Fitna Takfeer calling everyone who oppose them a kafir

Now a days some people are declaring every other person who oppose them a kafir. May Allah save us from this takfeer ameen, This article is advice to these takfeeri Brothers.

Contents:
1. Juhala should not make takfeer of the scholars.
2. If a scholar reaches a wrong conclusion.
3. You can’t just quote a hadith and say I have established the evidence against the jaahil. It maybe, it may not be.
4. Takfeer of the rulers due to their false aqaid.
5. Takfeeris follow khawarij, Mutazila and Jahmiyah.
6. Hujjah is not established until he understand.
7. Even the scholars of Jahmiya and al Hulluliya can be ignorant.
8. Deeming someone a Mushriq.
9. Takfeer of the one who calls upon the dead
10. Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab VS the takfeeris
11. Do Husn al Dhan.
12. If someone says you are kafir, do not reply with takfeer.
13. The opinion on shiah.
14. Last opinion of Abul Hasan al Ashari, Ibn Taymiyah and ad-Dhahabi on takfeer.
15. ash-Shawkani on takfeer.
16. Ibn Hazam on Takfeer
17. The fate of kuffaar who did not hear the message of Islam.
18. If evidence reached a person who misinterprets the text and does not retract his view.
19. False accusation on Ahlus sunnah that they do takfeer of everyone.
20. Are 72 sects in hell forever?
21. What about the hadith: “From every one thousand take out nine hundred and ninety nine (to the fire)”

1. Juhala should not make takfeer of the scholars.

Ibn Taymiyah said:
فإن تسليط الجهال على تكفير علماء المسلمين من أعظم المنكرات ; وإنما أصل هذا من الخوارج والروافض الذين يكفرون أئمة المسلمين .
Indeed it is one of the biggest Munkir that juhala have possessed doing takfeer of the Muslim scholars, The basis of this takfeer are from Khawarij and Rawafidh who make takfeer of the Muslim scholars. [Majmoo al Fatawa 35/100]

2. If a scholar reaches a wrong conclusion.

a) Shaykh al Islam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said
وأما التكفير فالصواب أن من اجتهد من أمة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وقصد الحق فأخطأ لم يكفر ، بل يغفر له خطؤه
With regard to takfeer (judging someone to be a kaafir), the correct view is that a member of the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who strives to reach the truth concerning a certain issue, but reaches the wrong conclusion, is not to be deemed a kaafir, rather he will be forgiven for his mistake. [Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (12/180). Islamqa] b) Shaykh al Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:
وليس كل من يترك قوله لخطأ أخطأه يكفر ولا يفسق ولا يأثم، فإن الله قال في دعاء المؤمنين: {رَبَّنَا لا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِنْ نَسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا} . وفي الصحيح عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم:”أن الله قال: قد فعلت”
When someone’s saying is rejected due to his mistake, that does not mean to make takfeer of him or THAT HE IS FASIQ OR A SINNER, Allah mentioned the prayer of Momineen like this “”Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred.” [al Baqarah verse 287] [Majmu Fatawa 28/550]

c) He mentioned same verse in another place and said:
لاسيما وقد يكون من يوافقكم في أخص من الإسلام، مثل أن يكون مثلكم على مذهب الشافعي، أو منتسباً إلى الشيخ عدي، ثم بعد هذا قد يخالف في شيء وربما كان الصواب معه
Specially that person who agree with you in many matters of Islam, like for example He is a Shafiee in Madhab or Attribute himself with Shaykh Adi and then he goes against you in some matter and many times he is right as well. [Majmu Fatawa 3/420]

Then he said:
وكيف يجوز التفريق بين الأمة بأسماء مبتدعة لا أصل لها في كتاب الله ولا سنة رسوله؟!
How it is allowed to divide ummah by giving innovative names which have no base in Quran and Sunnah? [Ibid].

3. You can’t just quote a hadith and say I have established the evidence against the jaahil. It maybe, it may not be.

Ibn al Qayyim said:
“قيام الحجة يختلف باختلاف الأزمنة والأمكنة والأشخاص فقد تقوم حجة الله على الكفار في زمان دون زمان، وفي بقعة وناحية دون أُخرى ، كما أنها تقوم على شخص دون آخر، إما لعدم عقله وتمييزه كالصغير والمجنون وإما لعدم فهمه كالذي لا يفهم الخطاب ولم يحضر ترجمان يترجم له. فهذا بمنزلة الأصم الذي لا يسمع شيئاً ولا يتمكن من الفهم، وهو أحد الأربعة الذين يدلون على الله بالحجة يوم القيامة كما تقدم في حديث الأسود وأبى هريرة وغيرهما”
The establishment of evidence differs from time to time place to place and people to people… (طريق الهجرتين 1/612).
4. Takfeer of the rulers due to their false aqaid.

Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (23/349):
فالإمام أحمد رضي الله تعالى عنه ترحم عليهم ( يعني الخلفاء الذين تأثروا بمقالة الجهمية الذين زعموا القول بخلق القرآن ، ونصروه ) واستغفر لهم ، لعلمه بأنه لم يتبين لهم أنهم مكذبون للرسول ، ولا جاحدون لما جاء به ، ولكن تأولوا فأخطأوا ، وقلدوا من قال ذلك لهم
Imam Ahmad (may Allaah be pleased with him) prayed for mercy for them (i.e., the caliphs who were influenced by the view of the Jahamis who claimed that the Qur’aan was created, and supported it) and prayed for forgiveness for them, because he knew that it was not clear to them that they were disbelieving the Messenger and denying what he had brought, rather they misinterpreted and erred, and followed those who said that to them. [Islamqa]

5. Takfeeris follow khawarij, Mutazila and Jahmiyah.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
” إن المتأوِّل الذي قصد متابعة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يكفر ، بل ولا يفسق إذا اجتهد فأخطأ ، وهذا مشهور عند الناس في المسائل العملية ، وأما مسائل العقائد : فكثير من الناس كفَّر المخطئين فيها ، وهذا القول لا يُعرف عن أحد من الصحابة والتابعين لهم بإحسان ولا عن أحد من أئمة المسلمين ، وإنما هو في الأصل من أقوال أهل البدع الذين يبتدعون بدعة ويكفرون من خالفهم ، كالخوارج والمعتزلة والجهمية ”
The one who bases his idea on a misinterpretation, if his intention is to follow the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), he is not to be regarded as a kaafir or as an evildoer, if he tried to work it out but got it wrong. This is something that is well established among people with regard to practical matters. With regard to matters of belief, many people regard as a kaafir the one who has mistaken notions concerning them, but this view is not known from any of the Sahaabah or those who followed them in truth, or from any of the leading scholars of the Muslims. Rather this was originally one of the views of the innovators. And they say Kafir to their opponents like the khawarij, Mutazila and Jahmiyah.
[End quote from Minhaaj as-Sunnah (5/239)]

6. Hujjah is not established until he understand.

Shaykh Rasheed Ridha said:
“من لم يفهم الدعوة لم تقم عليه الحجة
Whoever has not understand the dawah, hujjah is not established on him. [Ta`leeq on Majmu Rasaail an-Najadiyah 5/514]

7. Even the scholars of Jahmiya and al Hulluliya can be ignorant.

Ibn Taymiyah said:
ولهذا كنت أقول للجهمية من الحلولية والنفاة الذين نفوا أن الله تعالى فوق العرش -لما وقعت محنتهم-“انا لو وافقتكم كنت كافرا لاني اعلم ان قولكم كفر، وانتم عندي لاتكفرون لانكم جهال وكان هذا خطابا لعلمائهم وقضاتهم وشيوخهم وأمرائهم
I say to al Hululiya and to those who negates Allah is above his throne (which suits his majesty), If i agree with you then I will be a disbeliever because i know your saying is kufr BUT YOU ARE NOT A DISBELIEVER according to me because you are jaahil. This khitab is for their scholars, judges, teachers and umaraa. [Radd al Bukri pages 383-384]

8. Deeming someone a Mushriq.

a) Imam Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi (d 543 h) said:
فالجاهل والمخطئ من هذه الأمة ، ولو عمل من الكفر والشرك ما يكون صاحبه مشركاً أو كافراً ، فإنه يعذر بالجهل والخطأ ، حتى تتبين له الحجة ، التي يكفر تاركها ، بياناً واضحاً ما يلتبس على مثله ”
With regard to the ignorant and those who make mistakes among this ummah, even if they do acts that constitute disbelief and shirk, the kind of deeds that result in the doer being deemed a mushrik or a disbeliever, they are to be excused for their ignorance and mistakes until proof is established against them, of the type of proof that whoever rejects it becomes a disbeliever and it is clearly explained to the degree that a man of his calibre would not be confused after such an explanation. End quote. This was narrated from him by al-Qaasimi in Mahaasin at-Ta’weel (3/161).

b) Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan al-Mu‘allimi said:
” فنحن وإن قلنا في صورةٍ من صور السؤال ونحوها : إنَّ هذا دعاءٌ لغير الله تعالى وعبادةٌ وشرك ، فليس مقصودُنا أن كلَّ من فعل ذلك يكون مشركًا ، وإنما يكون مشركًا مَنْ فَعَلَ ذلك غيرَ معذور، فأما من فعلها معذورًا ، فلعلَّه يكون من خيار عباد الله تعالى ، وأفضلهم وأتقاهم”
Even if we sometimes say that this is calling upon someone other than Allah, may He be exalted, and it is an act of worship and shirk, we do not mean that everyone who does that is a mushrik. Rather the mushrik is the one who does that with no excuse. As for the one who does that with an excuse, then perhaps he is one of the best slaves of Allah, may He be exalted and one of the most virtuous and pious. [End quote from Athaar ash-Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rahmaan al-Mu‘allimi (3/826) Islamqa]

9. Takfeer of the one who calls upon the dead

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:
” فإنا بعد معرفة ما جاء به الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، نعلم بالضرورة أنه لم يشرع لأمته أن تدعو أحداً من الأموات ، لا الأنبياء ولا الصالحين ولا غيرهم ، لا بلفظ الاستغاثة ولا بغيرها ، ولا بلفظ الاستعاذة ولا بغيرها.
كما أنه لم يشرع لأمته السجود لميت ولا لغير ميت ، ونحو ذلك ، بل نعلم أنه نهى عن كل هذه الأمور، وأن ذلك من الشرك الذي حرمه الله ورسوله.
لكن لغلبة الجهل ، وقلّة العلم بآثار الرسالة في كثير من المتأخرين ، لم يمكن تكفيرهم بذلك ، حتى يتبين لهم ما جاء به الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، مما يخالفه “.
After learning what the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) brought, we inevitably learn that he did not prescribe for his ummah to call upon any of the dead, whether they were Prophets, righteous people or anyone else, whether in the sense of seeking help or otherwise, whether by way of seeking refuge or in any other way.

Similarly, he did not prescribe for his ummah to prostrate to anyone, dead or otherwise, and the like. Rather we know that he prohibited all such things, and that these things come under the heading of shirk which Allah and His Messenger forbade.

But because of the prevalence of ignorance and lack of knowledge of Islamic teachings among many of the later generations, IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO DEEM THEM DISBELIEVERS because of that, until they learn and find out what the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) brought, and what contradicts it. [End quote from ar-Radd ‘ala al-Bukri (2/731) Islamqa]

10. Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab VS the takfeeris

a) Ibn Abdul Wahhab said:
وأما التكفير فأنا أكفر من عرف دين الرسول، ثم بعد ما عرفه سبه، ونهى الناس عنه، وعادى من فعله، فهذا هو الذي أكفر. وأكثر الأمة – ولله الحمد – ليسوا كذلك
“And as for takfīr, then It is for the one who knew the religion of the Messenger (i.e. Islam), and then after he came to know it, he abused it and stopped the people from it and showed enmity to the one who practiced upon it. He is the one did kufr. AND MOST OF THE FOLLOWERS OF THE PROPHET PEACE BE UPON HIM ARE NOT LIKE THAT, PRAISE TO BE ALLAH. [Al-Durar al-Saniyyah (1/73)]

b) He said:
“وأما الكذب والبهتان فقولهم إنا نكفر بالعموم ونوجب الهجرة إلينا على من قدر على إظهار دينه، فكل هذا من الكذب والبهتان الذي يصدون به الناس عن دين الله ورسوله، وإذا كنا لا نكفر من عبد الصنم الذي على عبد القادر والصنم الذي على أحمد البدوي وأمثالهم لأجل جهلهم، وعدم من ينبههم، فكيف نكفر من لم يشرك بالله إذا لم يهاجر إلينا أو لم يكفر ويقاتل” ا.
As for what they say of lies and fabrications about us, when they say that we label people as disbelievers in general terms, and we say that it is obligatory for anyone who is able to migrate to join us to do so, all of that is lies and fabrications by means of which they turn people away from the religion of Allah and His Messenger. As we do not regard as disbelievers those who worship the idol [i.e., the built-up tomb] on the grave of ‘Abd al-Qaadir, or the idol on the grave of Ahmad al-Badawi and the like, because of their ignorance and because there is no one to advise them, then how can we regard as a disbeliever the one who does not associate anything with Allah, just because he does not migrate to join us and does not regard others as disbelievers and fight them?! [ad-Durr as-Saniyyah p 66, Sharh Kashf ash-Shubhaat by Ibn Uthaymeen page 40, Islamqa]

c) He said, They (his opponents) say that I say:
إن الناس من ستمائة سنة ليسوا على شيء،
The people are not following anything from the last six hundred years.

And
إني أكفّر من توسل بالصالحين، وإني أكفّر البوصيري لقوله: يا أكرم الخلق، وإني أقول: لو أقدر على هدم قبة رسول الله صلى الله
عليه وسلم لهدمتها، ولو أقدر على الكعبة لأخذت ميزابها وجعلت لها ميزاباً من خشب، وإني أحرم زيارة قبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم،
I say kafir to the one who accepts tawassul of saliheen, I say kafir to al Buseri (author of al burdah) due to his saying “Ya akram al Khalq”, And i say that if I would have power to demolish the dome of the messenger of Allah peace be upon him I would do that… And I say it is haram to visit the grave of Prophet peace be upon him..

After quoting all the accusations, He said:
جوابي عن هذه المسائل، أن أقول: سبحانك هذا بهتان عظيم! وقبله من بهت محمداً صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه يسب عيسى بن مريم ويسب الصالحين، فتشابهت قلوبهم بافتراء الكذب وقول الزور.
I have answer to all these masail, Glorified be You (O Allah) these are the great slanders, before us the slanders were on Muhammad peace be upon him as well that He (peace be upon him) criticise Eesa ibn Maryam and the righteous..
[الكتاب: الرسائل الشخصية (مطبوع ضمن مؤلفات الشيخ محمد بن عبد الوهاب، الجزء السادس) 6/12

11. Do Husn al Dhan.

Mulla Ali al Qari said:
“Indeed the author of المضمرات (Yusuf ibn Umar al Hanafi) quoted from (the book) الذخيرة that If there are many reasons of doing takfeer in a case, and only one reason for not doing takfeer, then It is must for the Mufti to do Husn al Dhan for Muslim and go with the reason which is a proof of not doing takfeer”

[Sharah Mulla Ali al Qari on Alfaaz al Kufr by Badr al Rasheed al Hanafi p 230, taken from Mas`ala Takfeer aur Us k Usool o Zawabit page 22 Mubashar Ahmad Rabbani]

Above quote is for muftis, leave a side lay people doing takfeer.

12. If someone says you are kafir, do not reply with takfeer.

Ibn Taymiyah said in al Istigatha fe al Radd al Bukri 1/381:
فلهذا كان أهل العلم والسنة لا يكفرون من خالفهم، وإن كان ذلك المخالف يكفرهم، لأن الكفر حكم شرعي، فليس للإنسان أن يعاقب بمثله، كمن كذب عليك، وزنى بأهلك، ليس لك أن تكذب عليه، وتزني بأهله، لأن الزنى والكذب حرام لحق الله –تعالى-، وكذلك التكفير حق لله –تعالى- فلا نكفر إلا من كفره الله ورسوله.
“The people of knowledge and sunnah do not make takfeer of their opponents EVEN IF THEIR OPPONENTS MAKE TAKFEER OF THEM, Takfeer is shar`ee order and it is not allowed for a man to respond with takfeer, like if someone make a lie on a person and do zina with his wife. It is not that he replies back with a lie and zina with his wife. Because Lie and zina are prohibited due to the haq of Allah ta`ala. Likewise, takfeer is the haq of Allah and one can not be a kafir until he is a kafir in the sight of Allah and his Rasool.”

13. The opinion on shiah.

Ibn Taymiyah said:
والإمامية الاثنا عشرية خير منهم بكثير فإن الإمامية مع فرط جهلهم وضلالهم فيهم خلق مسلمون باطنا وظاهرا ليسوا زنادقة منافقين لكنهم جهلوا وضلوا واتبعوا أهواءهم وأما أولئك فأئمتهم الكبار العارفون بحقيقة دعوتهم الباطنية زنادقة منافقون وأما عوامهم الذين لم يعرفوا باطن أمرهم فقد يكونون مسلمين
Imamiya Ithna Ashariyah are far better than them (Ismaeeliya shiyah), There is Ignorance and dhalalah in al Imamiya, still there are Muslims among them apparently and inwardly and they are not heretic and hypocrites, but they follow ignorance and desires,

And the Senior scholars among the Ismaeeliyah who knows their baatini dawah are heretics and hypocrites, and their common people can be Muslims who don’t know their baatiniyah. [Minhaj as-Sunnah 2/279-280]

14. Last opinion of Abul Hasan al Ashari, Ibn Taymiyah and ad-Dhahabi on takfeer.

a) ad-Dhahabi said:
رأيت للأشعري كلمة أعجبتني وهي ثابتة رواها البيهقي ، سمعت أبا حازم العبدوي ، سمعت زاهر بن أحمد السرخسي يقول : لما قرب حضور أجل أبي الحسن الأشعري في داري ببغداد ، دعاني فأتيته ، فقال : اشهد علي أني لا أكفر [ أحدا ] من أهل القبلة ; لأن الكل يشيرون إلى معبود واحد ، وإنما هذا كله اختلاف العبارات .

قلت : وبنحو هذا أدين ، وكذا كان شيخنا ابن تيمية في أواخر أيامه يقول : أنا لا أكفر أحدا من الأمة ، ويقول : قال النبي -صلى الله عليه وسلم- : لا يحافظ على الوضوء إلا مؤمن فمن لازم الصلوات بوضوء فهو مسلم .
I saw the sayings of al Ashari which surprised me, And it is proven that al Bayhaqi said: I heard Abu Haazim al Abdavi, who said: I heard Zaahir bin Ahmad al Sarkhasi saying: When Abul Hasan al Ashari was at my home in Baghdad and the time of his death was close, He asked for me and i went to him. He said: Be my witness that i do not make takfeer on anyone among the people of qiblah because they all worship one God and all this disagreement is on Ibaraat.
I (ad-Dhahabi) say: I accept this way, likewise our Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah said toward the end of his life, I do not consider any person from this Ummah to be a disbeliever, and he said that the Prophet said, “No one maintains ablution except a believer” so whoever observes the prayers with ablution is a Muslim.” [Siyar Ailaam an-Nubalaa 15/88]

b) Shaykh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
هذا مع أني دائماً ومن جالسني يعلم ذلك مني ، أني من أعظم الناس نهياً عن أن ينسب معين إلى تكفير وتفسيق ومعصية ، إلا إذا علم أنه قد قامت عليه الحجة الرسالية التي من خالفها كان كافراً تارة ، وفاسقاً أخرى ، وعاصياً أخرى ، وإني أقرر أن الله قد غفر لهذه الأمة خطأها ، وذلك يعم الخطأ في المسائل الخبرية القولية والمسائل العملية . وما زال السلف يتنازعون في كثير من هذه المسائل ، ولم يشهد أحد منهم على أحد لا بكفر ولا بفسق ولا بمعصية
However, and those who sit with me know this about me, I am always one of those who most emphatically forbid describing a specific person as a kaafir, faasiq or sinner, unless it is known that shar’i proof has been established against him, and it has been proven whether he is a kaafir, a faasiq or a sinner. I affirm that Allaah has forgiven this ummah for its mistakes, which includes mistakes in narrative and practical issues. The salaf continued to debate many of these issues but none of them testified that anyone else was a kaafir or a faasiq or a sinner.[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (3/229), Islamqa] c) Imam Dahabi said
وكذلك القول في سجود المسلم لقبر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على سبيل التعظيم والتبجيل لا يكفر به أصلا بل يكون عاصيا ، فليعرّف أن هذا منهي عنه ، وكذلك الصلاة إلى القبر
The prostration of the Muslim to the grave of the Prophet is for the intention of respect and reverence. One is Not doing Kufr because of it whatsoever but he is being disobedient . Let him therefore be informed that this is forbidden. Similarly in the case of one who offers Prayer towards the grave.”[Imam Dhahabi in Mu’jam al-Shuyukh, Volume No.1, Page No. 55]

15. ash-Shawkani on takfeer.

He said:
وقد قال الله عزوجل: {مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْراً} [النحل: 106] ، فلا بد من شرح الصدر بالكفر وطمأنينة القلب به وسكون النفس إليه فلا اعتبار بما يقع من طوارق عقائد الشر لا سيما مع الجهل بمخالفتها لطريقة الإسلام ولا اعتبار بصدور فعل كفري لم يرد به فاعله الخروج عن الإسلام إلى ملة الكفر ولا اعتبار بلفظ تلفظ به المسلم يدل على الكفر وهو لا يعتقد معناه
Allah says “but whoever is wholeheartedly a disbeliever” {an-Nahl:106] Wholeheartedly accepting the disbelief, contentment of the heart and sukoon of nafs on disbelief is must.
There is no validity of occurrence of false creed, Especially when it is against Islam due to ignorance.
There is no validity of occurrence of disbelief when the one who did it has no intention to leave Islam to millah of kufr.
Neither there is any validity of saying of a Muslim, which are evidence of disbelief but he do not believe in those meanings . [السيل الجرار المتدفق على حدائق الأزهار 1/978]

Brother Ali Hassan Khan commented: “The statememt is for the one who by mistake insults Allah, slip of tongue, as for one who mocks Deen or insults Allah or Nabi pak, on purpose, he becomes kafir whether he desires kufr or not, whether in belueves in insult or not.”
16. Ibn Hazam on takfeer.

a) Ibn Hazm (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
ولا خلاف في أن امرءً لو أسلم ، ولم يعلم شرائع الإسلام ، فاعتقد أن الخمر حلال ، وأن ليس على الإنسان صلاة ، وهو لم يبلغه حكم الله تعالى : لم يكن كافراً ، بلا خلاف يُعتد به ، حتى إذا قامت عليه الحجة فتمادى ، حينئذ بإجماع الأمة فهو كافر .
There is no difference of opinion among the scholars concerning the fact that if a man became Muslim and did not know the laws of Islam, so he believed that alcohol was permissible and that a person did not have to pray, and the ruling of Allah had not reached him, he is not a disbeliever. And there is no difference of opinion concerning that, unless proof was established to him and he persisted. In that case, according to the consensus of the ummah, then he is a disbeliever. [Al-Muhalla (11/206), Islamqa]

b) Ibn Hazm (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
وَذَهَبت طَائِفَة إِلَى أَنه لَا يكفر وَلَا يفسق مُسلم بقول قَالَه فِي اعْتِقَاد أَو فتيا وَإِن كل من اجْتهد فِي شَيْء من ذَلِك فدان بِمَا رأى أَنه الْحق فَإِنَّهُ مأجور على كل حَال أَن أصَاب الْحق فأجران وَإِن أَخطَأ فأجر وَاحِد وَهَذَا قَول ابْن أبي ليلِي وَأبي حنيفَة وَالشَّافِعِيّ وسُفْيَان الثَّوْريّ وَدَاوُد بن عَليّ رَضِي الله عَن جَمِيعهم
A group of scholars viewed that a Muslim cannot be declared to be an unbeliever or a transgressor on account of an opinion he holds pertaining to creed or law, and that whoever exercises ijtihad in a given issue from the above (creed and law) and professes what he believes to be the truth will be rewarded in any way: if correct, he will earn two rewards and if mistaken, one reward. This is the opinion of Ibn Abi Layla, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi’i, Sufyan al-Thawri, Dawud bin Ali, and it is the opinion of the Companions whom I known to have addressed the topic, may Allah be pleased with them all. [Kitab al-fisal fi al-milal wa-al-ahwa’ wa-al-nihal 3/138, passage translated by by Faizan Shaikh]

17. The fate of kuffaar who did not hear the message of Islam.

Allah says:
“And never would We punish until We sent a messenger.” al Isra verse 15

a) Ibn Hazam said:
فصح بذلك أن من لم يبلغه الإسلام أصلاً فإنه لا عذاب عليه
This is true that Allah will not punish the one who did not hear the message of Islam. [al-Fasl fe al-Melal wa al-Ahwaa wa al-Nahl 4/105]

b) Shaykh Abdul Rahman as-Sa`di said:
والله تعالى أعدل العادلين، لا يعذب أحداً حتى تقوم عليه الحجة بالرسالة ثم يعاند الحجة، وأما من انقاد للحجة، أو لم تبلغه حجة الله تعالى فإن الله تعالى لا يعذبه، استدل بهذه الآية على أن أهل الفترات، وأطفال المشركين، لا يعذبهم الله، حتى يبعث إليهم رسولاً، لأنه منزه عن الظلم
Allah talah is the greatest just. he will not punish anyone until the proof of risalah has been established against him and then he rejected the proof. And the person who accepted the proof OR the one who was not informed about proof he will not be punished by Allah tala.

It is deduced from this verse that Allah tala will not punish People of fitraat (the people of that era or place to whom the proof of risalah has not been established) and the children of mushrikeen, until he send his messenger towards them. [Tafsir as-Sa`di under al Isra verse 15]

c) an Nawawi said:
وهو المذهب الصحيح المختار الذي صار إليه المحققون ، لقوله تعالى : وما كنا معذبين حتى نبعث رسولا وإذا كان لا يعذب العاقل لكونه لم تبلغه الدعوة ، فلأن لا يعذب غير العاقل من باب الأولى
This is the correct and chosen madhab of the researchers due to the saying of Allah “nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent an messenger (to give warning)” (al-Isra verse 15) When Allah will not punish the one who has intellect and the dawah did not reached him, then the one who has no intellect will not be punished at all. [quoted by Ibn Hajr in Fath al Bari 4/179]

d) Shaykh Saalih al Munajjid said:
“A person who has never heard of Islam or the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and who has never heard the message in its correct and true form, will not be punished by Allaah if he dies in a state of kufr (disbelief). ”

18. If evidence reached a person who misinterprets the text and does not retract his view.

Shaykh Abdullaah Al-Jibreen may Allaah have mercy upon him said:

“In general, misinterpretation is one of the most important impediments that prevents declaring a specific person as a non-believer. It is for this reason that some scholars said that if evidence reached a person who misinterprets the text and does not retract his view, and it is in regard to an issue wherein it is probable for someone to make a mistake, and it is probable for the person who made a mistake that the misconception stays in his heart because of misconceptions that were raised around it or due to accompanying circumstances in a particular incident, then he is not ruled to be a non-believer, as Allaah says (what means): {And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended.} [Quran 33:5]

It is for this reason that some scholars did not rule some specific people of the Jahmiyyah sect, who believed in some beliefs that take a person out of the fold of Islam in regard to some Names and Attributes of Allaah, to be non-Muslims…” [Islamweb] 19. False accusation on Ahlus sunnah that they do takfeer of everyone.

Mahmud Shukri al Alusi said:
أن من مكايد الغلاة؛ التشنيع على أهل الحق ودعاة التوحيد من المؤمنين أنهم يكفّرون المسلمين، ومقصودهم من ذلك تنفير القلوب عنهم، ولذلك يلقبونهم بألقاب مشعرة بالذم، كالمجسّمة والحشوية، وفي هذه الأزمنة يلقبونهم بالوهَابية، وبالمنكرين ونحو ذلك
The extremists accuse the people of truth and preachers of tawheed among the Momineen that they make takfeer of Muslims. Their intention behind this is to make people hate them. They call them by the names of Anthropomorphist and al Hashwiya and now a days they call them Wahabis and Munkir and alike. [Ghayat al Amani 1/43]

Then he said:
وأما أهل البدع فلم يكفَرهم أهل الحق.
People of truth do not make takfir on innovators. [Ibid]

He also said
على أن الحق يقبل من أي شخص كان، فالنظر إلى ما قاله القائل لا إلى القائل، ومما ينسب إلى الإمام علي كرم الله وجهه: لا تنظر إلى من قال وانظر إلى ما قال. والله عز اسمه يقول: {يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوباً وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ}
Truth should be accepted from any person, see what is being said, not the person who is saying that, it is attributed to Ali May Allah honor him, “Do not see who is saying, see what is being said” [Note: I don’t know its authenticity], Allah says: “O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you.”[49:13] [Ghayat al Amani 2/112]

He said:
أما سمعت قول الإمام الشافعي رضي الله عنه حيث قال:
….لسانك لا تذكر به عورة امرىء … فكلك عورات وللناس ألسن
وعينك إن أرتك يوما نقيصة … لناس فقل يا عين للناس أعين…
Haven’t you heard the saying of Imam ash-Shafiee May Allah be pleased with him, who said:
Do not expose the sins of another person with your tongue, because people have tongue also who can expose you, If you see any fault in others, then say to your eye “O eye people also have eyes” Who can see your faults. [Ghayat al Amani 2/33]

Mahmud Shukri al Alusi was grandson of Shihab ud din Mahmud al Alusi the author of Tafsir Ruh al M`ani and They are al Husaini, the Sayyed.
20. Are 72 sects in hell forever?

a) Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said after quoting the hadeeth of 73 sects in the debate:
ثم قلت لهم: وليس كل من خالف في شيء من هذا الاعتقاد يجب أن يكون هالكاً، فإن المنازع قد يكون مجتهداً مخطئاً يغفر الله خطأه، وقد لا يكون بلغه في ذلك من العلم ما تقوم به عليه الحجة، وقد تكون هل من الحسنات ما يمحو الله به سيئاته، وإذا كانت ألفاظ الوعيد المتناولة له لا يجب أن يدخل فيها المتأول والقانت وذو الحسنات الماحية والمغفور له وغير ذلك فهذا أولى، بل موجب هذا الكلام أن من اعتقد ذلك نجا في هذا الاعتقاد، ومن اعتقد ضده فقد يكون ناجياً، وقد لا يكون ناجياً، كما يقال: “من صمت نجا”.
Then I said: Not that whoever goes even slightly against this (aqeedah) is doomed.
1. Sometimes who differ is a Mujtahid who makes a mistake, Allah will forgive his mistake.
2, And it can also happen that the one who differ is ignorant..
3. Sometimes Allah will forgive his mistakes due to his good deeds….
Rather the meaning of this saying is that whoever believed this is saved, and whoever believed against this is sometimes saved other times he is not. Like it is said whoever remained silent he is saved [Majmoo al Fatawa 3/179]

b) Abu Sulaymaan al-Khattaabi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
قَوْلُهُ : ” سَتَفْتَرِقُ أُمَّتِي عَلَى ثَلاثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً ” فِيهِ دَلالَةٌ عَلَى أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْفِرَقَ كُلَّهَا غَيْرُ خَارِجِينَ مِنَ الدِّينِ ، إِذِ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَعَلَهُمْ كُلَّهُمْ مِنْ أُمَّتِهِ ، وَفِيهِ أَنَّ الْمُتَأَوِّلَ لا يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْمِلَّةِ وَإِنْ أَخْطَأَ فِي تَأْوِيلِهِ ،
The words “My ummah will split into seventy-three sects” indicates that all these sects are not outside the boundaries of Islam, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) described them all as being part of his ummah. This indicates that the one who holds a view that is based on some interpretation does not go beyond the bounds of Islam, even if he is mistaken in his interpretation. [End quote from Ma‘aalim as-Sunan by al-Khattaabi (4/295). See also: as-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi (10/208). Islamqa]

c) Shaykh Salih al Munajjid said:

With regard to the question of Paradise being for Ahl as-Sunnah in particular, this is an incorrect view. None of the scholars have said such a thing; rather all of the ummah of Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) who responded to his call will enter Paradise; no one will be deprived of it except those who turned on their heels (apostatized) and nullified their Islam by doing something that took them out of Islam altogether, and those innovators who went against sharee‘ah and opposed Ahl as-Sunnah. They, like other sinners among the monotheists, will be subject to the will of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted: if He wills, He will punish them, and if He wills, He will forgive them, then the final destination of any one of them will be Paradise, if he died believing in Tawheed.

This also applies to those who committed some sins or fell into some innovation, but were among Ahl as-Sunnah in general; they will also be subject to the will of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted: if He wills, He will punish them, and if He wills, He will forgive them. However, adhering to the Sunnah, defending it and following it in word and deed will increase the hope of entering Paradise and being saved from the punishment of Allah.

Fifthly:

The one who understands from the hadeeth about divisions and from the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) about the seventy-two different sects who go against Ahl as-Sunnah, “All of them will be in the Fire”, that they will abide forever in the fire of Hell, is mistaken and has gone against the consensus of the Muslims. The fact that these sects have gone astray and have been given a warning of Hellfire does not mean that they will abide therein forever. (end quote)

d) Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
“ومَن قال إن الثنتين والسبعين فِرقة كل واحد منهم يكفر كفراً ينقل عن الملة : فقد خالف الكتاب والسنَّة وإجماع الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين ، بل وإجماع الأئمة الأربعة وغير الأربعة ؛ فليس فيهم مَن كفَّر كلَّ واحد من الثنتين وسبعين فرقة”
Whoever says that the seventy-two sects have all committed kufr (disbelief) in a way that puts them beyond the pale of Islam has gone against the Qur’an, Sunnah and the consensus of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them all), and also the consensus of the four imams and others. There is no one among them who regarded each one of the seventy-two sects as disbelievers. End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 7/218 [Islamqa fatwa no. 159301] 21. What about the hadith: “From every one thousand take out nine hundred and ninety nine (to the fire)”

As for the hadeeth where The Prophet said,… Adam will say: ‘O Allah! How many are the people of the Fire?’ Allah will reply: ‘From every one thousand, take out nine-hundred-and ninety-nine.

This is regarding gogg and magogg and mushrikeen as it is clear in very same hadith

” The companions of the Prophet asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Who is that (excepted) one?” He said, “Rejoice with glad tidings; one person will be from you and one-thousand will be from Gog and Magog.” [Bukhari Book #55, Hadith #567]

The prophet peace be upon him said:
The people of Paradise are 120 rows, of which eighty are from this ummah and the other forty from all the other nations.”(Reported by al-Tirmidhi, 3469; he said this is a hasan hadeeth)

22. The hadith about Ahl al-Fatrah

Abu Hurayrah reported Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) as saying that “A person who had never done any good deed asked the members of his family to burn his dead body when he would die and to scatter half of its ashes over the land and half in the ocean. By Allah, if Allah finds him in His grip, He would torment him with a torment with which He did not afflict anyone amongst the people of the world; and when the person died, it was done to him as he had commanded (his family) to do. Allah commanded the land to collect (the ashes scattered on it) and He commanded the ocean and that collected (ashes) contained in it. Allah questioned him why he had done that, he said: My Lord, it is out of Thine fear that I have done it and Thou art well aware of it,and Allah granted him pardon. (Bukhari; Muslim; Nasai; Ibn Maajah; Muwatta; Ahmad, Musnad)

a) Imam Nawawi commented: “The scholars had made ikhtilaaf regarding the interpretation of this hadith. One group had said ‘To ascribe this to be ignoring the qudrah of Allah is not correct. The reason is the one who has doubts regarding the qudrah of Allah is bizatihi (perse) kafir. Let alone at the end of the hadith it had been said he had done it out of fear from Allah. Whereas as, just as the kafir does not fear Allah he will not be pardoned. These individuals according to this have said there are two tawils for this hadith a) If Allah had predestined the punishment meaning if He had commanded. In this case this verb can be recited both as qadara and qaddara; both with the shadda (sign of emphasis) and without the shadda. In this case both meanings are the same b) The verb qadara here means dayyaka ala. It is stated in the ayah “restricting his subsistence for him” (Fajr 89/16) this is also the view said about this ayah “he thought that We would not straighten him” (Anbiya 21/87). Another group states: The statement is in the dhahir meaning. However this man had said this without realizing what he was saying. Moreover as his intention was not the real meaning of the word he did not carry such belief. On the contrary he had said this when fright, horror and extreme inpatience had overwhelmed him. Such that his strength had been lost and was not able to think of what he was saying. The individual in such state is in a position of being inattentive and forgetful. Responsibility is not mentionable in such condition. Fundamentally this is like someone finding his mount being overwhelmed with joy and saying “O Allah! You are my slave and I am your lord.” The individual who said this had not been made takfir of because his amazement had been taken over by his joy and was mistaken. This hadith had been narrated in a place other than Muslim as follows: Maybe I will remain hidden from Allah meaning I will not be seen to Him. This shows that his statement meant if Allah is capable of in the dhahir meaning. Another group had said: This statement is a type of metaphor and unique use in Arabic. This type of speech is called the doubt used metaphoricaly for certainty (to mean the certain information with the doubt signifying word.) As in this ayah “and certain it is that either we or ye are on right guidance or in manifest error!” (Saba 34/24) The manner of expression is doubt and what had been meant is definite certainty. One group had said: This man had been ignorant in one of the attributes of Allah. Where as the Ulama had made ikhtilaaf regarding the takfir of the one who is ignorant in the attributes. Qadi Iyad said: ‘For this reason (here the individual who doesn’t have knowledge of the attribute of Allah has been meant. Not the person in the hadith) Ibn Jarir at-Tabari had made takfir of him. Abu’l Hasan Ashari had expressed this first.’ Others say: An individual will not be made takfir of due to being ignorant in the attributes. Moreover contrary to the one who rejects it, it will not exit him from the scope of iman. Fundamentally Abu’l Hasan al-Ashari had later changed to this view and had kept stable at it. The reason is because this man had not believed this to be true with a satisfied i’tiqaad and also he had not seen it as another deen and shari’ah. Certainly the one who believes what he had said to be haq surely will be made takfir. These people say: If the Muslim is to be asked regarding the attributes only a few will know. A group had said: This man had lived in the era of fatrah which plain tawhid had benefited. According to the correct view prior to the arrival of shari’ah there is no proposition because in the ayah it is stated: nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent an messenger (to give warning)” (al-Isra 17/15)Another group says: In the shari’ah (contrary to our shari’ah) of this individual it is possible he lived in an era which the forgiveness of the kuffar was permissible, which according to the ahl sunnah this is possible in relation to mind. We could have been restricted from this, with this hukm in our shari’ah. The evidence for this is “Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him” (an-Nisa 4/48) and other similar evidences. Allahu Alam (Sharah an-Nawawi, 7/70-74, translation taken from other wibsite).

b) Shaykh ul Islam Ibn e Taymiyyah (rah) writes :
فَهَذَا الرَّجُلُ ظَنَّ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهِ إذَا تَفَرَّقَ هَذَا التَّفَرُّقَ فَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ لَا يُعِيدُهُ إذَا صَارَ كَذَلِكَ وَكُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ إنْكَارِ قُدْرَةِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَإِنْكَارِ مَعَادِ الْأَبْدَانِ وَإِنْ تَفَرَّقَتْ كَفَرَ . لَكِنَّهُ كَانَ مَعَ إيمَانِهِ بِاَللَّهِ وَإِيمَانِهِ بِأَمْرِهِ وَخَشْيَتِهِ مِنْهُ جَاهِلًا بِذَلِكَ ضَالًّا فِي هَذَا الظَّنِّ مُخْطِئًا . فَغَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ . وَالْحَدِيثُ صَرِيحٌ فِي أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ طَمِعَ أَنْ لَا يُعِيدَهُ إذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ وَأَدْنَى هَذَا أَنْ يَكُونَ شَاكًّا فِي الْمَعَادِ وَذَلِكَ كُفْرٌ – إذَا قَامَتْ حُجَّةُ
النُّبُوَّةِ عَلَى مُنْكِرِهِ حُكِمَ بِكُفْرِهِ

This person has thought about Allah that if his lashes will get scattered in the wind so than Allah would not be able to collect them because Allah has no Power over it, although both of these sayings are clear Kufr (Disbelief) (One is that Allah is not able to collect it and the second Allah cannot resurrect at the day of Judgement). But the person being Ignorant in this matter has faith in Allah and he has fear of Allah even tough he was on Mistake in his thought explicitly in spite of this Allah has forgiven him. And this hadith is clear in this matter that the person was doing this with the thought that Allah wouldn’t be able to make him resurrect again or he must have any doubt with regards to resurrecting again and this doubt is Kufr as well because when the Hujjat is established from the Prophets so the person who disbelief about Last day the verdict of Kufr is issued about him. (Majmoa al Fatawa 3/16)

see also:

http://islamqa.com/en/ref/1244/

http://islamqa.com/en/ref/98714/