Was Ibn Taymiyah alone in his fatwa of divorce.

 

Was Ibn Taymiyah alone in his fatwa of divorce.
 
1. Imam Mur’i bin Yusaf al Karmi (d 1033 h) said:
 
Ibn Tamiyah rahimaullah said “If the divorce is given three times at one time then one divorce will be counted” He is not alone in this saying rather it is narrated from Ali, Zubair, Abdul Rahman bin Awf, Ibn Masood, Ibn Abbas, This is said by Ata, Tawus, Amr bin Denar, Saeed bin Jubayr, Abul Shoatha, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Hajjaj bin Artaah, This is said by Scholars of Qartaba, and group of them are Muhammad bin Salaam al Khisshni (d 286 h) Faqeeh Asar, Asbegh bin al Habbab, This is accepted by Abu Hayaan Andalusi in his Tafseer “al Nahr” and Imam Ibn Al Qayyim”[ash-Shahadatul Zakaiyah fe Thana Al Aimma al Ibn Tamiyah page 90-91]
 
Then he said “Ibn Tamiyah was a Mujtahid as the scholars of his time are witness over it.. only a rigid and jahil would go against this
[ash-Shahadatul Zakaiyah fe Thana Al Aimma al Ibn Tamiyah page 91]
 
2. Shaykh Ibn Tamiyah himself said:
” الثالث ” : أنه محرم ولا يلزم منه إلا طلقة واحدة . وهذا القول منقول عن طائفة من السلف والخلف من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مثل الزبير بن العوام وعبد الرحمن بن عوف ويروى عن علي وابن مسعود وابن عباس القولان ؛ وهو قول كثير من التابعين ومن بعدهم : مثل طاووس وخلاس بن عمرو ؛ ومحمد بن إسحاق ؛ وهو قول داود وأكثر أصحابه ؛ ويروى ذلك عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين وابنه جعفر بن محمد ولهذا ذهب إلى ذلك من ذهب من الشيعة وهو قول بعض أصحاب أبي حنيفة ومالك وأحمد بن حنبل
The third opinion is that it (three talaq at once) is Forbidden and there is no obligation except one Talaq and this opinion came from a group of Salaf and later ones of the companions of the prophet like Zubair bin alAwwam, Abdul Rahman bin Awf, and it was narrated from Ali ra and Ibn Masood and Ibn Abbas. It is also reported from a lot of the Tabieen (second or third generation) as Tawoos, Khallas bin Amr and Muhammad bin Ishaq. It was also the opinion of Dawood and the majority of his companions and it was also narrated from Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Ali bin Al Hussein and his son Jaafar and that is why some of the Shia chose it and it is also the opinion of some of the companions of Abu Hanifa, Malik and Ahmad. [Majmoo Fatawa 8/33]
 
3. Ata bin abi Rabah RA said
إن طلقت امرأة ثلاثا ولم تجمع فإنما هي واحدة بلغني ذلك عن بن عباس
If you divorce your wife three times and did not do ruju, then it is only one divorce because it has reached us that Ibn Abbas had same opinion. [Musannaf abdul razzaq vol 6 page 335 no: 1106] .
 
4. Fatwa of Tawus (Tabiyee)
عن ابن شهاب ، أن ابن عباس قال : ” إذا طلق الرجل امرأته ثلاثا ، ولم يجمع كن ثلاثا ” قال : فأخبرت ذلك طاوسا قال : فأشهد ما كان ابن عباس يراهن إلا واحدة .
Ibn Shahab said that Ibn Abbas said: ” If a man divorces his wife three times,and did not do ruju they will be counted as three, He said I told this to Tawus (Student of Ibn Abbas) He said: I am witness that Ibn Abbas considered it only one.[Musannaf Abdul Razzaq Vol 6 page 335 hadeeth no: 11077]
 
And in another Narration He said:
والله ما كان بن عباس يجعلها إلا واحدة
BY ALLAH Ibn Abbas ra considered it one.[Musannaf Abdul Razzaq Vol 6 page 335 hadeeth no: 11078]
 
5. Fatwa of Ikrimah
 
Imam Abu Dawud said:
وَرَوَى حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ إِذَا قَالَ ‏”‏ أَنْتِ طَالِقٌ ثَلاَثًا ‏”‏ ‏.‏ بِفَمٍ وَاحِدٍ فَهِيَ وَاحِدَةٌ وَرَوَاهُ إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ هَذَا قَوْلُهُ لَمْ يَذْكُرِ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ وَجَعَلَهُ قَوْلَ عِكْرِمَةَ ‏.‏
“Hammad bin Zaid narrated it from Ayyub from ‘Ikrimah on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas. This version adds If he said “You are divorced three times saying in one pronouncement, it constitutes a single (divorce). Isma’il bin Ibrahim narrated it from Ayyub from ‘Ikrimah. This is his (‘Ikrimah’s) statement. He did not mention the name of Ibn ‘Abbas. He narrated it as a statement of ‘Ikrimah.”[Abu Dawud 2197]
 
So the Fatwa of Ikrimah is same, like that of Ibn Abbas.
 
6. Ibn Hajar al Asqalani mentioned those who declared 3 talaq at a time is 1
وهو قول محمد بن إسحاق صاحب المغازي، واحتج بما رواه عن داود بن الحصين عن عكرمة عن ابن عباس قال ‏”‏ طلق ركانة بن عبد يزيد امرأته ثلاثا في مجلس واحد، فحزن عليها حزنا شديدا، فسأله النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ كيف طلقتها‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ ثلاثا في مجلس واحد فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ إنما تلك واحدة، فارتجعها إن شئت‏.‏
 
فارتجعها ‏”‏ وأخرجه أحمد وأبو يعلى وصححه من طريق محمد ابن إسحاق‏.‏
وهذا الحديث نص في المسألة لا يقبل التأويل الذي في غيره من الروايات الآتي ذكرها‏.‏
And this is the saying of (1)Muhammad bin Ishaq Sahib AL MAGHAZI and he take evidence from Dawood bin Husain from Ikrimah from Ibne Abbas ra, Rukanah bin Abd Yazeed divorced his wife three times. He became too sad, Prophet Peace be upon him asked How do you divorced? (كيف طلقتها) Rukanah said I have given 3 talaaq. Prophet Peace be upon him asked in a single Majlis? He (rukahan) said YES. (Prophet) said Then it is only one talaaq if you want to do ruju (with ur wife) you can. Rukahnah did ruju
 
and Imam Ahmad and Abu yala mentioned this and authenticated from the turq of Muhammad bin Ishaq and this hadeeth is Nus in this Masla we can not do taweel (end)
 
Then Ibn Hajar al Asqalani said.
 
الرابع أنه مذهب شاذ فلا يعمل به، وأجيب بأنه نقل عن علي وابن مسعود وعبد الرحمن بن عوف والزبير مثله، نقل ذلك ابن مغيث في ‏”‏ كتاب الوثائق ‏”‏ له وعزاه لمحمد بن وضاح، ونقل الغنوي ذلك عن جماعة من مشايخ قرطبة كمحمد بن تقي بن مخلد ومحمد بن عبد السلام الخشني وغيرهما، ونقله ابن المنذر عن أصحاب ابن عباس كعطاء وطاوس وعمرو بن دينار‏.‏
ويتعجب من ابن التين حيث جزم بأن لزوم الثلاث لا اختلاف فيه ، وإنما الاختلاف في التحريم مع ثبوت الاختلاف كما ترى ، ويقوي حديث ابن إسحاق المذكور ما أخرجه مسلم
Fourthly this (saying 3 talaq equals 1) is Odd Madhab so it is not practiced, It is answered this(the madhab of 3 talaq=1) is narrated from (2) Ali, (3)Ibne Masood, (4)Abdul Rahman bin Awf and (5)Zubair (RadhuAllahanhun) same is mentioned by Ibn e Mugeeth in Kitab al wathaiq and Muhammad bin Wadah attributed to him, and Ghanwi mentioned same(madhab) from Scholars of Qartaba like (6)Muhammad bin Taqi bin Muhammad,(7)Muhammad bin Abdus Salam Al Hashni etc, And Ibn e Munzar mentioned (same fatwa) from Companions of (8)Ibn e Abbas ra Like (9) Ata (bin abi ribah),(10)Tawus(bin Kaisan),(11)Omar bin Dinar.
Astonishment over Ibn Teen when he said with certainty that there is no difference of opinion in the obligation of Triple Talaaq (taking place) and difference is only on prohibition while there is a difference of opinion as you are seeing. The hadith of Ibn Ishaq becomes powerful with the hadith of Sahih Muslim. (Fath ul Bari 9/369)
 
Ibn hajar’s opinion was otherwise but still he did justice on the opinion against him.
 
7. Imam Abu Zaid Daboosi al Hanafi (367 – 430h)
 
He said in his book Al Asrar
ثم من هؤلاء من قال: لو طلقها ثنتين أو ثلاثاً لا يقع إلا واحدة وهذا هو الأقيس،
There are those who says If a person pronounce two or three divorce in one sitting, it does not count but only one and this saying is more probable.[Tafsir Gharaaib al Qur`an by Imam Nesaburi d 850 h under Surah al Baq`rah ayah 229]
 
8. Fakhar ud Din Al Razi said under 2:229
: وهو اختيار كثير من علماء الدين، أنه لو طلقها اثنين أو ثلاثاً لا يقع إلا الواحدة، وهذا القول هو الأقيس، لأن النهي يدل على اشتمال المنهي عنه على مفسدة راجحة، والقول بالوقوع سعى في إدخال تلك المفسدة في الوجود وأنه غير جائز، فوجب أن يحكم بعدم الوقوع.
Large number of scholars of Islam have maintained that even if divorce is pronounced two or three times it will not count but only one, and this saying is more probable since what is prohibited is harmful, and those who maintain that (three divorces) take place are striving to resort to corrupt and harmful practices and it is inadmissible So it is Obligatory to maintain its inadmissibility(end)
 
Comment: Fakhr ud din al-Razi came a century before Ibn Tamiyah and he said “Larger number of Islam have maintained that even if divorce is pronounced two or three times it will not count but only one” and his own opinion is also with larger number of scholars.
 
9. Imam Ibn Rashd Qurtubi a Maliki Jurist said after quoting the ikhtilaf and verse of Quran.
 
ولذلك ما نرى والله أعلم أن من ألزم الطلاق الثلاث في واحدة، فقد رفع الحكمة الموجودة في هذه السنة المشروعة‏.‏
Therefore we see and Allah knows best (whoever says that) three divorce in one sitting will be counted as three is finishing the wisdom of Islamic law. [ Bidayat Al-Mujtahid Waghasyat Al-Maqtasid 2/61-63]
 
Same is said by Shaykh Ibn Baz that: “This is also my view, because that is following all of the texts, and because it is also more merciful and kind to the Muslims.” [Fataawa Islamiyyah, 3/281, 282.]
 
The giant contemporaries of Ibn Taymiyah who had same view.
 
10. Fatwa of Imam Ibne Kathir
 
Ibn Qadhi Shuhba from his Tabaqat Tabaqat al-Shafi’iah
.كانت له خصوصية بابن تيمية ومناضلة عنه واتباع له في كثير من آرائه وكان يفتي برأيه في مسألة الطلاق وامتحن بسبب ذلك وأوذي
“Ibn Kathir had a special relationship with Ibn Taymiyya, who was his defender, and follower of many of his views. He would issue verdicts in accordance with his view with respect to Talaq, due to which he placed under hardship and harmed. [also Mentioned by Dr Muhammad Hussain Dahabee (Rah) of Jamaiya tul Azhar in his book Al Tafsir wal Mufassiroon]
 
11. Imam Abu Hayaan al Andalusi said
وما زال يختلج في خاطري أنه لو قال: أنتِ طالق مرتين أو ثلاثاً، أنه لا يقع إلاَّ واحدة
From the wordings of Quran (At talaq marrataan) it always appear in my heart that if a man pronounce two or thee divorces to his wife, it will not count but only one. [in his Commentary of Quran under ayah 229 of Surah Al- Baqrah]
 
The scholars of Al Azhar.
 
12. Shaykh Sayyid Sabiq the Azhari scholar in his Book Fiqh as Sunnah wrote both views and then quoted the evidence of those who are of the view that “Three divorce will not count but only one” he said:
.
“They quote the following hadith in support of their view: “Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) and that of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and two years of the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) was treated as once. But ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So if we had imposed this upon them (i.e. regard the divorce pronounced three times in succession as irrevocable divorce, it would have deterred them from doing so)!” So he regarded it as such. This latter view is believed to be the most correct.”(end quote)
 
13. Famous Egyption Azhari scholar محمود شلتوت 1310 هـ – 1383 هـ, who remained teacher in Jamiya al Azhar for 6 years, he said regarding triple divorce in one sitting:
الطلاق الثلاث لا يقع الا واحدة رجعية و يرد الرجل زوجه بكلمة الرجعة او بالمخالطة الخاصة
These Three divorces will not count except one Raj`ee divorce (where one can do ruju), and it is right of husband that he can take her wife back. [Fatawa page 306, taken from al Byan al Muhkam page 56]
 
Some interesting fatwas.
 
14. Fatwa of Abdul Hai Lucknowi Hanafi
 
He was asked regarding three talaq in one sitting and he replied
 
“In this situation three talaq will happen and without Tehleel nikah is not correct according to hanafiya. But if it is necessary and it is hard for him to go far from his wife and there is fear of sin than there is no harm in making taqleed of any other imam. Example of that is Hanafiya allow in cases of nessecities to follow the saying of Maalik on the issue of iddah of lost husband`s wife. There is a detail about it in Radd al Mukhtaar. But it is better for him to talk about it with Aalim Shafee and act upon his fatwaa [Majmoo Fatawa vol 2 page 53,54 quoted by Irshad ul Haq athree in Maslak Ahnaaf and Molana Abdul Hai rahimaullah]
 
15. The opinion of Imam Ahmad
 
Imam Zarkashi said
وذكر بعض الحنابلة أن هذا مذهب أحمد ، فإنه قال لبعض أصحابه : لا تحمل على مذهبك فيحرجوا ، دعهم يترخصوا بمذاهب الناس . وسئل عن مسألة من الطلاق فقال : يقع يقع ، فقال له القائل : فإن أفتاني أحد أنه لا يقع ، يجوز ؟ قال : نعم ودله على حلقة المدنيين في الرصافة . فقال : إن أفتوني جاز ؟ قال : نعم
Some of the Hanbalees said This is Madhab of Ahmad, He said to his companions that do not Impose your opinions on others, leave the people so that they may see other madaahib. When He (Ahmad) was asked regarding the issue of divorce. He said: It will count. It was said to him If someone said (in his fatwa) that It will not count then? He (Ahmad) said yes it is also allowed. And He told in Rasafa to the people of Madeena. The questioner asked If he say (in his fatwa) It is allowed then is it allowed? He said yes [Al Bhr al Muheet vol 6 page 319]
 
In short, Ibn Taymiyah had various evidences along with the fatawa of sahaba, tabiyeen and other scholars. We also know that the opposite view also have great number of evidences. This is just a fiqhi issue.