Attending Congregation and Social Gatherings if there is fear of disease

Following are some compilations.

a) Leper and the one who has a disease like it will be stopped to visit the gatherings and masaajid.
b) Ibn Uthaymeen said Masajid can be closed due to some reasons.
c) When the deaths were increased because people didn’t take precautions in Ta’oon and came out to pray in masjid in bulk.
d) Gathering to do dua like they do in Istesqa is an innovation.
e) Do not go outside, Allah listen to you wherever you are.
f) When the masajid were closed due to pandemic.
g) Ruling on attending Jumu‘ah prayer and prayers in congregation in the event of an epidemic or fear of an epidemic.
h) Should he stop praying in the mosque because he fears for himself?

  • a) Leper and the one who has a disease like it will be stopped to visit the gatherings and masaajid.

1.Imam Nawawi made a chapter in Sahih Muslim.

Chapter: “Avoiding Lepers AND OTHERS LIKE THEM.”

Meaning it is better to avoid lepers and people with other diseases like them.

2.The Hadith:

There was in the delegation of Thaqif a leper. Allah’s Apostle (ﷺ) sent a message to him:

We have accepted your allegiance, so you may go. [Sahih Muslim]

3. Imam an-Nawawi commented:

وَالصَّحِيحُ الَّذِي قَالَهُ الْأَكْثَرُونَ ، وَيَتَعَيَّنُ الْمَصِيرُ إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا نَسْخَ ، بَلْ يَجِبُ الْجَمْعُ بَيْنَ الْحَدِيثَيْنِ ، وَحَمْلُ الْأَمْرِ بِاجْتِنَابِهِ وَالْفِرَارِ مِنْهُ عَلَى الِاسْتِحْبَابِ وَالِاحْتِيَاطِ لَا لِلْوُجُوبِ ، وَأَمَّا الْأَكْلُ مَعَهُ فَفَعَلَهُ لِبَيَانِ الْجَوَازِ .

وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ .

قَالَ الْقَاضِي : قَالَ بَعْضُ الْعُلَمَاءِ : فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ وَمَا فِي مَعْنَاهُ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَثْبُتُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ الْخِيَارُ فِي فَسْخِ النِّكَاحِ إِذَا وَجَدَتْ زَوْجَهَا مَجْذُومًا ، أَوْ حَدَثَ بِهِ جُذَامٌ .

وَاخْتَلَفَ أَصْحَابُنَا وَأَصْحَابُ مَالِكٍ فِي أَنَّ أَمَتَهُ هَلْ لَهَا مَنْعُ نَفْسِهَا مِنَ اسْتِمْتَاعِهِ إِذَا أَرَادَهَا ؟ قَالَ الْقَاضِي : قَالُوا : وَيُمْنَعُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ وَالِاخْتِلَاطِ بِالنَّاسِ .

قَالَ : وَكَذَلِكَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي أَنَّهُمْ إِذَا كَثُرُوا هَلْ يُؤْمَرُونَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذُوا لِأَنْفُسِهِمْ مَوْضِعًا مُنْفَرِدًا خَارِجًا عَنِ النَّاسِ ، وَلَا يُمْنَعُوا مِنَ التَّصَرُّفِ فِي مَنَافِعِهِمْ ، وَعَلَيْهِ أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ ، أَمْ لَا يَلْزَمُهُمُ التَّنَحِّي ؟ قَالَ : وَلَمْ يَخْتَلِفُوا فِي الْقَلِيلِ مِنْهُمْ فِي أَنَّهُمْ لَا يُمْنَعُونَ .

قَالَ : وَلَا يُمْنَعُونَ مِنْ صَلَاةِ الْجُمُعَةِ مَعَ النَّاسِ ، وَيُمْنَعُونَ مِنْ غَيْرِهَا .

قَالَ : وَلَوِ اسْتَضَرَّ أَهْلُ الْقَرْيَةِ فِيهِمْ جَذْمَى بِمُخَالَطَتِهِمْ فِي الْمَاءِ فَإِنْ قَدَرُوا عَلَى اسْتِنْبَاطِ مَاءٍ بِلَا ضَرَرٍ أُمِرُوا بِهِ ،

True according to majority of the scholars is that… it is better to stay away and doing ihtiyaat but it is not obligation. And meeting and eating with him is just allowed….

Qaadi said some of the scholars said that a woman (wife) has the right to leave the leper (husband)… the leper will be stopped to come in gatherings and in masaajid…. (End quote)

This hukam is for a leper and the one who has a disease like this. What about the one who don’t even know he is infected and coming to masajid and infecting others?

I believe the scholars of Saudi did the right thing for the betterment of this society rather whole world. Do not listen to these molvis they will never come to see you if you get infected. Listen to the kibaar.

  • b) Ibn Uthaymeen said Masajid can be closed due to some reasons.

Imam Bukhari made a Chapter

. بَابُ إِغْلاَقِ الْبَيْتِ، وَيُصَلِّي فِي أَيِّ نَوَاحِي الْبَيْتِ شَاءَ:

Closing the door of Kaba and praying in it [Sahih Al Bukhari above the Hadith 1598]

Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen said:

“In this chapter Imam Bukhari deduced that it is allowed to close the masajid and Kaba etc due to some reasons and there is no harm in it. And it should not be said that they are stopping you to take the name of Allah in the houses of Allah. Because this is only for sometimes and due to some reasons.. (end)

  • c) When the deaths were increased because people didn’t take precautions in Ta’oon and came out to pray in masjid in bulk.

Shihab Al Din bin Abi Hajla said regarding ta’oon In 749h Damascus.

ثم نودي في البلد بصوم ثلاثة أيام، ثم وقفوا بالجامع، كما يفعلون في شهر رمضان، ثم خرجوا يوم الجمعة سابع عشر الشهر إلى مسجد القَدم، فتضرعوا إلی الله تعالى فى رفع طاعون و خرج الناس من كل فج عميق، حتى أهل الذمة و الأطفال و انتشروا في الطرقات و أكثروا التضرع و البكاء ولم يزدد الأمر إلا شدة و الموت إلا كثرة.

It was announced to fast for three days, people remained in the masajid like Ramadan. Then they went to Masjid Qadam on the 17th, and prayed to Allah to end this Ta’oon. People came out from everywhere even non Muslim citizen and children came out.. they cried but due to this (practice of coming out in bulk) the situation became worse and death increased”

(بذل الماعون لابن حجر : 381، البدایہ و النہایہ : 18/ 504)

  • d) Gathering to do dua like they do in Istesqa is an innovation.

Ibn Hajar already said regarding these type of practices that they are not proven from salaf. He said:

لو كان مشروعا، ما خفي علی السلف ثم على الفقهاء الامصار و أتباعهم في الاعصار الماضية فلم يبلغ في ذلك خبر ولا أثر عن المحدثين، ولا فرع مسطور عن أحد من الفقهاء، وألفاظ الدعاء و صفات الداعي لها خواص و إسرار، يختص بها كل حادث بما يليق به والمعتمد في ذلك الاتباع ولا مدخل للقياس في ذلك.

If this was a prescribed practice it would not be hidden from the righteous predecessors… We don’t have any Narration regarding this from muhadditheen neither any faqeeh mentioned in faroo…

Urdu Translation

“اگر یہ مشروع عمل ہوتا تو سلف اور فقہائے امصار اور زمانہء ماضی میں ان کے اتباع پر مخفی نہ رہتا، نہ تو اس سلسلے میں ہمیں محدثین سے کوئی خبر و اثر ملا ہے اور نہ ہی کوئی فروعی مسئلہ کسی فقیہ سے منقول ہے، دعا کے الفاظ اور دعا کرنے والے کی صفات کے اپنے خصائص و اسرار ہوتے ہیں جو ہر واقعے کے لحاظ سے اس کے مطابق ہوتے ہیں، اس سلسلے میں معتمد چیز اتباع ہے، قیاس کا اس میں کوئی عمل دخل نہیں.”

(بذل الماعون : 330, A very small passage Taken from detailed Urdu article by Hafiz Muhammad Tahir.]

  • e) Do not go outside, Allah listen to you wherever you are. 

Shaykh Mash’hoor bin Hasan quoted from Ibn Hajar Al asqalani:

When Taoo’n came in Qahirah in the year 833 h and 40 deaths occured daily. People gathered in desert for prayer/supplication. When they came back the death toll rose up to 1000 daily.

حکم التداعی لفعل الطاعات والشدائد والنوازل page 17

On the same page he mentioned Ibn Hajar saying dua is allowed but gathering for dua is an innovation.

When gathering for dua is an innovation then how about social gatherings?

  • f) When the masajid were closed due to pandemic.

ad-Dhahabi said:

وفي سنة ثمان مبدأ فتنة البساسيري، وخطب بالكوفة وواسط وبعض القرى للمستنصر العبيدي  ، وكان القحط عظيما بمصر وبالأندلس، وما عهد قحط ولا وباء مثله بقرطبة، حتى بقيت المساجد مغلقة بلا مصل، وسمي عام الجوع الكبير

In 448 hijrah the fitna of البساسيري started.. drought and viral was so much that there is no likeness of it. The masajid closed down and there was no one to pray in masjid… (سیر أعلام النبلاء 18/311 )

  • g) Ruling on attending Jumu‘ah prayer and prayers in congregation in the event of an epidemic or fear of an epidemic

Question

What is the ruling on not attending Friday (Jumu‘ah) prayer or prayers in congregation in the event of an epidemic or fear of an epidemic?

Answer

Praise be to Allah.

The Council of Senior Scholars on Friday prayer and prayers in congregation, and the spread of COVID-19

The Council of Senior Scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia issued its statement no. 246 on 16/7/1441 AH, the text of which is as follows:

All praise is due to Allah the Lord of the worlds, and may blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon all of his family and companions.

To proceed:

The Council of Senior Scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in their twenty-fourth extraordinary meeting, which was held in the city of Riyadh on Wednesday 16/7/1441 AH, examined the questions that were presented to them regarding the concession of not attending Friday (Jumu‘ah) prayer and congregational prayers in the event of an epidemic or fear of an epidemic. After studying the issue in the light of the Islamic texts and the objectives and guidelines of sharia, and in the light of statements of the people of knowledge regarding issues of this nature, the Council of Senior Scholars has issued the following statement:

-1-

It is prohibited for a person infected with this virus to attend Friday prayers and prayers in congregation, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “Sick (camels) should not be put with healthy (camels).” [Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim], and because he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “If you hear of the outbreak of a plague in a land, do not enter it; and if it breaks out in a land in which you are, do not leave it.” [al-Bukhaari and Muslim].

-2-

If a specialized body determines that medical quarantine or isolation is to be imposed on someone, it is obligatory for him to comply with that, and to not attend Friday prayers or prayers in congregation. Therefore he should offer the prayers at home or in the place where he is quarantined.  This is because of the report narrated by as-Shareed ibn Suwayd ath-Thaqafi, who said, “Among the delegation from Thaqeef there was a man with leprosy. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) sent word to him, saying, ‘We have accepted your oath of allegiance, so go back.'” [Narrated by Muslim}

-3-

If anyone fears that he may be harmed or may harm others, it is permissible for him to not attend the Friday prayer and prayers in congregation, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said, “There should be neither harm nor reciprocating harm.” [Narrated by Ibn Majah].

In all these cases, if he does not attend Friday prayer, he must pray Dhuhr with four rak‘ahs.

The Council of Senior Scholars advises everyone to follow the instructions, guidelines and protocols issued by specialized bodies.

They also advise everyone to fear Allah, the Most Mighty and Exalted, and to turn to Him in supplication and humility, and to ask Him to grant relief from this tribulation.

Allah, may He be exalted, says:

“And if Allah should touch you with adversity, there is no remover of it except Him; and if He intends for you good, then there is no repeller of His bounty. He causes it to reach whom He wills of His servants. And He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.” [Yoonus 10:107]

“And your Lord says, ‘Call upon Me; I will respond to you.’” [Ghaafir 40:60].

May Allah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his family and companions. [The Fatwa is taken from Islamqa]

  • h) Should he stop praying in the mosque because he fears for himself?

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (1/366):

” وَيُعْذَرُ فِي ترك الجماعة والجمعة الْخَائِفُ ; لِقَوْلِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( الْعُذْرُ : خَوْفٌ أَوْ مَرَضٌ ) .

وَالْخَوْفُ , ثَلَاثَةُ أَنْوَاعٍ : خَوْفٌ عَلَى النَّفْسِ , وَخَوْفٌ عَلَى الْمَالِ , وَخَوْفٌ عَلَى الْأَهْلِ ” انتهى .

The one who is afraid is excused for not praying in congregation or praying Jumu’ah, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Valid excuses are fear and sickness.”

Fear is of three types: fear for oneself, fear for one’s wealth or property, and fear for one’s family. (Islamqa)