Who was Jalal ad din as-Suyuti

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Jalal ad din as-Suyuti was a sufi, The Ashari, but still he spoke against the ignorants who ask help from the dead.

Ahmad Yaar Khan mentioned the following from as-Suyuti in his book "Ja al Haq".

Allama Jalaaluddin Suyuti رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ writes, Rasoolullah صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم keeps an eye on his Ummah's actions. makes istigfaar for their sins and dua for their afflictions to be removed. He grants them barkat and attends the janaazah of a virtuous person who dies from his Ummah these are mashaghil of Prophet as there are ahadith and athaar in this matter. lntibaahul-Azkiya Hayaati-Auliya. Pg. 7. [Translated by the brailwis]

Response.
 
Due to this quote the extreme sufis claim that as-Suyuti believed in Istigathha through the dead. But as-Suyuti is talking about the matters of al-Barzakh  as he said in the end:
فإن هذه الأمور من جملة أشغاله في البرزخ كما وردت بذلك الأحاديث والآثار
These things are his (the Prophet's peace be upon him) mashaghil in AL BARZAKH as there are ahadith and athaar in this matter. [end quote]

And that:
وفراغ البال مما هو بصدده في البرزخ من النظر في أعمال أمته 
In al Barzakh he sees the amaal of his ummah [i.e. which are presented to him]. [end quote]

So, he was talking about al Barzakh, He never said, one should ask help from the Prophet peace be upon him so that He may do Istighhfar for us. Ahlus sunnah also believe that it is proven that the only thing that reaches him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is the blessings and salaams of those who send blessings and salaams upon him. This was narrated by Abu Dawood, 2041 from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no one who sends salaams upon me but Allaah will restore to me my soul so that I may return his salaams.” and  It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:  “Allaah has angels who go around on earth, conveying to me the salaam of my ummah.” Narrated by al-Nasaa’i, 1282; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb, 1664.
 

  • All the deeds are only presented to Allah.


Qur`an states in Surah Al-e-Imran Ayah 109 "And whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is Allah's; and to Allah all things return" 

al Jalalayn (the tafsir of as-Suyuti and his teacher) commented:

{ وَللَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَاتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلأَْضِ } ملكاً وخلقاً وعبيداً { وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ } تصير { ٱلأُمُورُ }.
To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth as possessions creatures and servants and to Him all matters are returned.

The hadith states: "The deeds are presented on every Thursday and Monday and Allah, the Exalted and Glorious. grants pardon to every person who does not associate anything with Allah except the person in whose (heart) there is rancour against his brother. It would be said: Put both of them off until they are reconciled." [Muslim Book 32, Hadith 6223]

In short, ALL the deeds are presented to no one but Allah, and among our deeds the durood is presented to the Prophet peace be upon him.
  • Criticism of the scholars on as-Suyuti.

It is important to note that Jalal ad din as-Suyuti was Haatib al-Layl according to the scholars.

al Manawi said in Faydh al Qadeer Sharah Jame al Sagheer: 
وقد أكثر المؤلّف في هذا  من الأحاديث الضعيفة"
Many of the times the author (of Jame sagheer who is as-Suyuti) mentioned weak Ahadeeth in it. [Fayd al Qadeer sharah Jame al Sagheer 1/40] 

And due to opinions of as-Suyuti like one can see the Prophet while awake (like He peace be upon him can visit the janazah),his teacher as-Sakhawi  (the student of al Asqalani) wrote against him and even bashed him in الضوء الامع and as-Sutyuti replied with "الكاوي في تاريخ السخاوي".
 
Qastalani (sufi) said that My teacher as Sakhawi said regarding seeing Prophet peace be upon him while awake:
لم يصل إلينا ذلك عن أحد من الصحابة، ولا عن من بعدهم.
وقد اشتد حزن فاطمة عليه- صلى الله عليه وسلم- حتى ماتت كمدا بعده بستة أشهر- على الصحيح- وبيتها مجاور لضريحه الشريف، ولم ينقل عنها رؤيته فى المدة التى تأخرت عنه.
Such things doesn't reach him not from any companion or those who came after him. As an example he gives Fatima (r.a) who died due to feeling lonely after her fathers death, and yet she didn't see him after his death while she was awake.[Qastalani quoted in Mawahib li-duniya 2/371, Sharah az-Zarqani 7/292 mentioned that his teacher means Sakhawi]
 
as-Sakhawi went with the opinion of his teacher Ibn Hajr al Asqalani, and his beautiful commentary is already translated in a seperate article.
  • as-Suyuti on Istigatha through Auliyah and Anbiya.

With all this, as-Suyuti went with the opinion of Ahlus sunnah with regards to Istigatha through the Auliyan. As, the commentary of Jalalayn (The Ashari, The sufi as-Suyuti and his teacher) says:

{ قُلْ } لهم { ٱدْعُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ } أنهم آلهة { مِن دُونِهِ } كالملائكة وعيسى وعزير { فَلاَ يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ ٱلضُّرِّ عَنْكُمْ وَلاَ تَحْوِيلاً } له إلى غيركم.
 
(Say) to them (‘Call on those whom you assumed) to be gods (besides Him) such as the Angels Jesus and Uzayr; (yet they have no power to rid you of misfortune nor to transfer) it to persons other than you. [Under al Israa verse 56-57]
 
Now please don't say you don't call them as Gods because as-Suyuti categorically states Anbiya have no power to rid you of misfortune nor to transfer it to persons other than you whether you call them gods or not.
 
Tafsir Jalalayn states:
{ وَمَا بِكُم مّن نّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِ } لا يأتي بها غيره و «ما» شرطية أو موصولة { ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ } أصابكم { ٱلضُّرُّ } الفقر والمرض { فَإِلَيْهِ تَجْئَرُونَ } ترفعون أصواتكم بالاستغاثة والدعاء ولا تدعون غيره.

Whatever grace you have, it is from God, none but He brings it (mā, ‘whatever’, is either a conditional or relative [particle]). Then when misfortune, poverty or illness, befalls you, to Him you cry for help, [to Him] you raise your voices with [ISTIGATHA] pleas for help and supplications, and you do NOT call upon ANY OTHER than Him. [Under 16:53] 

  • as-Suyuti's advice to those who say that our prayers are accepted at these shrines etc.
as-Suyuti in his work :الأمر بالاتباع والنهي عن الابتداع -السيوطي Under the Chapter تعظيم الأماكن التي لا تستحق التعظيم (Veneration of those places which are not applicable for veneration).
 
First he replied those who say that our prayers are accepted at these places or graves or shrines etc He replied by saying
وقد كان الكفار يدعون، فيستجاب لهم فيسقون وينصرون يعافون مع دعائهم عند أوثام وتوسلهم ا. وقد قال تعالى: (كَّلاّ نمد هؤلاء وهؤلاء من عطاء ربك وما كان عطاء ربك
محظوراً
Kuffar prayed to Idols and their prayers were answered ,They were given Rain, Help, Afiyah with their prayes to idols and made them wasilah. Allah says (in Bani Israeel:20) On each these as well as those We bestow from the bounties of your Lord. And the bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden [Page 124 with the research of Shaykh Mashoor bin Hasan aal Salmaan publihed by دار ابن القيم للنشر والتوزيع ، الدمام ، ط 1 ، 1410 هـ / 1990 م]
 
On page 139 he said
فإن قصد القبور للدعاء رجاء الإجابة فمنهي عنه، وهو إلى التحريم أقرب. والصحابة رضي الله
عنهم - وقد أجدبوا مراتٍ - ودهمتهم نوائب بعد موته (، فهلا جاءوا فاستسقوا واستغاثوا عند قبر
النبي ( وهو أكرم الخلق على الله عز وجل، بل خرج فيهم سيدنا عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه
بالعباس عم النبي ( إلى المصلى فاستسقى به، ولم يستسقوا عند قبر النبي (.
فاقتد أيها المسلم إن كنت عبد الله بسلفك الصالح، وتحقق التوحيد الخالص؛ فلا تعبد إلا الله، ولا
تشرك بربك أحداً، كما أمر الله تعالى بقوله: (فإياي فاعبدون)، وقال تعالى: (فمن كان يرجو لقاء ربه
فليعمل عملاً صالحاً ولا يشرك بعبادة ربه أحداً). فلا تعبد إلا إياه ولا تد ع إلا هو، ولا تستعن إلا به،
فإنه لا مانع ولا معطي ولا مضار ولا نافع إلا هو سبحانه وتعالى، لا إله إلا هو عليه توكلت وإليه
أنيب
Visiting the graves with the intention that our prayers will be accepted is not allowed and it is closer to Haram. The companions faced many difficulties after the death of Prophet (peace be upon him) drought came to them,........ so Why didn't they come to the grave of Prophet of Allah? Why they didn't request him (peace be upon him) for rain? Why they didn't call at his grave? Prophet (peace be upon him) is the highest of the creation in the sight of Allah.  In fact at the time of drought UMAR went out with Abbas and asked him to pray for rain. They never prayed near the grave of Prophet (peace be upon him). O Muslim If You are follower of Allah like your righteous predecessors. Follow them, do Research of Correct Tauheed, Do not Worship others beside Allah, Do not Make Partners of Allah. As Allah Commanded (Therefore worship Me.) and Allah says (So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord.'') (end)
  • as-Suyuti on Omnipresence of the Prophet peace be upon him.
It is mentioned in Tafsir Jalalayn p 840, Surah Al-Qasas Ayat 44-46:
 
وَمَا كُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الْغَرْبِيِّ إِذْ قَضَيْنَا إِلَى مُوسَى الْأَمْرَ وَمَا كُنْتَ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ
 
وَلَكِنَّا أَنْشَأْنَا قُرُونًا فَتَطَاوَلَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ وَمَا كُنْتَ ثَاوِيًا فِي أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ تَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا وَلَكِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ
 
وَمَا كُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الطُّورِ إِذْ نَادَيْنَا وَلَكِنْ رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ لِتُنْذِرَ قَوْمًا مَا أَتَاهُمْ مِنْ نَذِيرٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
 
“You, Muhammad, were not on the western side of the mountain or the valley when We gave Musa the command: the Message to Pharaoh and his people. You were not a witness so that you could know it.
 
Yet We produced further generations after Musa, and ages passed — so they forgot their contract with Allah, many knowledges disappeared, and Revelation ceased. Therefore We brought you as a Messenger and revealed to You the news of Musa and others. Nor did you live among the people of Madyan and recite Our Signs to them, enabling you to learn their story and report it, yet We have sent you news of them. We sent the Message to you with news of those who went before.
 
Nor were you on the side of the Mount when We called Musa to take hold of the Book with vigour; yet it is a mercy from your Lord that He sent you so that you may warn a people (the people of Makka) to whom no warner came before, so that perhaps they will pay heed.”
 
It is mentioned in Jalalayn P 518, Surah Yusuf, Ayah 102,
 
ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَنْبَاءِ الْغَيْبِ نُوحِيهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا كُنْتَ لَدَيْهِمْ إِذْ أَجْمَعُوا أَمْرَهُمْ وَهُمْ يَمْكُرُونَ
 
Hafiz Suyuti wrote:
 
102. This — what has been narrated about Yusuf — is news of the Unseen that was unknown to you, Muhammad, before — which We reveal to you. You were not with them (the brothers of Yusuf) when they decided what to do — and plotted and resolved on it — and devised their scheme about him. You were not with them to know his story and be aware of it. Your knowledge of it comes from Revelation.
  • as-Suyuti on whether the Prophet peace be upon him comes in the graves?

Jalal ud din Suyuti said that Ibn Hajar asqalani was asked

و سئل هل يكشف له حتى ير النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم فاجاب انه لم يرد حديث وانما ادعاه بعض من لا يحتج به بغير مستند سوى قوله فى هذا الرجل و لا حجة فيه لان الا شارة الى الحاضر فى الذهن

"He (Hafiz ibn Hajar) was asked: does some unveiling occur for him (the dead person) so he can see the Prophet peace be upon him? He replied: this is not mentioned in any Hadith, this is only claimed by some people who have no other proof to rely upon except the saying "this man (haza Ar-Rajul)", and there is no proof in it as it is an indication (isharah) to the one who is present in the mind"[Sharah as-Sudoor page 145] 

  • as Suyuti on mediators when asking help from Allah.
Allah says in Al Baqara verse 186
And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me - indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided.
 
as-Suyuti commented:
فإن قيل : كيف جاء وإذا سألك عبادي عني فإني قريب [ البقرة : 186 ] . وعادة السؤال يجيء جوابه في القرآن بقل قلنا : حذفت للإشارة إلى أن العبد في حال الدعاء في أشرف المقامات لا واسطة بينه وبين مولاه .
If it is said: How come Allah say "And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me - indeed I am near" (why didn't He say "tell them" I am close), usually the question is answered in Quran by Allah "tell them" (but here He says "I am close" its not mentioned in this verse. why?) Its indicative to the fact that as far as the supplication to Allah is concerned then you are closest to Allah and there is no mediator between you and Allah. [al Itteqaan 2/302]
 
In short, as-Suyuti never believed in asking help from the dead. Even though he was a sufi, criticised by the scholars due to his collection of every weak, fabricated and authentic ahadith and athar. May Allah have mercy on him ameen.
 
  • Kissing, Rubbing the grave of Prophet peace be upon him.
as-Suyuti said:
ومن البدع أيضاً: أكل العوام التمر الصيحاني في الروضة الشريفة بين المنبر والقبر، وطوافهم بالقبر الشريف، ولا يحل ذلك. وكذلك إلصاقهم بطونهم وظهورهم بجدار القبر، وتقبيلهم إياه بالصندوق الذي عند  رأسِ النبيِّ صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ، ومسْحُه باليد؛ وكل ذلك مَنهيٌّ عنه
“And among the innovations as well: … their Tawaf of the noble grave, such is not permissible, and likewise their rubbing their chest and their backs of the walls of the grave, their kissing it (wall) at the box that is at level of the head of the Prophet (saw) or touching it with the hand, all of this is forbidden” “[Al-Amr bil Ittiba wa Nahi anil Ibtida’” p 185, Translation from umm-ul-qura . org]

 

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