دَانْيَالَ كَانَ قَدْ أَخَذَهُ مَلِكُ الْفُرْسِ فَأَقَامَ عِنْدَهُ مَسْجُونًا كَمَا تَقَدَّمَ.

وَقَدْ رُوِيَ بِإِسْنَادٍ صَحِيحٍ إِلَى أَبِي الْعَالِيَةِ أَنَّ طُولَ أَنْفِهِ شِبْرٌ، وَعَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ بِإِسْنَادٍ جَيِّدٍ أَنَّ طُولَ أَنْفِهِ ذِرَاعٌ، فَيَحْتَمِلُ عَلَى هَذَا أَنْ يَكُونَ رَجُلًا مِنَ الانبياء الاقدمين قبل هَذِه المدد.

“The chain of citation from Abul Aa’lia is good, but if the date of the dead man’s death was really three hundred years, then he was not a prophet but a saintly Man, because there was no prophet between Isa (Jesus)(pbuh), and the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), according to the hadith in Bukhari. The span between them (the dead man and Muhammad (pbuh)) was variously reported as four hundred, six hundred, and six hundred twenty years. It could be that he had died eight hundred years earlier, which would be near to Daniel’s time, if his being Daniel is correct. However, he could still have been somebody else, either a prophet or a saint. Yet the truth is more likely he was Daniel, because he had been taken by the King of Persia and remained imprisoned as already mentioned.

It was narrated with a correct citation that his nose as one span (nine inches) long. Anas Ibn Malik, with a good citation, said that his nose was an arm’s stretch long (two feet), on which basis he is thought to be an ancient prophet from before this period. Almighty Allah knows best.” [Qasas al Anbiya uner the Story of Danial Aleh salam]

Comment: Sahaba stopped people from using the body of a saint or Prophet for rain and also withheld the grave and levelled it.

  1. Ibn Abbas

Ibn Abbas on calling upon Anbiya and Saaliheen.

Allah says:

Allah says in Surah Isra verse 56-57

(56. Say: “Call upon those – besides Him whom you pretend. They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you nor even to shift (it from you to another person).”) (57. Those whom they call upon, desire a means of access to their Lord, as to which of them should be the nearest; and they hope for His mercy and fear His torment. Verily, the torment of your Lord is (something) to be afraid of!)

Ibn Jareer at-Tabri quoted some opinions, The opinion of Ibn Abbas is the following.

حدثني يحيى بن جعفر ، قال : أخبرنا يحيى بن السكن ، قال : أخبرنا شعبة ، عن إسماعيل السدي ، عن أبي صالح ، عن ابن عباس ، في قوله ( أولئك الذين يدعون يبتغون إلى ربهم الوسيلة ) قال : عيسى وأمه وعزير .

حدثنا محمد بن المثنى ، قال : ثنا أبو النعمان الحكم بن عبد الله العجلي ، قال : ثنا شعبة ، عن إسماعيل السدي ، عن أبي صالح ، عن ابن عباس ، قال : عيسى ابن مريم وأمه وعزير فيهذه الآية ( أولئك الذين يدعون يبتغون إلى ربهم الوسيلة )

حدثني محمد بن عمرو ، قال : ثنا أبو عاصم ، قال : ثنا عيسى; وحدثني الحرث ، قال : ثنا الحسن قال : ثنا ورقاء ، جميعا عن ابن أبي نجيح ، عن مجاهد ( يبتغون إلى ربهم الوسيلة ) قال : عيسى ابن مريم وعزير والملائكة .

حدثنا القاسم ، قال : ثنا الحسين ، قال : ثني حجاج ، عن ابن جريج ، عن مجاهد ، مثله .

Ibn Abbas said: “Those whom they call upon, desire a means of access to their Lord” Meaning Isa his mother (Mariyam) and Uzayr.

Ibn Abbas said it means, Isa ibn Mariyam, Uzayr and Angels.

Mujahid said same. [Tafsir at-Tabri under al Isra verse 57]

In short, According to Ibn Abbas, Call upon Anbiya and Saliheen They have neither the power to remove the adversity from you nor even to shift (it from you to another person). They desire a means of access to their Lord, as to which of them should be the nearest.

  1. Mujahid

a) Same is narrated from Mujahid regarding Surah al Israa verse 57 as mentioned above.

b) Aqeeda of Mujahid the Tabiyee vs Sufis regarding their spiritual leader (peer).

Muhammad bin Abdullah Shibli said:

وقال أبو بكر محمد بن محمد بن سليمان الباغندي حدثنا أحمد ابن بكار بن أبي ميمونة حدثنا غياث عن خصيف عن مجاهد قال كان الشيطان لا يزال يتزين لي إذا قمت إلى الصلاة في صورة ابن عباس قال

فذكرت قول ابن عباس فجعلت عندي سكينا فتزين لي فحملت عليه فطعنته فوقع وله وجبة فلم أره بعد ذلك

Mujahid said: whenever i used to stand in prayer, Satan would come to me in the FORM OF IBN ABBAS (his teacher) I remembered the saying of Ibn Abbas and I took a knife with me. And when he appeared I stabbed him and he fell. After that I never saw him.

آكام المرجان فى احكام الجان للشبلي 1/23

If Mujahid had a Sufi mind he would say. My spiritual Master visited me, my master helped me, my master did this and did that.

c) Mujahid the student of Ibn Abbas said regarding al Laat:

كان يَلُتّ السويق للحاجِّ، فعكف على قبره.

He used to mix Sawiq (a kind of barley mash) with water for the pilgrims. People remained next to his grave. [Tafsir at-Tabri under 53:19

He also said:

«اللاَّتَّ» قال: كان يَلُتّ السويق فمات، فعكفوا على قبره.

al Laat used to mix Sawiq (a kind of barley mash) with water for the pilgrims. When he died people remained next to his grave. [Ibid]

We often hear from extreme sufis that do not say so and so wali died, rather say (in urdu) “Pardah farma gaye hain” i.e. He veiled himself from us. This was also the creed of mushriqeen for al-Laat, Ibn Hajr a asqalani said:

والصحيح أن اللات غير عمرو بن لحي فقد أخرج الفاكهي من وجه آخر عن بن عباس أن اللات لما مات قال لهم عمرو بن لحي إنه لم يمت ولكنه دخل الصخرة فعبدوها وبنوا عليها بيتا

True is that al-Laat is other than Amr bin Luhy as it is narrated by al Faakihi from Ibn Abbas that when al-Laat died Amr bin Luhy said: He did not die rather he just entered into the stone, then he was worshiped and people made a building over it. [Fath al Bari 8/612]

You will never find a single tafseer of a Sahabi or Tabiyee on the meaning taken from the verses of Quran by innovators. Like when they say that “The Prophet peace be upon him is Omnipresent, Mukhtar e kull, Shaykh Abdul Qadir jelani knows each and everything etc”.

  1. at-Tabari

It is not possible to ask help or questions from Prophets.

Allah says:

Ask all Our Messengers whom We sent before you whether We had appointed any deities beside the Merciful One to be worshipped [43 : 45]

Ibn kathr commented

وقال عبد الرحمن بن زيد بن أسلم: واسألهم ليلة الإسراء؛ فإن الأنبياء عليهم الصلاة والسلامجمعوا له، واختار ابن جرير لأول، والله أعلم.

Abdul Rahman bin Zaid bin Aslam said ask the anbiya, meaning in the night of meraj and Ibn Jareer (at-Tabri) holds the first opinion. (End quote).

Comment: at-Tabari knew asking the messengers is impossible unless it is a miracle as Abdul Rahman bin Zaid opted.

  1. Shaykh Abdul Qadir jeylani rahimahullah on the righteous dead who can’t harm or benefit, can’t speak.

Shaykh Abdul Qadir al Jeylani said:

أين الصوام القوام الموافقون لكم في سالف الأعوام، وأين من كان معكم ليالي شهر رمضان شاهدين، وفي كل حق الله معاملين من الآباء والأمهات والإخوة والأخوات والجيرة والقرابات، أتاهم والله هادم اللذات وقاطع الشهوات ومفرق الجماعات، فأخلى منهم المشاهد، وعطل منهم المساجد، تراهم في بطون الألحاد صرعى، لا يجدون لما هم فيه دفعًا، ولا يملكون لأنفسهم ضرًا ولا نفعًا، ينتظرون يومًا الأمم فيه إلى ربها تدعى، والخلائق تحشر إلى الموقف وتسعى.

Where are the fasting people who were fasting with you in last years? Where are those who witnessed the nights of ramadhan with you? Where are Your parents, siblings and friends? By Allah the destroyer of pleasures (death) has reached them. Their mashahid and mosques are empty.. They CAN’T HARM OR BENEFIT themselves. They are waiting for the day when people will gather towards their Creator. [Ghuniyatul Talibeen page 262]

Then he said about the righteous and sinners buried in the graves:

اللهم وأهل القبور رهائن ذنوب لا يطلقون، وأسارى وحشة لا يفكون، وغرباء سفر لا ينتظرون، محت دراسات الثرى محاسن وجوههم، وجاورتهم الهوام في ملاحد قبورهم، فهم جمود لا يتكلمون، وجيران قرب لا يتزاورون، وسكان لحد إلى الحشر لا يظعنون، وفيهم محسنون ومسيؤون، ومقصرون ومجتهدون.

O Allah the people in graves can’t get rid of their sins, They can’t free themselves, They can’t be given time… They are dead and CAN’T SPEAK, They can’t meet each other, They can’t move until the day of judgement. Among them are those who are Mohsinoon (Righteous), Sinners, Those who have failed and those who went a head.

[Ghuniyatul Talibeen page 262]
  1. Qaadi Baydawi (685 h) vs the extreme sufis.

Sufis quote the following statement of Qaadi al Baydawi:

وقال البيضاوي : لما كانت اليهود والنصارى يسجدون لقبور الأنبياء تعظيما لشأنهم ويجعلونها قبلة يتوجهون في الصلاة نحوها واتخذوها أوثانا لعنهم ومنع المسلمين عن مثل ذلك ، فأما من اتخذ مسجدا في جوار صالح وقصد التبرك بالقرب منه لا التعظيم له ولا التوجه نحوه فلا يدخل في ذلك الوعيد

al Baydawi said: ‘As the Jews and Christians used to prostrate themselves before the graves of the prophets venerating them and perform prayers in the direction of these graves, they have made these graves as idols, so they were cursed. Muslims were forbidden to do the same.’ As for, ‘When one builds a mosque near the grave of a righteous man and intends to take blessing near him WITHOUT revering him or paying attention or the like, then this prohibition is not included in it. [Fath al Bari 1/525]

Response:

There is no shirk in above quote rather he clearly mentioned jews and Christians made the graves of pious and anbiya as an idol and worshipped.  He is just saying taking blessings by praying TO ALLAH in mosque near the grave of a righteous is allowed WITHOUT PAYING ATTENTION and VENERATING HIM. Now contrast this with any shrine of present day. Sufis venerate and pay attention to the grave and even ask him for help. al Baydawi is not saying it is allowed to ask help from the grave or the righteous person. As for his saying that “It is allowed to build a mosque near the grave of righteous without venerating him”? This is questionable.

a) Even Sufis like Allama al-Manawi (952 h 1031 h) refuted al Baydawi on this, He said:

لكن في خبر الشيخين كراهة بناء المسجد على القبور مطلقا والمراد قبور المسلمين خشية أن يعبد فيها المقبور لقرينة خبر اللهم لا تجعل قبري وثنا يعبد وظاهره أنها كراهة تحريم لكن المشهور عند الشافعية أنها كراهة تنزيه

But the hadith of Shaykhayn (Bukhari and Muslim) has general karaha of making masajid over graves, MEANING THE GRAVES OF MUSLIMS, due to the fear of worshiping the graves. As it is mentioned in the hadith “”O Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshiped.””. [Faydh al Qadeer 4/612]

b) As-San‘aani  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him responded this statement of al Baydawi,  As-San‘aani commented on these statement as follows:

I (As-San`aani) say, ‘Building mosques near the grave of a pious person out of seeking its blessing is, in fact, a form of veneration. Moreover, the Ahaadeeth deeming it absolutely forbidden to pray in mosques containing graves have a general indication and there is no evidence of the above mentioned justification.

The preponderant opinion is that the reason for the prohibition is to eliminate the means leading to unfavorable ends and avoid the imitation of idol worshippers who venerate inanimate objects that do not hear, benefit, or harm them.” [Subul As-Salaam] [see islamweb Fatwa No : 263494]

NOTE: al Baydawi spoke against asking help from others.

Allah says in az-Zumr

39 : 43 Or have they taken other than Allah as intercessors? Say, “Even though they do not possess [power over] anything, nor do they reason?”

a) Qadi Baydawi (d. 685 AH) said:

هو أن الشفعاء أشخاص مقربون هي تماثيلهم

Intercessors among the Pious people upon whose forms these pictures have been made [Tafsir Baydawi under 39 : 43]

Allah says in al Ahqaf.

46 : 5 And who is more astray than he who invokes besides Allah those who will not respond to him until the Day of Resurrection, and they, of their invocation, are unaware.

a) Qadi Baydawi (d. 685 AH) said:

{ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَائِهِمْغَـٰفِلُونَ } لأنهم إما جمادات وإما عباد مسخرون مشتغلون بأحوالهم.

(And they, of their invocation, are unaware) They are either Inanimate objects or they are Men who are busy in their ahwaal.

[Anwar al-Tanzil wa-Asrar al-Ta’wil under 46 : 5]

In short according to al Baydawi those Inanimate objects AND MEN are unaware of your invocation to whom you call “O Gawth” “O Gunj Baksh” “O Ghareeb Nawaz” Help us.

  1. al Qrtubi on Calling upon Anbiya.

He said under the verse  14 of surah fatir:

([035:014] If ye invoke them, they will not listen to your call, and if they were to listen, they cannot answer your (prayer). On the Day of Judgment they will reject your “Partnership”. and none, (O man!) can tell thee (the Truth) like the One Who is acquainted with all things.)

a) Al Qurtubi commented:

أي إن تستغيثوا بهم في النوائب لا يسمعوا دعاءكم؛ لأنها جمادات لا تبصر ولا تسمع

Meaning is If you Call them for help in hard situations then they cannot hear you because they are inanimate objects they cannot see nor hear.

Then he said:

ثم يجوز أن يرجع هذا إلى المعبودين مما يعقل؛ كالملائكة والجن والأنبياء والشياطين؛ أي يجحدون أن يكون ما فعلتموه حقاً، وأنهم أمروكم بعبادتهم؛

كما أخبر عن عيسى بقوله:

{ مَا يَكُونُ لِيۤ أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ

This is Possible that this verse is for Angels, Jinn, Prophets and Satan as they will deny (all) what you have done and that they asked them to worship them, Like EESA ALEH SALAM will say (It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). (end quote)

b) Imam Qurtubi states in the commentary of 40 : 60:

فدل هذا على أن الدعاء هو العبادة. وكذا قال أكثر المفسرين

‘Your Lord said: Call upon Me, and I will respond to you!’, this proves that invocation is the act of worship, and this is what most of the mufassirin are upon’. (end quote)

In short according to him invocation is an act of worship and when you invoke Anbiya and Saliheen that’s worship and they will deny this invocation on the day of Judgment.

  1. Ibn Qudama.

a) Ibn Qudama says the following that at the grave of Prophet peace be upon him one say:

اللهم إنك قلت وقولك الحق : { ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا أنفسهم جاءوك فاستغفروا الله واستغفر لهم الرسول لوجدوا الله توابا رحيما } . وقد أتيتك مستغفرا من ذنوبي ، مستشفعا بك إلى ربي ، فأسألك يا رب أن توجب لي المغفرة ، كما أوجبتها لمن أتاه في حياته ، اللهم اجعله أول الشافعين

O ALLAH You spoke and your word is true”And if they had come to you, when they had wronged their souls, and asked forgiveness of Allah, and the Messenger also had asked forgiveness for them, they (on the basis of this means and intercession) would have found Allah the Granter of repentance, extremely Merciful”(Surah an-Nisa verse 64) I came to you after I have had asked for forgiveness of my sins and seeking your intercession with your Lord. So I ask you, O Allah! To grant me your forgiveness, just as you granted it for those who came to him when he was alive. O Allah! Make him the first of all intercessors…”[alMughni Vol 3 Kitab al-Hajj]

It is clear that Ibn Qudama is making du’a to Allah directly, and there is absolutely nothing wrong with this, let alone it be shirk.

b) Ibn Qudama (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

In the case of one who is deceased, it is permissible to do it on his behalf without permission, whether it is obligatory or voluntary, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined Hajj on behalf of the deceased, and it is known that permission cannot be sought from the deceased. [Al-Mughni (3/95)]

c) Ibn Qudama Hanbali said

” ولا يستحب التمسح بحائط قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا تقبيله قال أحمد : ما أعرف هذا . قال ابن الأثرم : رأيت أهل العلم من أهل المدينة لا يمسون قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم, يقومون من ناحية فيسلمون ”

It is not recommended to touch the wall of the grave of Prophet peace be upon him nor kiss it. Ahmad said ‘I do not know this. ibn Al-Athram said: I have seen The people of knowledge from Madeena, they would not touch the grave. They would simply stand to the side and send Salam. [See also Kashaf al Qina 2/139]

Comment: This proves that leave a side asking help from auliyah and prophets in homes and masajid, even on the grave it is recommended to say Salam, rather than saying “O Abdul Qadir help me or O Prophet help me”

d) Ibn Qudama Hanbali said

ولأن تخصيص القبور بالصلاة عندها يشبه تعظيم الأصنام بالسجود لها ، والتقرب إليها ، وقد روينا أن ابتداء عبادة الأصنام تعظيم الأموات ، باتخاذ صورهم ، ومسحها ، والصلاة عندها .

The special treatment of graves by means of praying by them is similar to the veneration of idols by prostrating oneself before them and wishing to draw near to them. And it is narrated that idol worship began initially by praising the dead by taking their pictures and wiping them and praying over them.

[Al Mughni, Kitab al-Janaiz Vol 2 page 193]

e) Ibn Qudama al Maqdasi said regarding Asharis:

وَيَنْبَغِي ان تكون شريعتهم غير شَرِيعَة مُحَمَّد صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم وَدينهمْ غير دين الْإِسْلَام لِأَن دين الْإِسْلَام هُوَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُحَمَّد صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم وَهَذَا إِنَّمَا جَاءَ بِهِ الْأَشْعَرِيّ وَإِن رَضوا هَذَا واعترفوا بِهِ خَرجُوا عَن الْإِسْلَام بِالْكُلِّيَّةِ

For sure their Shareeah is not the Shareeah what Muhammad peace be upon him brought and their religion is other than Islam, since Islam is what Muhammad Sallahu alaihiwasallam came with and as far as they are concerned its what Ashari has come with , and if what Ashari has come with is accepted and agreed , then they are out of Islam completely [Hikayah tul Munazirah fil Quran ma Baz Ahlul Bidah by Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Muhammad al Maqdasi]

  1. The opinion if Izz bin Abdus Salam (660 h)

Allah says

[35:22] Nor are alike those that are living and those that are dead. Allah can make any that He wills to hear; but thou canst not make those to hear who are (buried) in graves.

a) He commented

{ يُسْمِعُ } يهدي { مَّن فِى الْقُبُورِ } كما لا تسمع الموتى كذلك لا تسمع الكافر أو لا تسمع الكافر الذي أماته الكفر حتى أقبره في كفره.

{hear} guide {who are in graves}. Like dead do not hear same as the kaafirs do not hear ..[In his tafsir of Quran under Surah alFaatir verse 22]

b) al-Izz bin Abdus Salam said when he was asked regarding Talqeen after the death he replied

لم يصح في التلقين شيء ، وهو بدعة ، وقوله عليه السلام (( لقنوا موتاكم لا إله إلا الله )) محمول على من دنا موته ويئس من حياته .

Nothing is proven regarding Talqeen. This is Bidah (Innovation) and the saying of Prophet peace be upon him (Exhort to recite” there is no god but Allah) is for the person who is dying and given up the hope for life[Fatawa al Izz bin Abdus salam page 96].

c) Iz bin Abdus Salam said regarding the hadeeth of a blind man who came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said, “Supplicate to Allaah”,

“If this hadith (the hadith of Uthman bin Hunayf) is authentic then it is specific for the Prophet peace be upon him only, who was leader of children of Adam, Asking Allah by giving him Qasam is NOT allowed for others among the Prophets, Angels, Auliyah ” [Fatawa Sultan al-Ulama p 126-127 fatwa no. 102]

Comment: The Muhaqqiq Abdul Rahman bin Abdu Fattah quoted the hadith of Tirmidhee in footnotes. Sufis quote this hadith in support of Istigatha, Imam al Izz bin Abdus Salam considered this hadith on giving Allah Qasam and said it is only allowed for Prophet peace be upon him ONLY IF THE HADITH IS AUTHENTIC. This is again against extremists who ask Allah by saying Ya Gawth al Adam madad thinking that he will ask Allah for them. Whereas, Ahlus Sunnah believe Tawassul through Prophet peace be upon him means Tawassul through Iman, Love and obedience to Prophet peace be upon him.

d) It is mentioned in Al-Waasitah (p.5) attributed to al Izz bin Abdus Salam

“ومن أثبت الأنبياء وسواهم من مشايخ العلم والدين وسائط بين الله وبين خلقه كالحُجّاب الذين بين الملك ورعيته بحيث يكونون هم يرفعون إلى الله تعالى حوائج خلقه، وأن الله تعالى إنما يهدي عباده ويرزقهموينصرهم بتوسطهم بمعنى أن الخلق يسألونهم وهم يسألون الله كما أن الوسائط عند الملوك يسألون الملك حوائج الناس لقربهم منهم، والناس يسألونهم أدباً منهم أن يباشروا سؤال الملك ولأن طلبهم من الوسائطأنفع لهم من طلبهم من الملك لكونهم أقرب إلى الملك من الطالب. فمن أثبتهم وسائط على هذا الوجه فهو كافر مشرك يجب أن يستتاب، فإن تاب وإلا قتل، وهؤلاء مشبَّهون لله، شبّهوا الخالق بالمخلوق وجعلوا للهأنداداً”.

“Whoever makes the prophets, and the scholars of the religion, intermediaries between Allaah and His creation, like the door keepers employed by earthly kings who come between them and their subjects, and thinks that they are the ones who raise up the needs of the creation to Allaah, the Most High, and that Allaah, the Most High, guides, gives provision and aid to His creation through them, meaning that the creation make request of them and then they in turn make request of Allaah, just as the intermediaries with earthly kings pass on the request of subjects to them, and the people ask them since it is not deemed correct for them to ask the king directly, and it is more beneficial for them to make their request to the intermediaries than to ask the king directly, since they are closer to the king. So whoever deems them to be intermediaries in this way, then he is a Kaafir and a mushrik. His repentance is to be sought, and he either repents or he is killed. Such people make similarity with Allaah; they take Him to be like His creation, and attribute rivals to Allaah…”(end)

Note: According to sh Rafiq Tahir It is mentioned in “مكتبة الغازي خسروبيك سراييفوا” Qalmi manuscript that this is the Risalah of Imam al Izz bin Abdus Salam that is why Shaykh al Al-Bani rahimahullah attributed this quote to Imam al Izz bin Abdus salam. On the other hand according to ” إدارة المخطوطات والمكتبات الإسلامية بوزارة الأوقاف الكويتية : 2962″ Its the Risalah of Ibn Taymiyah that is why Shaykh Rafiq Taahir attributed this statement to Ibn Taymiyah.

  1. al Razi

Sufis claim al Razi said one can ask help from dead because he said the following:

Imam Fakhr ud-din Razi (rah) explains this hadith as:

Translation: When a person becomes totally dedicated to It’aat (of Allah), then he becomes established on such a state about which Allah has said: I become his hearing and sight, hence when Allah’s Nur becomes his hearing,“THEN HE HEARS FROM NEAR AND DISTANT PLACES”,… and when Allah’s Nur becomes his sight then ”HE SEES FROM NEAR AND DISTANT PLACES” and when Allah’s Nur becomes his hand then ”HE CAN MAKE TASSARUF  IN DIFFICULT AND EASY PROBLEMS FROM NEAR AND FAR” [Tafsir ul Kabir, Volume No. 21, Page No. 77

Response

al Raazi  said this in context of the hadith which states Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “Allah said, ‘I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a pious worshipper of Mine (وليا).And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me, is what I have enjoined upon him; and My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawafil (praying or doing extra deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him, “SO I BECOME HIS SENSE OF HEARING WITH WHICH HE HEARS, AND HIS SENSE OF SIGHT WITH WHICH HE SEES, AND HIS HAND WITH WHICH HE GRIPS, AND HIS LEG WITH WHICH HE WALKS” and if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks My protection (Refuge).. I will protect him; (i.e. give him My Refuge) and I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him.”Volume 8, Book 76, Number 509: (Sahih Bukhari

This clearly shows that He was not talking about DEAD at all, also The TASARRUF that he speaks of is in fact of knowledge, guidance and tazkiyyah,  And that is only for those who seek these things and are chosen by Allah Most High. Also he is talking about Karamaat of Auliya like Umar bin al Khattab may Allah be pleased with him and said “Ya Saariyatul Jabal” (If the narration is proven). Let us see explicit statements of al Raazi on whether the dead may hear the invocations or not, Venerations of Grave and there is no waasita between Allah and his slave.

a) Al Razi on Dead can not hear, Veneration of graves, asking help only from Allah.

Fakhr al din al Razi said:

“وَمَآ أَنتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَّن فِي ٱلْقُبُورِ”  هو ان الغرض من سياق الآية تشبيه الكفرة بالموتى ونحن نعترف بأن الذين فى القبور لا يسمعون حين ما يكون موتى.

“But you cannot make those who are in the graves to hear”[35:22] .The context of this verse shows that Kuffar are likened to the dead And we know that the dead in the graves can not hear.

[Nihaya tul Uqool lil Razi 4/165]

b) al Razi said:

وتقرير الجواب أن هؤلاء الكفار إما أن يطمعوا بتلك الشفاعة من هذه الأصنام أو من أولئك العلماء والزهاد الذين جعلت هذه الأصنام تماثيل لها

The detailed answer to this is that these disbelievers either desired the intercession from these idols or from these scholars and saints upon whose forms these idols have been made. [Tafsir al Kabeer under 39 : 43]

C) Fakhrudin Ar-Razi in the Tafsir of verse 18 of surah Yunus mentioned different sayings of scholars about how the Mushriks took idols as intermediary towards Allah, and he mentioned in fourth explanation:

أنهم وضعوا هذه الأصنام والأوثان على صور أنبيائهم وأكابرهم، وزعموا أنهم متى اشتغلوا بعبادة هذه التماثيل، فإن أولئك الأكابر تكون شفعاء لهم عند الله تعالى، ونظيره في هذا الزمان اشتغال كثير من الخلق بتعظيم قبور الأكابر، على اعتقاد أنهم إذا عظموا قبورهم فإنهم يكونون شفعاء لهم عند الله.

“They built these statues and idols upon the forms of their Prophets and leaders (Akabir), and they believed that when they would worship these idols, then these leaders (Akabir) would become intercessors for them in front of Allah. And what is similar to this in our times is the veneration (ta’zeem) of a lot of people among the creation of the graves of their leaders (Akabir), with the belief that if they venerate their graves, then they (leaders) will be intercessors for them in front of Allah.”

d) al Razi on making waasita in dua.

Allama Fakhr al-Din al Razi Rahimaullah said:

{ وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنّي فَإِنّي قَرِيبٌ } ولم يقل فقل إني قريب فتدل على تعظيم حال الدعاء من وجوه الأول: كأنه سبحانه وتعالى يقول عبدي أنت إنما تحتاج إلى الواسطة في غير وقت الدعاء أما في مقام الدعاء فلا واسطة بيني وبينك الثاني: أن قوله: { وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنّي } يدل على أن العبد له وقوله: { فَإِنّي قَرِيبٌ } يدل على أن الرب للعبد وثالثها: لم يقل: فالعبد مني قريب، بل قال: أنا منه قريب،

“And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me – indeed I am near.” HE did not say “Say I am near” following are reasons..

First: It is as if Allah is saying, my slave you are in need of waasitah in other places than dua, but in dua there is NO WAASITAH BETWEEN ME AND YOU.

Second: “And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me” It is evidence that a Man is for Allah and the saying “I am Near” is evidence that Allah is for his slave.

Third: Allah did not say the Man is near me, rather He said “I am near” [Tafsir al Kabeer under 2:186]

e) al Razi on Mukhtar e Kul.

Imam Razi writes under the verse: “Say, I do not possess for myself harm…” —

قُل لاَّ أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعاً وَلاَ ضَرّاً إِلاَّ مَا شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ

والمراد ان انزال العذاب على الاعدأ واظهارالنصرة للاوليأ لاا يقدر عليه احد الا اللّه سبحانه

“And the meaning of this is that the descending of punishment upon the enemies and the appearance of help for the friends, none has the ability for this except Allah.” (end quote)

  1. al Nawawi

Imam An-Nawawi on the reason due to which Prophet peace be upon him forbade building mosques over the graves.

He said:

قال العلماء : إنما نهى النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – عن اتخاذ قبره وقبر غيره مسجدا خوفا من المبالغة في تعظيمه والافتتان به ، فربما أدى ذلك إلى الكفر كما جرى لكثير من الأمم الخالية .

The scholars said: The reason due to which Prophet peace be upon him forbade to build a mosque over his grave and others was due to the fear of extremism in veneration of grave, which will create fitna and sometimes it leads to disbelief as happened to many of the previous nations..

(End quote, roughly translated)

Comment: He clearly said extremism is veneration leads to kufr. His quotes on tawassul and Shafa’at are already dealt in a separate article. If he was alive today he would be considered a Wahhabi because when he would see extreme venerations over the grave he would give fatwa against them.

  1. Abu Shaamah teacher of an-Nawawi

He writes in his book Al-Ba’ith ala’ Inkar Al-Bid’ah wa ‘l-Hawadith, p.100-101

, أنه رأى في منامه بها أحدا ممن اشْتَهَرَ بِالصَّلَاحِ وَالْوِلَايَةِ فيفعلون ذلك ويُحَافِظُونَ عليه مع تَضْيِيعِهِمْ فَرَائِضِ اللَّهِ تعالى وسُنَنِهِ

ويظنون أنهم مُتَقَرِّبُونَ بذلك ثم يَتَجَاوَزُونَ هذا الى أَنْ يُعَظَّمَ وقعُ تلك الأماكِن في قلوبِهِم فَيُعَظِّمُونَهَا ويرجون الشفاءَ لِمَرَضاهُم وَقَضَاءَ حَوَائِجِهِمْ بالنذر لهم وهي من بينِ عيونٍ وشجرٍ وحَائِطٍ وحجرٍ

وفي مدينة دمشقَ صانها الله تعالى من ذلك مواضعَ مُتعدِّدَة ًكعوينةِ الحُمى خارجَ بابِ توما والعمودِ المُخلَق داخلَ بابِ الصغير والشجرة الملعونةِ اليابسة خارج َباب النصرِ في نفسِ قارعةِ الطريق سَهَلَ اللهُ قَطعَهاَ واجتِثاثَها من أصلِها فما أشبَبها بذات أنواط الواردة في الحديث

A person tells them that he saw in a dream that a pious person and a friend of Allah is buried there. They start honouring these pious people and being particular about this, despite the fact that they are neglecting the obligations of Islam and the Sunnah practices

They believe that they are doing good by venerating these pious people. Then, they take this to a more extreme level until the veneration of these places overcomes their hearts. Thereafter, they start honouring the places themselves and they begin hoping that sick people will be cured and their needs will be fulfilled by making oaths at these places. These areas tend to be between fountains, trees, walls, and rocks.

In the city of Damascus – may Allah preserve it – there are many such places, including a specific spring near the Tawma gate, a specific pillar near the ‘small gate,’ and the accursed dry tree near Bab al-Nasr – may Allah facilitate the cutting of this tree and uproot it. How similar are these places to the thorn tree which is mentioned in the books of hadith related to the battle of Hunayn”

  1. Muḥyiddin ibn Arabi knew one should only ask from Allah.

He said:

وحى الله تعالى إلى موسى يا موسى لا تجعل غيري موضع حاجتك وسلني حتى الملح تلقيه في عجينك‏

هذا تعليم الله نبيه موسى عليه السلام ولقد رأيته سبحانه وتعالى في النوم فقال لي وكلني في أمورك فوكلته فما رأيت إلا عصمة محضة لله الحمد على ذلك

Allah revealed to Musa aleh salam: “O Musa, Do not ask someone else in your need. Ask me, even the salt for your flour”

This is what Allah taught Musa Aleh salam, I saw Allah in my dream. HE said to me: “make ME your guardian in all of your affairs”. So I made him my guardian, I saw a pure way (against satan) in it. [Futuhaat al Makkiyah 2/264]

  1. Ibn Aqil vs Sufis.

Ibn Aqil allowed tawassul ONLY at the grave of Prophet peace be upon him, maybe because he was Sufi and also became Mutazili and then became Sunni.

a) Ibn Aqil Hanbali and his repentance from mutazila and Sufism.

Ibn Rajab Hanbali said that Ibn Aqil said

واعتقدت في الحلاج أنه من أهل الدین والزهد والكرامات. ونصرت ذلك في جزء عملته. وأنا تائب إلى الله تعالى منه، وأنه قتل بإجماع علماء عصره، وأصابوا في ذلك، وأخطأ هو. ومع ذلك فإني أستغفر الله تعالى، وأتوب إليه من مخالطة المعتزلة، والمبتدعة، وغير ذلك، والترحم عليهم، والتعظيم لهم فإن ذلك كله حرام. ولا يحل لمسلم فعله

I had a belief that Husayn bin Munsur Hallaaj (the extreme Sufi) was among the ahlul Deen and the righteous. And that he had miracles, I also wrote in his defence.

I ask forgiveness from all of this before Allah. He was killed by the consensus of scholars. The scholars did the right thing as he was wrong. I ask Allah’s forgiveness regarding him that May Allah forgive me. I ask forgiveness that I was with the Mutazila and people of innovation etc and that I used to pray for mercy and venerate them. It is prohibited and not allowed for any Muslim (i.e. to Praise hallaj and people of innovations).

(ذیل طبقات الحنابلة، ۱/۳۲۳)

b) ibn Aqil hated sufis

Ibn Kathir said regarding Sufi Hammad bin Muslim:

حماد بن مسلم الرحبي الدباس

كان يذكر له أحوال ومكاشفات واطلاع على مغيبات، وغير ذلك من المقامات، ورأيت ابن الجوزي يتكلم فيه ويقول: كان عريا من العلوم الشرعية، وإنما كان ينفق على الجهال.

وذكر عن ابن عقيل أنه كان ينفر منه، وكان حماد الدباس يقول: ابن عقيل عدوي.

قال ابن الجوزي: وكان الناس ينذرون له فيقبل ذلك، ثم ترك ذلك وصار يأخذ من المنامات وينفق على أصحابه.

توفي في رمضان ودفن بالشونيزية.

Hammad bin Muslim.. his ahwal, mukashifat and information on knowledge of unseen are mentioned (i.e. by people).. I have seen Ibn Jawzi (i.e. in his books) talking about him and saying: He was far from uloom al Shariya and would spend on ignorant.

He mentioned from Ibn Aqil (hanbali) that he would hate him and Hammad would say Ibn Aqil hates me.. [al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 12 under 525 h]

c) ibn Aqil  considered them kafir who ask help from dead.

Ibn Aqil said:

وهم كفار عندي بهذه الأوضاع مثل تعظيم القبوروإكرامها بما نهى الشرع عنه من إيقاد النيران وتقبيلها وتخليفها وخطاب الموتى بالألواح وكتب الرقاع فيها يا مولاي افعل بي كذا وكذا وأخذ التراب تبركا وإفاضة الطيب على القبور وشد الرحال إليها وإلقاء الخرقعلى الشجر اقتداء بمن عبد اللات والعزى

“To me, they are kafir (infidels) due to these positions; like revering the graves and paying respect to them with things which are forbidden by Shari’a like burning fire, kissing the graves, roaming around them, addressing the dead with sheets (of requests) and notes on patches which say like this: “O My Master do such and such for me”, and taking the soil for getting blessing, pouring perfume on the graves, undertaking journey to visit them, hanging shreds with trees, as imitation to those who worship Lat and Uzza. [Talbees Iblees تلبيس إبليس/الباب الثاني عشر chapter تلبيس إبليس على جمهور العوام]

d Ibn Aqil said

لا يخلق القبور بالخلوق , والتزويق والتقبيل لها والطواف بها , والتوسل بهم إلى الله

Graves are not made for being perfumed with fragrances, or decorating, or kissing, or making Tawaf around them, or taking them for Tawassul before ALLAH.

[Ibn Muflih quoted al furoo 2/316]
  1. Ibn Jawzi

a) Following is the statement of Ibn Jawzi where Ibn Jawzi criticised brother of al Ghazaali who said he ask from Prophet peace be upon him while awake

He said regarding brother of al Ghazaali:

وَكَانَ يزْعم أَنه يرى رَسُول الله فِي يَقَظَتِهِ لَا فِي نَوْمِهِ. وَكَانَ يَذْكُرُ فِي وَعْظِهِ أَنَّهُ كُلَّمَا أَشْكَلَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرٌ رَأَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَسَأَلَهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ الْمُشْكِلِ. قَالَ: وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَوْمًا يَحْكِي حِكَايَةً عَنْ بَعْضِ الْمَشَايِخِ. فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْهَا، فَقَالَ: أَنَا وَضَعتهَا فِي الْوَقْت.

وَله من هَذِه الْجَهَالَاتِ وَالْحَمَاقَاتِ مَا لَا يُحْصَى.

He alleged that he saw Messenger of Allah while awake, not in the dream ,which he used to mention in his lecture that whenever he had a difficulty on any issue he would see Messenger of Allah peace be upon him and asked him regarding that problem… These are his some of the ignorance and foolish statements among the many. [al Qassaas wal Muzkareen page 316]

b) Ibn al Jawzi Criticised al-Ghazali Badly when he said Sufis can see souls of Prophets and hear them.

He said

، وتكلم فِي علم المكاشفة ، وخرج عَنْ قانون الفقه ، وقال : أن المراد بالكوكب والشمس والقمر اللواتي رآهن إِبْرَاهِيم صلوات اللَّه عَلَيْهِ ، أنوار هي حجب اللَّه عز وجل ، ولم يرد هذه المعروفات ، وهذا من جنس كلام الباطنية ، وقال فِي كتابه المفصح بالأحوال : إن الصوفية فِي يقظتهم يشاهدون الملائكة ، وأرواح الأنبياء ، ويسمعون منهم أصواتا ، ويقتبسون منهم فوائد ثم يترقى الحال من مشاهدة الصورة إِلَى درجات يضيق عنها نطاق النطق.

قَالَ المصنف : وكان السبب فِي تصنيف هؤلاء مثل هذه الأشياء ، قلة علمهم بالسنني والإسلام والآثار وإقبالهم عَلَى مَا استحسنوه من طريقة القوم ، وإنما استحسنوها ، لأنه قد ثبت فِي النفوس مدح الزهد وما رأوا حالة أحسن من حالة هؤلاء القوم فِي الصورة ولا كلاما أرق من كلامهم ، وفي سير السلف نوع خشونة ثم أن ميل الناس إِلَى هؤلاء القوم شديد لما ذكرنا من أنها طريقة ظاهرها النظافة والتعبد وفي ضمنها الراحة والسماع والطباع تميل إليها ، وَقَدْ كان أوائل الصوفية ينفرون من السلاطين والأمراء فصاروا أصدقاء

He spoke about knowledge of the Mukaashafah (unveiling of unseen by Allaah to Sufis) and withdrew from the principles of Fiqh. And he stated such things as: ‘Indeed the stars, the sun and the moon, which Ibraaheem saw, were in fact lights that screened Allaah!’ Such things are not mentioned in any of the sources of knowledge. Rather, this is from the types of speech of the Baatiniyyah.

He (Al-Ghazaalee) also said in the book ‘ Al-Mufsih bil-Ahwaal’: “While in their state of wakefulness, the Sufis are able to witness the angels and souls of the prophets, hear their voices and take hold of benefit from them. Then this condition escalates from the witnessing (of their) images to levels in which they are contained within these domains.”

The factors that caused these individuals to write these books was their little knowledge of the Sunnah, Islaam and the narrations, as well as their dedication for what they approved of from the way of the people (Sufis). They only approved this way because of adoration for abstinence ( zuhd) that was established in their souls. They did not see any condition better than the condition of these people (Sufis) in regards to appearance, nor any speech more pleasant than their speech, whereas in the biographies of the Salaf, they found a form of harshness. So the people inclined very strongly towards these individuals (Sufis).

[Ibn Jawzi in Talbees Iblees]

c) Ibn jawzi agreed with Ibn Aqil

Note: Abu Hamid Ghazaali repented from all these Khurafaat like Sufis can see souls and they can hear them etc.  Shaykh Abdullah Ropari quoted from Fatawa Nawab Siddique Hasan Khan vol 2 page 20, who said he died on the aqeeda of salaf.

  1. al Ghazaali on asking others beside Allah.

He said:

الكريم “هو الّذى إذا قدر عفا، وإذا وعد وفّى، وإذا أعطى زاد على منتهى الرّجاء، ولا يبالى كم أعطى، ولا من أعطى، وإن رفعت حاجة إلى غيره لا يرضى

I.e. al Kareem (Allah) will not be pleased if a need is asked from other than him.

المقصد الاسنی شرح اسماء الله الحسنی للغزالی

ص:96

al Ghazaali was Sufi and he was bashed by many like Ibn Jawzi etc due to his aqaid, but then he changed his stances and came to Sunni aqeeda. Scholars gave him title Hujjat al Islam.

 

  1. Its mentioned in Fatawa-Bazaazia by Imam Kurduree d 642 h

:قال علماؤنا‏:‏ من قال أرواح المشايخ حاضرة تعلم يكفر

Our Scholars Say, Whoever say that souls of our Mashaaeikhs are Present and knowing have committed Kufr.

[Ibn Nujaym Hanafi Quoted this in al-Bhr Book of Seyar, Chapter of Murtadeen]
  1. Ibn Abdil Barr

a) He said

فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ إِبَاحَةُ الدُّعَاءِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْكُفْرِ وَتَحْرِيمُ السُّجُودِ عَلَى قُبُورِ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَفِي مَعْنَى هَذَا أَنَّهُ لَا يَحِلُّ السُّجُودُ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَيَحْتَمِلُ الْحَدِيثُ أَنْ لَا تُجْعَلَ قُبُورُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ قِبْلَةً يُصَلَّى إِلَيْهَا

I.e. it is prohibited to prostrate the graves of anbiya..

التمہید ج۶ ص ۳۸۳

b) Ibn Abdul Barr said regarding veneration and worshiping of previous nations toward the graves of Prophets,

كانوا يسجدون إليها ويعظمونها ، وذلك الشرك الأكبر ،

They (previous nations) prostrated in front of them and they venerated them. This is Shirk al-Akbar [Tamheed v 5 p 45]

c) Ibn Abdul barr said

وليس فيه حكم أكثر من التحذير أن يُصلَّى إلى قبره ، وأن يتخذ مسجدا ، وفي ذلك أمر بأن لا يعبد إلا الله وحده ، وإذا صنع من ذلك في قبره ، فسائر آثاره أحرى بذلك ، وقد كره مالك وغيره من أهل العلم طلب موضع الشجرة التي بويع تحتها بيعة الرضوان ، وذلك والله أعلم مخالفة لما سلكه اليهود والنصارى في مثل ذلك

And in this (hadith) there is a warning about praying to his(peace be upon him) grave and making it a place of worship. And this is an order not to worship anyone except Allah Alone. And when this is the instruction about doing anything like that about his grave same applies to all the things associated with him. And verily Malik and others from amongst the learned disliked to seek to know the location of the tree under which “Bayt al-Ridwan” was made. And Allah knows this is going against what Jews and Christians did concerning this issue [i.e. graves and remnants related to the Prophets].[Al-Istedhkaar 2/360]

d) Ibn Taymiyah said that Ibn Abdil Barr said,

: ” قَالَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْبَرِّ لِمَنْ ظَنَّ ذَلِكَ : وَيْحَك أَتَرَى هَذَا أَفْضَلَ مِنْ السَّابِقِينَ الْأَوَّلِينَ مِنْ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ ؟ فَهَلْ فِي هَؤُلَاءِ مَنْ سَأَلَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ وَأَجَابَهُ ؟ ، وَقَدْ تَنَازَعَ الصَّحَابَةُ فِي أَشْيَاءَ فَهَلَّا سَأَلُوا النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَجَابَهُمْ ؟ وَهَذِهِ ابْنَتُهُ فَاطِمَةُ تُنَازِعُ فِي مِيرَاثِهِ فَهَلَّا سَأَلَتْهُ فَأَجَابَهَا ؟ ”

“Ibn ‘Abdil-barr said about those who think that (i.e. Prophet peace be upon him visit them while awake), “Woe to you, do you think that person is better than the first (muslims) who preceded others to islam, from the Muhajirin and Ansar? Did any of those ask the prophet (salla allahu alayhi wa sallam) after he died, and he answered them? The Sahabah disagreed about issues, should not they have asked the prophet salla allahu alayhi wa sallam and he answered them? Here is his daughter, fatimah, and she disagreed (aruged) over his inheritance, should she not have asked him, and he answer? (Majmu’ al-Fataw 10/407)

  1. Scholars at the time of Giyath ud din bin Sultan Salah ud din  Ayyubi ordered to destroy the shrines.

Imam Mar`i bin Yusaf al Hanbali said:

Many of the historians mentioned that Sultan Malik al Zaahir (who was Salah ud din’s son by the name of Malik al Zaahir Giyath ud din Ghazi bin Nasir Salah ud din Ayyubi 569 h to 613 h) intended to demolish all the structures over the graves in Qurafa, and The Muftis of his time gave a fatwa that it is wajib on the sultan to demolish all these structures over the graves.

[Shifa as-Sudur fe ziarah al Mashahid wal qaboor by Imam Mur`ee bin Yusaf al Hanbali page 188]
  1. The Aqeedah of Ahlus sunnah according to Abul Hasan Asharee (260 h to 324 h) is the following, He said:

ويلجئون أمرهم إلى الله سبحانه ويثبتون الحاجة إلى الله في كل وقت والفقر إلى الله في كل حال

They take their affairs to Allah, They ask Allah all the times regarding their need, and they beg from Allah in every situation.

Then he said

ويقرون بشفاعة رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وسلم) وأنها لأهل الكبائر من أمته

And they agree that Prophet peace be upon him will intercede for the people of great sins among his ummah [مقالات الإسلاميين واختلاف المصلين pg 291-293]

  1. Abul Fath al Busti (330 h to 400 h) student of Ibn Hibban

Let us see what the poet and adeeb Abul Fath al Busti who was student of Imam Ibn Hibban al Busti [Tabqaat ash-Shaafiyah as-Subki 5/293] said regarding asking help from others beside Allah

Abul Fath al Busti (330 h to 400 h) said:

من اسْتَعَانَ بِغَيْر الله فِي طلب فَإِن ناصره عجز وخذلان

Whoever ask help from others beside Allah when he is in need, then his helper will be helpless (i.e. could not help him) [Qaseedah Anwaan al Hikam by Abul Fath al Busatee 1/36]

  1. Ibn Abi Duniya.

Mahmud Shukri al Alusi made a beautiful point, making the quotes of salaf as evidence against asking help from dead.

He said:

وفي كتاب ابن أبي الدنيا- الذي ألفه في كلام المحتضرين- شيء كثير من كلام الصالحين، والأولياء والعارفين، الذي تكلموا في آخر عمرهم، وقدس حصروا الاستعانة والالتجاء به تعالى، وأنه لا ينبغي أن يستغاث بغيره،

The book of Ibn Abi duniya on what the people said while dying has many quotes of righteous, Auliyah, Aarifeen that what they said in their last age. All of them asked help and plea from Allah. And they did not asked help from any others. [Ghayat al Eemani 2/383]

  1. Fuḍayl ibn ‘Iyāḍ (died 187 h).

Abu Nu`aym al-Isfahani narrated with his chain, that Fuḍayl ibn ‘Iyāḍ had some problem, He prayed to Allah.

” بِحُبِّي إِيَّاكَ لَمَا أَطْلَقْتَهُ

By my love for YOU (Allah, Heal me). [Hilya tul Auliya 8/109]

He didn’t ask anyone besides Allah rather used permissible type of tawassul.

  1. Ibn Rushd al Maliki (520 h)mentioned why Umar bin Abdul Aziz covered the grave of Prophet peace be upon him.

. وإنما ستر القبر على الناس وبنى عليه بيتاً صيانة له مخافة أن ينتقل تُرابه ليستشفى به، أو ليتخذ مسجداً يصلى فيه، فقد قال رسول اللَّه – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: «اللَّهُمَّ لَا تَجّعَلْ قَبْرِي وَثناً يُعْبَدُ، اشْتَدَّ غَضَبُ اللَّهِ عَلَى قَوْم اتَّخَذُوا قُبورَ أنْبِيَائِهم مَسَاجِد» . وباللَّه التوفيق.

The reason for covering the grave to keep the people off and building a house on it is to protect it as he feared people take its dust and sand to seek cure through it or that people may take the grave as a Masjid in which Salah is performed as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “O Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped. The anger on those who took the graves of their Prophets as places of prostration was terrible.”

[البيان والتحصيل والشرح والتوجيه والتعليل لمسائل المستخرجة Vol: 17 Page no: 107]
  1. Imam at-Tabarani wrote Kitab ad-Dua in which he mentioned the supplications of the Prophet peace be upon him, the book has 345 chapters and 2251 ahadith.

Imam at-Tabaraani (may Allah have mercy on him) said in the introduction to his book ad-Du‘aa’ (22):

“هذا كتاب ألفته جامعا لأدعية رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، حداني على ذلك أني رأيت كثيرا من الناس قد تمسكوا بأدعية سجع ، وأدعية وضعت على عدد الأيام مما ألفها الوَرَّاقون ، لا تروى عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ولا عن أحد من أصحابه ، ولا عن أحد من التابعين بإحسان ، مع ما روي عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من الكراهية للسجع في الدعاء والتعدي فيه ، فألفت هذا الكتاب بالأسانيد المأثورة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم”

I wrote this book to bring together the du‘aa’s of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). What prompted me to do that was the fact that I saw many people consistently reciting du‘aa’s in rhymed prose, or du‘aa’s that were fabricated by some storytellers, who allocated a different du‘aa’ for different days, which were not narrated from the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) or from any of his Companions, or from any of those who followed him in truth, despite the reports narrated from the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) stating that it is disliked to compose du‘aa’s in the form of rhymed prose and go to extremes in doing so. So I wrote this book, with isnaads that go back to the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him. End quote.

Not a single hadith prescribed asking help from the auliyah. He only mentioned one chapter dedicated to the Asking the pious from ahlul bayt to ask Allah for rain at times of drought.

That’s it. But we have Sufis claiming “Gawth al Adham” Abdul Qadir Jeylani Rahimaullah help those who PRAY Salat al Gawthia and Junaid Baghdadi help those who ask him for help, so on and on.

Note: The narration of Ibn al Muqri where he was hungry and said at the grave of Prophet peace be upon him, we are hungry and at-Tabarani stopped him is not authentic.

  1. The Hanafi Jurist ابن مازة البخاري أبو المعالي (616 h) said:

تزوج امرأة بشهادة الله ورسوله لا يجوز؛ لأن هذا نكاح لم يحضره شهود، وعن أبي القاسم الصفار رحمه الله أنه قال: يكفر من فعل هذا ؛ لأنه اعتقد أن رسول الله عليه السلام عالم الغيب

It is not allowed for someone to marry by taking Allah and his Rasool as a witness. Because the witness is not PRESENT in this nikah. Abul Qasim al Saffar rahimahullah said: He has disbelieved by this practice because he made a creed that Prophet peace be upon him knows unseen.

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني 3/29

When someone calls upon auliya he has this creed in mind that he is either present or hearing from far. Hence, ascribing knowledge of unseen to the saint that he knows your calling to him. This is kufr.

  1. Ibn Hazm

a) Prophet peace be upon him and sahaba will not come to this world before the day of judgement by the consensus.

Ibn Hazm said:

وأنه لا يرجع محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا أحد من من أصحابه رضي الله عنهم الا يوم القيامة إذا رجع (الله) المؤمنين والكافرين للحساب والجزاء. وهذا اجماع جميع أهل الاسلام المتيقن قبل حدوث الروافض المخالفين لاجماع أهل الاسلام المبدلين للقرآن المكذبين بصحيح سنن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المجاهرين بتوليد الكذب المتناقضين في كذبهم أيضا، وقال عز وجل.

(وكنتم أمواتا فأحياكم ثم يميتكم ثم يحييكم) وقال تعالى (ثم إنكم يوم القيامة عند ربكم تختصمون) فادعوا من رجوع علي رضي الله عنه مالا يعجز أحد عن أن يدعى مثله لعمر أو لعثمان أو لمعاوية رضي الله عنهما أو لغير هؤلاء: إذا لم يبال بالكذب

Prophet peace be upon him and no one from his companions may Allah be pleased with them will come back to this world before the day of judgement. All of them will come back when Allah tala will gather all the Momineen and the disbelievers for hisaab and jazaa. This is consensus of the people of Islam with surety until the Raawafidh came and went against the People of Islam, changed the Quran (i.e. its meaning and mafaheem), rejected the authentic practices of Prophet peace be upon him.. Allah says: “when you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life” and Allah says: “Then indeed you, on the Day of Resurrection, before your Lord, will dispute.” They claimed that Ali may Allah be pleased with him will come back. If there was no question on lie then this type of lie can be made on Umar, Uthman and Muawiya may Allah be pleased with them and others as well..

[al Muhalla vol 1 page 43]

Comment: This clearly proves Anbiya, Sahaba, Auliya can not come to this world leave a side  asking them help and they come for help.

b) Ibn Hazm’s understanding of the miracle VS the believers of Haazir Naazir.

Ibn Hazm said regarding one of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) miracle.

وزويت له الأرض فأرى مشارقها ومغاربها وأنذر ببلوغ ملك أمته ما زوى له منها فكان ذلك ؛ وبلغ ملكهم من أول المشرق إلى بلاد السند والترك إلى آخر المغرب من سواحل البحر المحيط بالأندلس وبلاد البربر ولم يتسعوا في الجنوب والشمال كل الإتساع أعني مثل اتساعهم شرقا وغربا فكان كما أخبر سواء بسواء

The earth was brought together for him (peace be upon him) so that he (peace be upon him) could see all the victories going to happen (for Muslims) in the east and the west. He (peace be upon him) was informed about the land(of his ummah) from east i.e. sindh and Turkistan to west.. Andalusia and Berber.They (Muslims) were spread North, south, west and east all around. And this is what exactly happened according to the information (of Prophet peace be upon him).

[Jama`e al Seerah by Ibn Hazm page 14]

Many such examples can be quoted. There are 10s of explicit quotes against Istigatha through dead which are from the scholars who came after Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah.