a) Recap of Last Lesson:
(1) We learnt about the preposition مِِنْ (min) – meaning “from”.
(2) We learnt about the Genders in Arabic language – The Masculine and the Feminine forms and their exclusive features and conversion of nouns from masculine to feminine.
(3) Proper Names in Arabic, that male proper names may carry “tanween” while female proper names cannot.
(4) We also learnt about Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf مَمْنُوْعٌ مِنَ الصَّرْفِ that Genitive case in the case of feminine proper names or male names ending in (ة) are indicated by a “fathah” and NOT a “kasrah”
We highly recommend that you Download this lesson in PDF from here: http://www.islamictreasure.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Lesson-5.pdf
Note: This is just the Lesson. For Examples from the Qur’an and Ahadeeth, for Tests and discussions on this lesson kindy visit: http://islamictreasure.com/forums/index.php?topic=37.0
|أنْتِ (anti)||You (female singular) [equivalent to (Anta) for male]|
|أنْتُنَّ (antunna)||You (female plural) [equivalent to (Antum) for male]|
|مَدينَةٌ (madeenah-tun)||a city / town (f)|
|مُدُنٌ (mudun-un)||cities / towns|
|دُنيَا (dunya)||world (f)|
|الآخِرَةُ (al-aakhirah-tu)||the Hereafter (f)|
|قَلَمٌ (qalam-un)||a pen|
|آيةٌ (aayah-tun)||a verse / sign|
|آيَاتٌ (aayaat-un)||verses / signs|
Note: Go through the vocabulary as many times as possible and try and learn these words with meanings in a week’s time Insha’Allah. Remember, that without vocabulary, learning any language would be of no use.
c) Female Personal Pronouns
We have already learnt about the masculine demonstrative pronouns أنتَ and أنتُمْ in Lesson 2. The feminine equivalent for these are أنْتِ (anti) and أنْتُنَّ (antunna).
Examples: ؟ مَكَّةَ مِِنْ طَالِباتٌ أنْتُنَّ هَلْ (hal antunna taalibaat-un min Makkah-ta?) – Are you all (female) students from Makkah?
؟ عائِشَةُ يَا أنْتِ أَيْنَ مِِنْ (min ayna anti ya Aaishah-tu?) – Where are you from, Oh Aaishah?
d) Detached Pronouns
|(huwa) – He / It (singular) (3rd person)هُوَ||(hiya) – She / It (singular) (3rd person) هِي|
|(hum) – They (plural) (3rd person) هُم||(hunna) – They (plural) (3rd person) هُنَّ|
Pronouns are of two main categories: الضَّمائِرُ المُنْفَصِلةُ, the detached pronouns and الضَّمائَر المُتَّصِلَةُ , the attached pronouns. In this lesson we are covering the detached pronouns. We covered the 1st person (أناَ and نَحْنُ) and 2nd person pronouns (أنْتَ and أنْتُم) in Lesson 2.
In Arabic all nouns are either masculine or feminine. There is No Neuter Gender.
ھُوَ (huwa) and هُم (hum)
A masculine noun is referred to by the pronoun ھُوَ (huwa) whether it denotes a human being, an animal or a
thing, and masculine plurals whether human beings or animals are referred to by the pronoun هُم (hum).
أَيْنَ الْوَلَدُ؟ (aynal-waladu?) – Where is the boy?
؟ الْكِتَابُ أَيْنَ (ayna l-kitabu?) – Where is the book?
فَصْلٍ فِيْ ھُوَ (huwa fi faslin) – He is in a class.
البَيْتِ فِيْ ھُوَ (huwa fl-bayti) – It is in the house.
هُم طُلابٌ (hum tullab-un) – They are (male) students.
Examples from the Qur’an:
(a) Use of ھُوَ (huwa) for Allah –
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 112 verse 1:
قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ (Qul huwa Allahu ahadun) – “Say He is Allah (the) One”
(b) Use of ھُوَ (huwa) for non human thing –
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 3 verse 78 referring to the false claims of the Jews and the Christians about things in their scriptures which they added themselves:
وَمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ (wa ma huwa minal-kitabi) – “and it is not from the book…”
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 35 verse 31:
وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ هُوَ الْحَقُّ (Wa al-ladhee awhayna ilayka minal-kitabi huwa al-haqqu) – “And what We have revealed to you (O Muhammad SAW), from the Book (the Qur’ân), it is the truth”
هِيَ (hiya) and هُنَّ (hunna)
A feminine noun is referred to by the pronoun هِيَ (hiya) whether it denotes a human being, an animal or a
thing, and feminine plurals whether human beings or animals are referred to by the pronoun هُنَّ (hunna) e.g.:
بِنْتٌ هِيَ (hiya bintu-n) – She is a girl.
البَيْتِ فِيْ هِيَ (hiya fl-bayti) – She is in the house.
هُنَّ طالِباتٌ (hunna taalibaat-un) – They are (female) students.
Important Rule: For 3rd person non-human plural we use the 3rd person feminine singular (hiya) as a pronoun. i.e. when we use “They” to refer to non-humans, like books, pens etc, we use هِيَ (hiya).
؟ الْكُتُبُ أَيْنَ (ayna l-kutubu?) – Where are the books? الْمَدرَسَةِ فِيْ هِيَ (hiya fil-madrasati) – They are in the school.
هَلِ الْمُدُنُ في مِصْرَ ؟ (halil-mudunu fi misra?) – Are the cities/towns in Egypt?
نَعَمْ هِيَ في مِصْرَ (na’am hiya fi misra) – Yes, they are in Egypt.
Examples from the Qur’an:
(a) Use of هِيَ (hiya) for Allah’s punishments (3rd person Non-Human Plural) –
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 11 verse 83 referring to His punishments:
وَمَا هِيَ مِنَ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ بِبَعِيد (wama hiya mina ad-dalimeena bi-ba’eedin) – “and they (Allah’s vengeance / punishments) are not far from the Zâlimûn (polytheists, evil-doers,)”
(b) Use of هُنَّ (hunna) for Women (feminine plural)
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 2 verse 187 referring to the women:
هُنَّ لِبَاسٞ لَّكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لِبَاسٞ لَّهُنَّۗ (hunna libasun lakum waantum libasun lahunna) – “They (women) are Libas (body cover or clothing) for you and you are Libas (body cover or clothing) for them….”
e) Demonstrative Pronoun (Feminine)
We have already learnt about the masculine demonstrative pronouns هَـٰذَا and ذَلِكَ in Lesson 4. Now we will be learning feminine demonstrative pronouns.
هَذِهِ (haadhihi) is a noun of indication. It is used to indicate/point to feminine objects or people which are close in proximity.
Examples: هذِهِ إمْرَأةٌ (haadhihi ‘imra’ah-tun) – This is a woman. فِي هَٰذِهِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا (fi haadhihi d-dunya) – In this world. [Note: “dunya” is a feminine word, hence we have used the feminine demonstrative pronoun “haadhihi”]
Examples from the Qur’an:
Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 7 verse 156:
وَٱكۡتُبۡ لَنَا فِي هَٰذِهِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةٗ وَفِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ (Waoktub lana fee hadhihi ad-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati) – “And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter…”
تِلكَ (tilka) is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to feminine objects or people that are distant or far.
Examples: تِلكَ مَدينَةٌ (tilka madeenah-tun) – That is a city.
تِلكَ زَينَبُ وَ عائِشَةُ هذِهِ (haadhihi Aaishah-tu wa tilka Zainabu) – This is Aaishah and that is Zainab.