Taqleed Prohibition from Quran Sunnah Sahaba & Muhadditheen

This Article is refutation of Taqleed e shakhsi (Blind following of only one particular Imam) as people of subcontinent do. This is not a refutation of following a school of thought which is accepted by the people of hadeeth like Ibn Rajab Hanbalee, Imam ad-Dahabee, Ibn Tamiyah and Al alBani, Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai, Shaykh Saalih al Fawzan and others. For example

a) Shaykh Ibn Baz was asked
س: هل صحيح أن الحنابلة هم السلفيون فقط؟ وما حقيقة السلفية، هل هي قرينة التشدد والتزمت كما يروج البعض؟

Is that correct that the Hanbalis are only Salafis? What is the reality of Salafiya?

Answer :

ج: ليس هذا القول بصحيح. وإنما السلف الصالح هم الصحابة رضي الله عنهم ومن سلك سبيلهم من التابعين وأتباع التابعين من الحنفية والمالكية والشافعية والحنابلة وغيرهم ممن سار على الحق وتمسك بالكتاب العزيز والسنة المطهرة، في باب التوحيد، وباب الأسماء والصفات، وفي جميع أمور الدين، نسأل الله أن يجعلنا منهم، وأن يوفق جميع المسلمين حكومات وشعوبا في كل مكان للتمسك بكتابه العزيز وسنة رسوله الأمين وتحكيمهما، والتحاكم إليهما، والحذر من كل ما يخالفهما إنه ولي ذلك والقادر عليه. والله ولي التوفيق.

This is not Correct, and The Salaf us Saleh are Companions of the Prophet and those who adhere to their path amongst the Tabaen and Itteba Tabaen and amongst the HANAFIS, MALIKIS, SHAFAES AND HANBALIS etc those who follow the truth and cling to Kitab and Sunnah in the matter of Tawheed, Asma wa Siffat, and the rest of the matters of Deen and we ask Allah to include us amongst them. [Majmoa al [Fatawa Ibn Baz 9/238 translation provided by brother Muhammad Kashif Khan]

b) Shaykh al Muhaddith Zubair Ali Zai said “If there is some Hanafi who is following hanafi school of thought and follows Qur’an and Hadeeth and Asool of Imam Abu Haneefa and Imam Tahawi, then if he makes mistake then it is other case and he is our Muslim brother” (END QUOTE) see from 00:01 up to 4 minutes youtube.com/watch?v=3zM8cl40x6U

Article Contents
1) Definition of Taqleed and difference between itteba and taqleed
2) Prohibition of Taqleed from Qur’an
3) Prohibition of Taqleed from hadeeth
4) Prohibition of Taqleed from Sahaba
5) Prohibition of Taqleed from Scholars
6) Asking Scholar is Obligatory for a Lay person
7) The claim that we must follow only one of the four Imams otherwise you are ignorant
8) The Claim that all the Ahnaf are ignorants according to Ahlul hadeeth of Pakistan
9) Conclusion
10) Related links

1. Definition of Taqleed and difference between itteba and taqleed

a) Ibn Hammam Al Hanafi 861 h said:
التقليد العمل بقول من ليس قوله احدى الحجج بلا حجه منها
فليس الرجوع الى النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم والاجماع
“Taqleed is acting without proof upon the action of someone whose saying is not among evidence(Quran and Sunnah), following Prophet peace be upon him and Consensus is not taqleed [Tahreer Ibn Hammam fe ilm al asool vol 3 page 453]

b) Ibn Hajib al Nahwi (646 h) said
فالتقليد العمل بقول غيرك من غير حجة وليس الرجوع الى قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم والى الاجماع والعامى الى المفتى والقاضى الى العدول بتقليد لقيام الحجة
Taqleed is following other then (Prophet) without evidence, so Following Prophet peace be upon him and Ijma, laymen asking from Mufti, Qadhi making judgment based on testimony of witness is not Taqleed because there is evidence on that. (منتهى الوصول والأمل في علمي الأصول والجدل page 218)

c) Ali bin Muhammad Al Amadi (631 h) said.
فالرجوع الى قول النبى عليه السلام والى ما اجمع عليه اهل العصر من المجتهدين ورجوع العامي الى قول المفتي، وكذلك عمل القاضي بقول العدول لا يكون تقليدا، لعدم عروه من الحجة الملزمة
الظاهر أن رجوع العامي لقول المفتي تقليد ، والظاهر جوازه لمن عجز عن الدليل
Following Prophet peace be upon him, consensus of Jurists of the time’ laymen asking from Mufti, Qadhi making judgment based on testimony of witness is not Taqleed… Apparently Ami practicing on the saying of Mufti is Taqleed, Apparently it is permissible for those who are unable to find the evidence..
[Al AHKAM FE ASOOL AL AHKAM online source of the book vol 4 page 221] source: http://www.yasoob.com/books/htm1/m019/23/no2316.html ]

d) Ibn Qudamah Al Hanblee said
وهو فى عرف الفقهاء قبول قول الغير من غير حجة اخذا من هذاالمعنى فلا يسمى الاخذ بقول النبى صلى الله عليه وسلم والاجماع تقليدا
And this (taqleed) according to jurists is accepting sayings of others (then Prophet) without evidence. From this meaning accepting saying of Prophet peace be upon him and consensus is not taqleed [Rodha tul Nazir vol 2 page 450]

e)It is mentioned in “Muthalam uth Thubut” p 289 taba 1316 it is said that
Following Quran, Hadith, consensus’, Qadhi making judgment based on testimony of witness, laymen coming to a scholar is not Taqleed.

f) Ibn Al Qayyam said
والتقليد ليس بعلم باتفاق اهل العلم
People of knowledge are agreed upon that taqeed is not knowledge [Ailam al moqieen vol 2 page 188]

 

Note 1: According to Some Scholars following Prophetic Hadeeth is Taqleed for example:

i) Imam Abu Jafar Tahawi said
فذهب قوم إلى هذا الحديث فقلدوه
And some people went to this hadeeth, and they did Taqleed (of this hadeeth) [Sharah Ma`ani Al Athaar 4/3 Kitab al Buyu]

ii) Imam Shafiee said
( قال الشافعي ) رحمه الله : فأما أن يقلده فلم يجعل الله ذلك لأحد بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
(urduTranslation by sh Rafeeq Tahir)
امام شافعی نے فرمایا : رہی اسکی تقلید کی بات تو اللہ تعالى نے اسے رسول اللہ صلى اللہ علیہ وسلم کے بعد کسی کے لیے روا نہیں رکھا
(rough english translation)Imam Shafiee said: Regarding taqleed (blind following someone without evidence), Allah(swt) hasn’t made it(taqleed) permissible to anyone after Prophet(pbuh) [Mukhtasar al Muzni Kitab adab al-Qada]

source: http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=5905&idto=5908&bk_no=31&ID=2360

Comment: Here they used word Taqleed for following the Prophet (saw), Imam Shafiee meant accepting the saying of Prophet peace be upon him without questions This is mentioned by Ar-Ruwiyani in Bahr ul Muhit” vol 6 page 271

Note 2: According to Some scholars asking question from a scholar is taqleed, for example:

a) Khateeb Baghdadi said
أما من يسوغ له التقليد فهو العامي الذي لا يعرف طرق الأحكام الشرعية فيجوز له أن يقلد عالما ويعمل بقوله ، قال الله تعالى فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ سورة النحل آية 43 أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو الْقَاسِمِ الأَزْهَرِيُّ ، نا أَبُو الْعَبَّاسِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُكْرَمٍ ، إِمْلاءً ، نا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ مُجَاهِدٍ الْمُقْرِئُ ، نا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَيُّوبَ ، نا أَبُو بَدْرٍ ، قَالَ : سَمِعْتُ عَمْرَو بْنَ قَيْسٍ ، يَقُولُ فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى : ” فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ سورة النحل آية 43 ، قَالَ : أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ ”
Taqleed is allowed for the lay person who does not know any ruling from Islamic Law. It is allowed for him to make taqleed of a scholar. Because Allah says “So ask the people of the message if you do not know.”[An Nahal ayah 14].. Amr bin Qais said regarding the saying “So ask the people of the message if you do not know.” Meaning People of knowledge. [Al Faqeeh wal Mutafiqqah 2/68] Source: http://www.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?bk_no=708&pid=152064

Comment: Here Khateeb Baghdadi ra was not talking about the taqleed of the people of subcontinent because asking scholar is obligation on lay person, everyone says that. Some call it taqleed others call it Itteba. Khateeb Baghdadi ra himself said

أنه لا ينبغي أن يُقَلَّدَ أحدٌ في ترك ما ثبتت به سنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم .ا.هـ. .
It is not allowed to do taqleed of anyone to leave the approved sunnah of Prophet peace be upon him [Al Faqeeh wal Mutafiqqah 1/145]

Alas we can see the people of subcontinent use his one statement to prove their false taqleed but leave his other statement because it is against them. In fact they do not even follow his first statement because even after knowing the truth they do taqleed of respected Imam Rahimullah.
.
b) Ibne Abdul Barr,

ad-Dhahabi quoted from his teacher, Abu Abdullah bin Abi al Fath that He said:

وكان في أول زمانه ظاهري المذهب مدة طويلة ، ثم رجع إلى القول بالقياس من غير تقليد أحد ، إلا أنه كان كثيرا ما يميل إلى مذهب الشافعي . كذا قال . وإنما المعروف أنه مالكي .
وقال الحميدي : أبو عمر فقيه حافظ ، مكثر ، عالم بالقراءات وبالخلاف وعلوم الحديث والرجال ، قديم السماع ، لم يخرج من الأندلس ، وكان يميل في الفقه إلى أقوال الشافعي
.Ibn Abdul Barr was Daahiri in Madhab for a long time, Then he started giving fatwa on qiyas without doing taqleed of anyone, apart from that He was inclinced towards the madhab of Imam Shafiee, and he also said: And it is famous that He was a Maaliki in madhab.
al Humaydi said:
… He was inclined towards the sayings of ash-Shafiee in fiqh. [Seyar Ailaam an-Nubala, The biography of Ibn Abdul Barr]

He said
باب فساد التقليد ونفيه والفرق بين التقليد والاتباع
(Chapter ” Corruption caused by Taqleed , its negation and the difference between Taqleed and Ittibaa’)
and He said in this chapter
قد ذم الله تبارك وتعالى التقليد في غير موضع من كتابه
Verily Allah has dispraised the Taqleed. It does not stand in his book [Jam’e byan al ilam vol 2]

and he quted Obaidullah bin al-Motaz said
لا فرق بين بهيمة تقاد وإنسان يقلد
There is no difference between an animal who is pulled and a man who is a Muqallid [Jam’e byan al ilam vol 2 page 114] Ibn Abdul Barr said
وهذا كله لغير العامة فإن العامة لا بد لها من تقليد علمائها عند النازلة تنزل بها لأنها لا تتبين موقع الحجة ولا تصل بعدم الفهم إلى علم ذلك
And all that is other than folks. As for folks so they must do taqleed of their scholars when they have to ask something. Because they do not know the evidence and without knowledge they did not know the understandings.[Jam’e Byan al Ilm 2/114]

But he also said If the matter is clear than he must not do taqleed of him, rather it is Haram. see his following quote

والتقليد أن تقول بقوله، وأنت لاتعرف وجه القول ولا معناه, وتأبى من سواه، أو أن يتبين لك خطؤه, فتتبعه مهابة خلافه, وأنت قد بان لك فساد قوله, وهذا محرم القول به فى دين الله سبحانه وتعالى.
Taqleed is when you accept his saying when you don`t know the evidence and the meaning (of his fatwa).. or that his mistake is clear to you still you are following him due to the fear of going against (his fatwa), This is prohibited in the deen of Allah subhanawatala[Jame Byan al Ilm vol 2]

Comment: This is already mentioned above under “Definition of Taqleed and difference between itteba and taqleed” that if an Ordinary person ask question from a Mufti, this is not Taqleed, but Ibn Abdul Barr, Khateeb Baghdadi, Ibn Tamiyah etc are on the opinion that If a lay person have some problem he must ask question from scholar and this is taqleed. This is only the difference of word some call it itteba some call it taqleed.

Shaykh Wasi Ullah Abbas said regarding asking scholars
“Actually this is itteba because Aaami is practicing on “Ask the people of knowledge If you don`t know”. But if it is named as taqleed according to Istelah then there should be no harm in it [Taqleed ka hukm page 54]

Note 3: But here in subcontinent some of the great scholars of Muqallideen even after knowing authentic stance, they said we have to follow Imam Abu Hanifa and leave the hadith. For example

a) Mahmud ul Hasan hanafi hiyati Deobandi said . In the “Taqrir Ut Tirmidhi”, it is said in chapter oftransactions (Buyu’) on the subject on Khyar ul Majlis
“فالحاصل: أن مسألة الخيار من مهمات المسائل، وخالف أبو حنيفة فيه الجمهور وكثيراً من الناس المتقدمين والمتأخرين، وصنفوا رسائل في ترديد مذهبه في هذه المسألة، ورجّح مولانا الشاه ولي الله المحدث الدهلوي قدس سره في رسالته مذهب الشافعي من جهة الأحاديث والنصوص، وكذلك قال شيخنا مدّ ظله بترجيح مذهبه، وقال: الحق والإنصاف أن الترجيح للشافعي في هذه المسألة. ونحن مقلدون يجب علينا تقليد إمامنا أبي حنيفة”.

“What is obtained is that the topic of khyar is amongimportant topics and Abu Hanifah contradicted in it the majority and a lot of people from the first and later generations, they wrote rasail in refutation of his (Abu Hanifah) Madhab on this topic and Maulana Shah Waliyullah Muhadith gave preference (Tarjih) in his Rasail to the Madhab of Ash-Shafi’i taking evidence from the Ahadith and Nusus, and the same our Shaykh gave preference(Tarjih) to his Madhab and said the truth and justice in this topic is to give preference to Ash-Shafi’i and we are Muqalid and the Taqlid of our Imam AbuHanifah is obligatory (Wajib) upon us.Allah knows best”

Comment: So here Shaykh ul Hind of deobandis Mahmoud ul Hasan knew that the hadith is with the stance of Imam Shafiee but still he rejected the hadith just because it is obligatory on him to follow Imam Abu Haneefa, this kind of taqleed is totally Prohibited. Note that Mufti Taqi Uthmani is totally against this kind of stance as he said in his book on Taqlid that scholars experts can leave their Madhab when they find an authentic Hadith, and he quoted Shah Waliullah, Ibn Salah and Nawawi for this. And in his Takmilah Fath Al-Mulhim, he said on the Hadith of Khyar Majlis that he was not convinced with the Taweelat of Ahnaf and quoted view of Luknawi opting for view of ash-Shafi Alhumdulillah there are good people in deobandis.

 

b) Allamah Ahmad yaar Khan Naeemi Brelvi said
Now we will mention an ultimate reply that is our evidences are not these narrations. Our main evidences are the sayings of Imam al Azam Abu Hanifa RadhiAllahanhu. We quote these verses and ahadith in support of the issues. These verses and ahadith are evidences of Abu Hanifa RadhiAllahanhu [Ja Al Haq Vol 2 page 91] .
Comment: These two statements from brelvi and deobandi great scholars is enough to show the reality, This kind of taqleed is prohibited from Qur`an, Sunnah, Companions and Salaf.

 

2. Prohibition of Taqleed from Qur`an

a) Allamah Jalal ud din Suyuti said

عن ابن مسعود اثر اصرح فى ذم التقليد من الاثر المذكور وهو ما اخرجه البيهقى فى السنه عنه قال لا تقلدوا دينكم الرجال وقال ابن حزم فى كتابه النبذ الكافية فى علم الاصول التقليد حرام ولا يحل لاحد ان ياخذ قول احد غير رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بلا برهان لقوله تعالى اتبعوا ما أنزل إليكم من ربكم ولا تتبعوا من دونه أولياء وقوله تعالى وإذا قيل لهم اتبعوا ما أنزل الله قالوا بل نتبع ما ألفينا عليه آباءنا وقال فى حق من لم يقلد فبشر عبادى الذين يستمعون القول فيتبعون احسنه اولائك الذين هد اهم الله و اولئك هم اولوا الاباب وقال تعالىفإن تنازعتم في شيء فردوه إلى الله والرسول إن كنتم تؤمنون بالله واليوم الآخر

Athar of Ibne Masood is clear against Taqleed, This Athar is mentioned by Bayhaqi in Sunan (Ibne Masood) said Do not make taqleed of people in deen”, Ibne Hazam(died in 456 h) said in the book Al Nabad al Kafiyah min Ilm al Asool that Taqleed is Haram it is not permissible for anyone to take words other than Prophet of Allah peace be upon him without proof, Allah says Follow (O men!) the revelation given unto you from your Lord, and follow not, as friends or protectors, other than Him.” [007:003] and Allah says “When it is said to them: “Follow what God hath revealed:” They say: “Nay!”[002:170] and he(Allah) says.. ” So give good tidings to My servants Who listen to speech and follow the best of it. Those are the ones Allah has guided, and those are people of understanding.”[39:18] and Allah says “if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allâh and His Messenger, if you believe in Allâh and in the Last Day. [Ar radd ala man akhalada ilal ardh page 52,53]

Tafsir Jalalyan says
O you who believe, obey God, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you, that is, rulers, when they command you to obey God and His Messenger. If you should quarrel, disagree, about anything, refer it to God, that is, to His Book, and the Messenger, while he lives, and thereafter [refer] to his Sunna: in other words examine these [disputes] with reference to these two [sources], if you believe in God and the Last Day; that, reference to the two [sources], is better, for you than quarrelling or [adhering to] personal opinions, and more excellent in interpretation, in the end.[In his tafsir under 4:59]

Allah says in Surah Al e Imran
(81. And (remember) when Allah took the covenant of the Prophets, saying: “Take whatever I gave you from the Book and Hikmah, and afterwards there will come to you a Messenger confirming what is with you; you must, then, believe in him and help him.” Allah said: “Do you agree (to it) and will you take up Isri” They said: “We agree.” He said: “Then bear witness; and I am with you among the witnesses.”) (82. Then whoever turns away after this, they are the rebellious.)

Imam Ibn Katheer Commented
فالرسول محمد خاتم الأنبياء صلوات الله وسلامه عليه ، دائما إلى يوم الدين ، وهو الإمام الأعظم الذي لو وجد في أي عصر وجد لكان هو الواجب الطاعة المقدم على الأنبياء كلهم
Therefore, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the Final Prophet until the Day of Resurrection. He is the greatest Imam(Imam al Azam), who if he existed in any time period, deserves to be obeyed, rather than all other Prophets(end quote)

Comment: It is proven from Qur`an that No one is Imam al Adham other then Prophet peace be upon him, each and every saying can be rejected (whether the saying is from Imam Abu haneefah or Imam Shafiee or any other Imam) but the saying of Imam Al Azam Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him can not be rejected. Hence, Proved If hadith comes in front of Imam and his saying then the syaing should be rejected. Note that Imam ad-Dahabee said Abu Hanifa is Imam Al azam, Ibn Hajar Asqalani said Shafiee is Imam al-Azam, Some other have given this title to Imam Malik. All of these great scholars were Imams but even their sayings are rejected in front of Prophet peace be upon him as said by Dahabee himself. Ibn Kathir also said:

لما ذكر تعالى حال الضلال الجهال المقلدين في قوله: { وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَـٰدِلُ فِى ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيْطَـٰنٍ مَّرِيدٍ } ذكر في هذه حال الدعاة إلى الضلال من رؤوس الكفر والبدع فقال: { ومِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَـٰدِلُ فِى ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ هُدًى وَلاَ كِتَـٰبٍ مُّنِيرٍ } أي: بلا عقل صحيح، ولا نقل صحيح صريح، بل بمجرد الرأي والهوى.
Allah has already told us about the Misguided and ignorant Muqallideen: “And among mankind is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge, and follows every rebellious Shaytan.” And here He tells us about those who call others to misguidance, the leaders of disbelief and innovation “And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah).” meaning, with no correct rational thought, and no clear transmitted text; what they say is based only on their opinions and whims. [Tafseer Ibn Kathir under Surah al Hajj verse 8] 3. Prohibition of Taqleed from hadeeth

a) Prophet Peace be upon him said
والذي نفس محمد بيده، لو بدا لكم موسى فاتبعتموه وتركتموني لضللتم عن سواء السبيل، ولو كان حيا وأدرك نبوتي لاتبعني.
By the one who has the soul of Muhammad, If Musa comes in front of you and if you follow him and leave me, you will go astray from the Right path. If he (Musa AS) comes back to life and sees (witnesses) the period of my prophet hood, he will certainly follow me. [Mishqat al Masabih Volume 001 hadeeth no: 194]

Comment: When Musa Alehsalam have no authority than why to follow a fatwa or Ijtehaad of a particular Imam against Qur`an and Sunnah?

4. Prohibition of Taqleed from Sahaba

a). Abdullah bin masood ra said to his students

لا يُقَلِّدَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ دِينَهُ رَجُلا، فَإِنَ آمَنَ آمَنَ وَإِنْ كَفَرَ كَفَرَ، وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ لا بُدَّ مُقْتَدِينَ فَاقْتَدُوا بِالْمَيِّتِ، فَإِنَ الْحَيَّ لا يُؤْمَنُ عَلَيْهِ الْفِتْنَةُ”
Do not make taqleed of anyone in you religion that if he accept you accept, he rejects you reject. If you want to follow then follow (Iqtadu) the dead. Because the living is not safe from fitnah Al Moajam al Kabeer Vol 9 page 116 hadeeth no: 8764, Lilkai in Sharah asool al aiteqad Ahlus sunnah no. 130] In another Narration
عن عبدالله يعني ابنَ مسعود أنه قالَ: لا تقلدوا دينكم الرجال، فإنْ أبَيْتُمْ فبالأمواتِ لا بالأحياءِ.
Do not Make taqleed of people in your deen, If you reject (my words) then follow those who have passed away, not those who are alive. [Sunan al Kubra 2/10, Lilkai in Sharah asool al aiteqad Ahlus sunnah no. 131]

Scan from Sharah Asool al-Aiteqad

taqleed_pro_01

Takhreej

1) Narrated by Lilkai in Sharah asool al aiteqad Ahlus sunnah:130, Tabrani in Al Kabeer 9/152, Abu Nayeem in Hilya tul Auliyah 1/136 with the rout of Amash-Salma bin Khel from Abi al hawdh from Abdullah bin Masood

Haythamee said Narrators are the narrators of saheeh “Majma az Zawaid 1/188”
Note: Amash is Mudallis and narrating from (AN) but there is 2nd rout of this saying

2) Narrated by Lilkai in Sharah asool al aitekaad 131 with the rout of Obaidullh bin Moosa from Israiel from Abu Husayn from yahya bin Wasib from Masrooq from Abdullah

3) Third rout mentioned by Imam Behaqi in Sunan al Kubra 2/10 Narrated to us Abu Abdullah Al Hafidh, he heard from Abul Husayn Muhammad bin Ahmad Al Qantaree, he heard from Abu al Hawdh al Qadhi, he heard from Muhammad bin Katheer al Maseesi, he heard from Ozaai, hadeeth narrated to him Abda bin abi Ababah

4) Fourth rout mentioned by Khateeb Baghdadi in “الفقيه والمتفقه”(757 with the rout Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Jareer Tabree, hadeeth narrated to him Ahmad bin Waleed, he heard from Abdullah bin Dawud he said Amash mentioned from Abu Abdul Rahman he said that Abdullah bin Masood ra said

There is 5th rout of this saying narrated by Imam Ibne Hazam in Al Ahkam 6/97 with the rout of

5) Ibne Wahab heard from Al awzaai he said narrated to me by Abdah bin abi Ababah that Ibne Masood

Comment: Ibn Masood ra clearly rejected taqleed and he is asking his students to do Iqtada (not taqleed) of the dead. Now who are the dead? they are the Sahaba as Ibn Masood ra himself said

من كان مستنا ; فليستن بمن قد مات فإن الحي لا تؤمن عليه الفتنة ، أولئك أصحاب محمد – صلى الله عليه وسلم – كانوا أفضل هذه الأمة ، أبرها قلوبا وأعمقها علما ، وأقلها تكلفا اختارهم الله لصحبة نبيه ، ولإقامة دينه ، فاعرفوا لهم فضلهم ، واتبعوهم على آثارهم ، وتمسكوا بما استطعتم من أخلاقهم وسيرهم ، فإنهم كانوا على الهدي المستقيم

Whoever wants to follow an example, let him follow the example of those who have passed away, because the living are not safe from fitnah, they are the Companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him) They were the best of this ummah… the purest in heart, the deepest in knowledge, the least in sophistication. They were people whom Allah chose to be the Companions of His Prophet (peace be upon him) and to convey His religion, so imitate their ways and behaviour, for they were following the Straight Path.”[Mishqat al Masabih Volume 001, Page No. 68-9, Hadith Number 193]

Imam Nasr ibn Ibraaheem al-Maqdisi (died 490 hijra) said, after narrating this report from Ibn Mas’ood
وهذا الذي ذكره ابن مسعود وعبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهم ، فقد أخبر الله تعالى عنهم بأكثر منه في غير موضع ، وأزال الشبه عنهم . وكذلك أخبر به الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وأمر بالرجوع إليهم ، والأخذ عنهم ، والعمل بقولهم ، مع علمه بما يكون في هذا الزمان من البدع ، واختلاف الأهواء ، ولم يأمر بأن يتمسك بغير كتاب الله ، وسنة نبيه ، وسنة أصحابه ، رضوان الله تعالى عليهم ، ونهانا عما ابتدع خارجا عن ذلك ، وعما جاوز ما كان عليه هو وأصحابه .
فواجب علينا قبول أمره فيما أمر ، وترك ما نهى عنه وزجر .
وعلى هذا الأمر كان العلماء والأئمة فيما سلف ، إلى أن حدث من البدع ما حدث
This is what Ibn Mas’ood and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) said. Allah (may He be exalted) spoke of them (the Sahaabah) in more than one place and proved that they are above any suspicion. The Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) also spoke of them and instructed us to refer to their example, learn from it and act upon what they said. Even though he knew about what would happen in our time of innovations and conflicting whims and desires, he did not tell us to adhere to anything other than the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Prophet and the way of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. And he forbade us to follow anything that has nothing to do that or to follow anyone who goes in a way other than the way followed by his Companions.

So we must follow his commands and instructions and heed his prohibitions.

This was the way of the scholars and imams in earlier generations, until the time when innovations became widespread.[al-Hujjah ‘ala Taarik al-Mahajjah by Nasr al-Maqdisi, 1/159]

b) Abdullah bin Masood ra said
اغد عالما او متعلما ولا تغد إمعة بين ذالك
Be a Scholar or knowledge seeker, do not be a Muqallid in deen who is in between them [Ibne Abdul Barr narrated in Jame Byan al Ilm vol 1 page 71]

It is mentioned in Al Moajam al Waseet
الامع: الذى يقول أحد: ((أنا معك)), ولا يثبت على شىء, لضعف رأيه. و- المقلد فى الدين. و- المتردد الذى لا يثبت على صنعة. و- الطفيلى. وتزاد التاء فيه للمبالغة
one of the Meaning of امع is Muqallid in Deen [see Al Moajam al Waseet page 26,Taj al Arus vol 11 page 4, Al Qamus al Waheed page 134] Scan of Al Moajam al Waseet:

taqleed_pro_04

Takhreej

1.Asim from Zarr he said that Ibne Masood said…Ibne Abdul Barr narrated in Jame Byan al Ilm vol 1 page 71 and 72 hadeeth no:108, Ibne Hazam in Al Ahkam 6/234,Behaqi in al Mudakkhal 378

2. Amash From Tameem bin Salma from Abu Obaidah from Ibne Mas`ood Ibne Abi Shaiba in Al Musannif 5/284, Faswi in Ibne Abdul Barr in Jame Byan al Ilm 1/140

3. Jareer from Abi Sanan from Sahal al Qararee he said that Abdullah bin Masood said.. Bukhari in Tareekh al Kabeer 4/99, Abu Khaythama in Kitab al Ilm 116

4. From Muhammad bin al Nazar Al-azdi (thana) Moawiyah bin Amr (Thana) Zaidah (AN) Abdul Malik bin Zubair from Abdullah

And there are other supportive routs of this athar.

c). Muadh bin Jabal ra said فأما زلة العالم فإن اهتدى فلا تقلدوه دينكم
Regarding the mistake of a Scholar, even if he is on guidance don’t make taqleed of him in deen[Hilya tul auliywah of Abu Naeem Asbahani vol 5 page 97, Kitab az Zuhud of Wakee bin Jarrah vol 1 page 299,300 hadeeth no: 71,Kitab az Zuhud of Imam Abu Dawud page no: 177 hadeeth no: 193, Ibne Abdul Barr in Jame Byan al Ilm 2/982 hadeeth no: 1872 and 1873 Dar Ibne Jozi, Sharah Asool al Aiteqad Ahlus sunnah Lilkaai hadeeth no: 198, Al Ilal by Darqutni 6/81 992]

Those who authenticated above narration
1) Abu Naeem Asbahani said after narrating this
كذا رواه شعبة موقوفا وهو الصحيح ، وروي بعض هذه الألفاظ مرفوعا عن معاذ .
Narrated By Shoa’bah Moquf and it is authentic and some narrated these words Marfu from Muadh
Source: http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=131&ID=1136

2) Ibn al Qayyam said
This is authentic from Muadh [Ailam al Moqieen 2/239]

3) Muhaqqieen of Kitab az Zuhad Abu dawud (Abu Tameem Yasir bin Ibraheem and Abu Bilal Ganeem bin Abbas) declared the chain Hasan, [Kitab Az Zuhad page no: 177 hadeeth no: 193,]

Note that there is also marfu hadith in this chapter narrated by Tabrani where Prophet peace be upon him said
فاما زلة عالم فان اهتدى فلا تقلدوه دينكم

and regarding Mistake of a Scholar Do not Make taqleed of him in your deen even if he is on hidayah [Moajam al Awsat vol 9 page 326,327 hadeeth no: 8709,8701 and Sharah asool al aiteqad ahlus sunnah hadith no: 182] Haythamee said: Narrated by Tabrani in al Awsat and Amr bin Marrah did not heard from Muaadh
source: http://www.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?indexstartno=0&hflag=1&pid=441906&bk_no=195&startno=1

Comment: even if scholar is on guidance don’t make taqleed of him in deen) Meaning Follow because it is said by Allah or Prophet peace be upon him, not because the Imam said.

5. Prohibition of Taqleed from Scholars

1) Imam Ash Shafiee
Imam Muzni said
اختصرت هذا الكتاب من علم محمد بن إدريس الشافعي رحمه الله ومن معنى قوله لأقربه على من أراده مع إعلامه نهيه عن تقليده وتقليد غيره لينظر فيه لدينه ويحتاط فيه لنفسه ، وبالله التوفيق .
I have shortened this book from the knowledge of Muhammad bin Idrees Shafiee May Allah be pleased with him, So that if some one wants to understand it understand it easily, and I declare that he (Shafiee ra) Prohibits his taqleed and taqleed of others so that (every person) sees his religion(deen) and be precocious for himself [Al Umm, Mukhtasar al Muzni] Source: http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=4936&idto=6045&bk_no=31&ID=1937

Imam Shafiee said
أجمع العلماء على أن من استبانت له سنة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يحل له أن يدعها لقول أحد ا”
The Muslims are unanimously agreed that if a sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is made clear to someone, it is not permitted(Halaal) for him to leave it for the saying of anyone else.”[Ibn al-Qayyim Ailaam al Moqiyeen (2/361) & Fulaani (p. 68)

2)Ameer ul Mimineen Khaleefa Abu Yusaf Yaqoob (died 595 h)
Ibne Khilkaan praised him and said
و امر برفض فروع الفقه وان العلماء لا يفتون الا بالكتاب العزيز والسنة النبوية و لا يقلدون احدا من المجتهدين المتقدمين, بل تكون احكامهم بما يودى اليه اجتهاد هم من استنبلطهم القضايا من الكتاب والحديث و الاجماع والقياس
He ordered to leave faroo al Fiqh and said Scholars should issue fatwa from Quran al Aziz and Sunnah of Prophet peace be upon him and do not make taqleed of Mujtahideen and Mutaqaddimeen, but make the judgments from Quran ,Hadith,Ijma and Qiyas [Ibne Khilkaan in “وفيات الأعيان” (7|11)]

3) Imam Dahabee(died 748 h) said
وكل إمام يُؤخذ من قوله ويُترك إلاّ إمام المتقين الصادق المصدوق الأمين المعصوم صلوات الله وسلامه عليه . فيا لله العجب ! من عَالِم يُقَلِّد دِينه إماما بَعَيْنِه في كل ما قال ، مع عِلمه بما يَرِد على مذهب إمامه من النصوص النبوية . فلا قوة إلا بالله .
We take and reject the saying of every Imam except Imam of the righteous Sadiq al Masdooq Al Ameen who is Infallible Prayers and blessings of Allah be upon him, By Allah I am astonished on that scholar who makes taqleed of a particular Imam in his deen on his all sayings, knowing that explicit ahadeeth are rejecting the madhab of his Imam. There is no Strength but in Allah [Tazkara tul Huffaz vol 1 page 16 under the biography of Abdullah bin Masood ra]

He also said
ما يتقيد بمذهب واحد إلا من هو قاصر فى التمكن من العلم كأكثر علماء اهل زماننا أو من هو متعصب
Adhering to one madhab is choosed by the one who is not able to seek knowledge like many of the scholars of our time or those who are fanatics.[Seyar Ailam al Nubala Vol 14 page 491]

He also said
وقال فيها : أنا أتبع الحق وأجتهد ولا أتقيد بمذهب .
قلت : نعم ، من بلغ رتبة الاجتهاد ، وشهد له بذلك عدة من الأئمة ، لم يسغ له أن يقلد ، كما أن الفقيه المبتدئ والعامي الذي يحفظ القرآن أو كثيرا منه لا يسوغ له الاجتهاد أبدا ، فكيف يجتهد ، وما الذي يقول ؟ وعلام يبني ؟ وكيف يطير ولما يريش ؟
He said in it: “I follow the truth and perform ijtihād, and I do not adhere to any madh’hab”, “I(ad-Dahabi) say: yes. The one who is on the level of ijtihād and a number of imāms have attested to this regarding him, it is not allowed for him to do taqlīd, just as it is not seeming at all for the beginner jurist and the layman who has committed the Qur’ān to memory or a great deal of it to perform ijtihād. How is he going to perform ijtihād? What will he say? On what will he base his opinions? How can he fly when his wings have not yet grown?” [Seyar Ailam anNubala under the biography of Ibn Hazam] He again said

“ولقد كان في هذا العصر وما قاربه من أئمة الحديث النبوي خلق كثير ، وما ذكرنا عشرهم هنا ، وأكثرهم مذكورون في تاريخى ، وكذلك كان في هذا الوقت خلق من أئمة أهل الرأي والفروع وعدد من أساطين المعتزلة والشيعة وأصحاب الكلام الذين مشوا وراء المعقول واعرضوا عما عليه السلف من التمسك بالآثار النبوية ، وظهر في الفقهاء التقليد وتناقص الاجتهاد ، فسبحان من له الخلق والأمر.

“The Scholars of hadeeth of this era and period close, and from them a great number and we have not even mentioned 1/10 (One tenth) of them. Likewise in the same time a group of people of Ahlur-Rayy (The people of opinion) Wal-Furoo (The hanafee’s), and how many of their heads were mu’tazilees and Shee’ah and the people of Kalaam were present. Who chased people statements (Fatwaas) and left the way of the Salaf which was to hold onto the hadeeth of the Prophet. And from this same time taqleed became apparent amongst the people and the fuqaha performed ijtihaad to a lesser extent.”[Tazkara tul-Huffaz Vol 2 page 627 under the biography of Abu Muhammad Fzal bin Muhammad]

Comment: It is clear from these statements of Imam adDahabi that the scholars must not do taqleed, he is against those deviants who even after knowing the truth do not leave the fatwa of Imam, and for lay people they must ask questions from scholars.

4) Imam Muhammad al Qasim Qurtubee
Imam Dahabee said قلت : وصنف كتاب ” الإيضاح ” في الرد على المقلدين
I say he wrote the book “Al Ezah” the refutation of Muqallideen [Seyar al Ailam al Nubala vol 13 page 329]

5) Abu Abdullah bin khaweez Al Basree Al Malaki
Ibn e Abdul Barr (died 463 h) mentioned that Abu Abdullah bin khaweez Al Basree Al Malaki said that
التقليد معناه في الشرع الرجوع إلى قول لا حجة لقائله عليه ، وذلك ممنوع منه في الشريعة والاتباع ما ثبت عليه حجة
In Islamic Law meaning of taqleed is acting on the action of someone who have no evidence for that and this is not allowed in Islamic Law, any thing which is proven from evidence it is called Itteba [Jamie byan al ilam of ibn e abdul barr vol 2 page 118 under the chapter of Fasaad at taqleed and the difference between taqleed and itteba]

6) Ibraheem Nakha`ee (he was in sughaar tabiyeen) said
What will you do with the saying of Saeed bin Jubayr (Tabiyee) against Hadith of Prophet peace be upon him [Al Ahkam Ibn Hazam 6/293 authenticated by Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai]

7) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said
“The opinion of Awzaa’i, the opinion of Maalik, the opinion of Abu Haneefah: all of it is opinion, and it is all equal in my eyes. However, the proof is in the narrations (from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions).”[Ibn ‘Abdul Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan al-‘Ilm (2/149)]

8) Ibn Hazam (456 h) said
لأن التقليد على الحقيقة إنما هو قبول ما قاله قائل دون النبي بغير برهان. فهذا هو الذي أجمعت الأمة على تسميته تقليداً، وقام البرهان على بطلانه
In reality accepting the sayings of other then Prophet peace be upon him without evidence, this is the definition of taqleed where ummat e Muslimah have consensus and there is evidence that it is invalid [Al Ahkam fe asool al ahkam fe abtaal at taqleed vol 6 page 269] source http://ar.wikisource.org/wiki/ابن_حزم_-_الإحكام_في_أصول_الأحكام/المجلد_الثاني/الجزء_الثاني/الباب_السادس_والثلاثون_(5)

Jalal ud din Suyuti said that He said
هل أباح مالك وأبو حنيفة والشافعي رضي الله عنهم قط لأحد تقليدهم حاشا لله من هذا ، بل والله قد نهوا عن ذلك ، ومنعوا منه ولم يفسحوا لأحد فيه
Did Maalik, Abu Hanifa and Shaafi May Allah be please with them all permitted their taqleed for anyone? HashAllah never. In fact by Allah they stopped from this, and they did not left any space for anyone.[ar-Rad bin akhlad ilal ardh by Suyuti Page 53]

9) Fakhar ud din al razi, He commented on the ayah
“They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allaah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allaah), and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Tawraat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] to worship none but One Ilaah (God — Allaah) Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and glory be to Him (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)”[al-Tawbah 9:31]

Commentary
قال شيخنا ومولانا خاتمة المحققين والمجتهدين رضي الله عنه: قد شاهدت جماعة من مقلدة الفقهاء، قرأت عليهم آيات كثيرة من كتاب الله تعالى في بعض المسائل، وكانت مذاهبهم بخلاف تلك الآيات، فلم يقبلوا تلك الآيات ولم يلتفتوا إليها وبقوا ينظرون إلي كالمتعجب،

Our Teacher and Mawlana who is end of Investigators(Muhaqqiqeen) and Jurists(Mujtahideen) may Allah be please withhim said, i have seen Jam’at from Jurists of blind followers (Muqallideen), i read in front of them many verses of Quran on some issues which were against their (taqleedi) madhab, not only they left to accept the verses they didn’t even pay attention to it..[in the commentary of Quran under Sura Tauba verse31] Source: http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=4&tSoraNo=9&tAyahNo=31&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1

10) Ibne Aqeel Hanbalee (died in 513 h) said
ما دخلت البدع على الاديان الا من طريق سلكه عوام الاديان فهلكو. والواجب على من خبره ان يعدل عن سلوكه, ليسلم مما وقع فيه من اغتر به فسلكه. وذالك الطريق هو تعظيم الرجال وترك الادلة, وهو التقليد. فاول من سلكه الشيطان
Innovation in religion came from that way, to which the followers of religion followed. Then they died, whoever knows it, it is Obligatory on him that he should go out from this path, so that he will be saved from blunder… This is the way in which there is veneration of people and they leave the evidence and this is Taqleed, the first one who followed this way was satan.[Kitab al funoon, Al Qisam Thani page 602 Fasal 560]

11) Allamah Sarkhisi quoted from Muhammad bin Hasan Shaibani
If Taqleed was allowed then they are more better for taqleed who were before Abu Haneefa ra like Hasan Basree and Ibraheem an Nakha’ee [Al Mabsoot sarkhisi Volume 16 page 28]

12) Imam at-Tahawi
Imam Tahawi had an argument with Qadhi Abu Obaid, Tahawi said
فقلت له أيها القاضي أو كل ما قاله أبو حنيفة أقول به فقال ما ظننتك إلا مقلدا فقلت له وهل يقلد إلا عصي فقال لي أو غبي
I said: What (do you think that) each and every saying of Abu Haneefa is my saying? He (Qadhi abu Obaid) said: I consider you muqallid (Tahawi replied) The one who makes taqleed is stubborn or he has a memory problem [Lisan al Meezan vol 1 page 280 Shamela, in the Tarjuma of Imam at-Tahawi no. 836]

13) Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:
وليس على أحدٍ من الناس أن يقلِّد رجلاً بعينه في كل ما يأمر به وينهى عنه ويستحبه إلا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وما زال المسلمون يستفتون علماء المسلمين فيقلدون تارة هذا وتارة هذا ، فإذا كان المقلِّد يقلد في مسألة يراها أصلح في دينه أو القول بها أرجح أو نحو ذلك : جاز هذا باتفاق جماهير علماء المسلمين لم يحرم ذلك لا أبو حنيفة ولا مالك ولا الشافعي ولا أحمد .

No one has to blindly follow any particular man in all that he enjoins or forbids or recommends, apart from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The Muslims should always refer their questions to the Muslim scholars, following this one sometimes and that one sometimes. If the follower decides to follow the view of an imam with regard to a particular matter which he thinks is better for his religious commitment or is more correct etc, that is permissible according to the majority of Muslim scholars, and neither Abu Haneefah, Maalik, al-Shaafa’i or Ahmad said that this was forbidden.[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 23/382.] He said after mentioning great Imams
ليس اتباع احدهم واجبا على جميع الامة كاتباع الرسوا صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا يحرم تقليد احدهم كما يحرم اتباع من يتكلم بغير علم

It is not obligatory to follow anyone but(it is obligatory) to follow Prophet of Allah peace be upon him, and It is not Prohibited to follow one of them(great imams) but it is prohibited to follow the one who speaks without knowledge. [Al Furqaan Page No: 143]

He also said
” الله سبحانه وتعالى فرض على الخلق طاعته وطاعة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ولم يوجب على هذه الأمة طاعة أحد بعينه في كل ما يأمر به وينهى عنه إلا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، حتى كان صِدِّيق الأمة وأفضلها بعد نبيها يقول : أطيعوني ما أطعت الله ، فإذا عصيت الله فلا طاعة لي عليكم . واتفقوا كلهم على أنه ليس أحد معصوما في كل ما يأمر به وينهى عنه إلا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ولهذا قال غير واحد من الأئمة : كل أحدٍ مِن الناس يؤخذ من قوله ويترك إلا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Allaah has enjoined upon mankind to obey Him and obey His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but He has not enjoined upon this ummah to obey anyone in particular in all that he enjoins or forbids, apart from the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Even the Siddeeq of this ummah and the best of them after its Prophet (i.e., Abu Bakr) said: “Obey me so long as I obey Allaah, but if I disobey Allaah, then you are not obliged to obey me.” They are all unanimously agreed that there is no one who is infallible in all that he enjoins or forbids except the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Hence more than one of the imams said: The words of any person may be adopted or abandoned except the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (20/211)] He again Said
If someone says it is Obligatory on awam to follow so and so, then this saying is not the saying of Muslim.[Majmoo` al-Fatawaa (22/249)]

He said
إنما أتناول ما أتناوله منها على معرفتي بمذهب أحمد لا على تقليدي له
Whatever I take from the Madhhab of Imam Ahmed I take on the basis of ma’rifah(knowledge of evidence) and not on the basis of Taqleed.[Ar Radd alaa man akhlada ilal arz page 122, also quoted by Ibn Qayyim rah in I’laam Muqi’een 2/170]

14) Imam Ibne Shaheen (d. 385 h)
Qadhi Abu Bakar Muhammad bin Ismaeel said regarding him
ابن شاهين ثقة يشبه الشيوخ إلا أنه كان لحانا ، وكان أيضا لا يعرف من الفقه لا قليلا ولا كثيرا ، وإذا ذكر له مذاهب الفقهاء كالشافعي وغيره ، يقول : أنا محمدي المذهب
Ibn Shaheen was trustworthy…He did not know Fiqh, not a little not a lot, If it is said something regarding fiqh of scholars like Shaafi in front of him, he used to say My Madhab is Muhammadi. [Tareekh Baghdad Vol 11 page 267 no:2068 Quoted by Imam Dahabee in Seyar Ailam an-Nubala under his Tarjuma].

15) It is mentioned about Shaafi Scholars like Abu Bakr, Abu Ali and Qazi Hussain they used to say
لسنا مقلدين للشافعي بل وافق رأينا رأيه
We are not Muqallideen(Blind followers) of Shafai, but our opinion has become same as of him.[(Tabqat Al Fuqaha of Lucknowi Pg7)]

Comment: Muhadditheen are saying we are not muqallideen of Imam but people say no no they were muqallideen and all the scholars were muqallideen.

16) Ibn Jawzi said

ذكر تلبيس إبليس عَلَى أمتنا فِي العقائد والديانات
قال المصنف: دخل إبليس عَلَى هذه الأمة فِي عقائدها من طريقين أحدهما التقليد للآباء والأسلاف والثاني الخوض فيما لا يدرك غوره ويعجز الخائض عَن الوصول إِلَى عمقه فأوقع أصحاب هَذَا القسم فِي فنون من التخليط فأما الطريق الأَوَّل فَإِن إبليس زين للمقلدين أن الأدلة قد تشتبه والصواب قد يخفى والتقليد سليم وَقَدْ ضل فِي هَذَا الطريق خلق كثير وبه هلاك عامة الناس فإن اليهود والنصارى قلدوا آباءهم وعلماءهم فضلوا وكذلك أهل الجاهلية واعلم أن العلة التي بِهَا مدحوا التقليد بِهَا يذم لأنه إذا كانت الأدلة تشتبه والصواب يخفى وجب هجر التقليد لئلا يوقع فِي ضلال وقد ذم اللَّه سبحانه وتعالى الواقفين مَعَ تقليد آبائهم وأسلافهم فَقَالَ عز وجل: {إِنَّا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا عَلَى أُمَّةٍ وَإِنَّا عَلَى آثَارِهِمْ مُقْتَدُونَ قَالَ أَوَلَوْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِأَهْدَى مِمَّا وَجَدْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَكُمْ} المعنى أتتبعونهم وَقَدْ قَالَ عز وجل: {إِنَّهُمْ أَلْفَوْا آبَاءَهُمْ ضَالِّينَ فَهُمْ عَلَى آثَارِهِمْ يُهْرَعُونَ} .
قال المصنف: أعلم أن المقلد عَلَى غير ثقة فيما قلد فيه وفي التقليد إبطال منفعة العقل لأنه إنما خلق للتأمل والتدبر وقبيح بمن أعطي شمعة يستضيء بِهَا أن يطفئها ويمشي فِي الظلمة واعلم أن عموم أصحاب المذاهب يعظم فِي قلوبهم الشخص فيتبعون قوله من غير تدبر بما قَالَ وهذا عين الضلال لأن النظر ينبغي أن يكون إِلَى القول لا إِلَى القائل كَمَا قَالَ علي رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عنه للحرث بْن حوط وَقَدْ قَالَ لَهُ أتظن أنا نظن أن طلحة والزبير كانا عَلَى باطل فَقَالَ لَهُ يا حارث إِنَّهُ ملبوس عليك إن الحق لا يعرف بالرجال أعرف الحق تعرف أهله
Satan has mislead this Ummah by two ways :

The first is that the Satan has open the way of Taqleed for Muqallideens of their Aslaaf and has put whispers that their is doubt in the Proofs of Quran and Sunnah of specific and abrogation which can be known sometime and sometime not there (therefore one should rely on taqleed). The reality is that Taqleed has lead to misguidance many of the nations. The Best example of this is of Christians and Jews and Arab Polytheists to which Satan has put into the lowest degree of misguidance.

The main purpose of doing Taqleed is not that which is to be praised but it is to be condemned because when there is doubt in the Quran and Sunnah of Abrogtation and of Specification then there is more doubt in Taqleed of being wrong. So before someone gets involved into the Misguidance of Taqleed, it is Obligatory for him to get away from it. Because in the Quran Allah has condemned those who does Taqleed.

A Muqallid is also skeptical about his Taqleed. Taqleed destroys the thinking of a person because the purpose of a man is to think and ponder. Where as a Muqallid excludes himself from pondering. The example of Taqleed is like this that a traveler lost his way in a night and someone tells him a way and he is like the one who without having knowledge about that way gives preference to do traveling in the night. Muqallidin has also given brain to think but in spite using it they are wasting their brains. Because the poor Muqallidins are the enemy of (guidance of) light. [Talbis Iblis 1/74] .
Hafiz Ibn Jawzi also said
فِيهِ دَلِيل على تَحْرِيم التَّقْلِيد فِي أصُول الدّين، وَأَنه يَنْبَغِي للعاقل أَن يكون عَارِفًا بِمَا يَعْتَقِدهُ، على يَقِين من ذَلِك لَا يُقَلّد فِيهِ أحدا؛ فَإِن الْمُقَلّد كالأعمى يتبع الْقَائِد
There is proof in this(Hadeeth) that doing Taqleed in Usool of Deen is prohibited and it is needed for the person that whatever creed he keeps he must keep its knowledge with surety and he should not do taqleed of anyone because a Muqqalid is like a blind man who walk behind his guide..[كشف المشكل من حديث الصحيحين 3/243]

17: Hafiz Ibn al Qayyim rah said

أعجب من هذا كله من شأنكم معاشر المقلدين أنكم إذا وجدتم آية من كتاب الله توافق رأي صاحبكم أظهرتم أنكم تأخذون بها ، والعمدة في نفس الأمر على ما قاله ، لا على الآية ، وإذا وجدتم آية نظيرها تخالف قوله لم تأخذوا بها ، وتطلبتم لها وجوه التأويل وإخراجها عن ظاهرها حيث لم توافق رأيه ، وهكذا تفعلون في نصوص السنة سواء ، وإذا وجدتم حديثا صحيحا يوافق قوله أخذتم به ، وقلتم : ” لنا قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم كيت وكيت ” ، وإذا وجدتم مائة حديث صحيح بل وأكثر تخالف قوله لم تلتفتوا إلى حديث منها ، ولم يكن لكم منها حديث واحد فتقولون : لنا قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم كذا وكذا ، وإذا وجدتم مرسلا قد وافق رأيه أخذتم به وجعلتموه حجة هناك ، وإذا وجدتم مائة مرسل تخالف رأيه أطرحتموها كلها من أولها إلى آخرها ، وقلتم : لا نأخذ بالمرسل .

ويقال تاسع عشر : أعجب من هذا كله أنكم إذا أخذتم بالحديث مرسلا كان أو مسندا موافقته رأي صاحبكم ثم وجدتم فيه حكما يخالف رأيه لم تأخذوا به في ذلك الحكم ، وهو حديث واحد ، وكأن الحديث حجة فيما وافق رأي من قلدتموه ، وليس بحجة فيما خالف رأيه .

Your behaviorism is strange when you get any verse which is in accordance with qawl of your Imam then you outwardly show that you follow (the ayah) but your concentration is on the qawl of your Imam and not on the ayah. and likewise when you get any Ayah which is against the qawl of your Imam instead of following it you do Taweel of(that Ayah) and put all your force to make its outward meaning here and there and (say) that it was not in accordance with your Madhhab. Same is your case in following of Hadeeth ; when you get any Hadeeth which is in accordance with your Madhhab you take it and say this and that(Falan aur Falan) Hadeeth is our evidence. and when a minute portion of Hadeeth goes against your Imam then you don’t even look at that Hadeeth..And when you get a Mursal narration in acordance with your Madhhab then you say Mursal is Hujjah for us..when its shown to you a minute Mursal(narration) which is against the Madhhab of your Imam then you say we don’t follow Mursal (narrations)

And your(Muqqalids) more strange opinion is that sometimes you follow a Hadeeth either Mursal or Musnad because it is in accordance with the Madhhab of your Imam then if there is another Hukm in the hadeeth which is

against the opinion of your Imam then you don’t follow that part ; which is of that same Hadeeth.. You follow that part of it(Hadeeth) which is in accordance with the opinion of your Imam of whom you do Taqleed and not that part which against the opinon of your Imam…[Ailaam al Moqieen 2/149-150]

Online Sorce : http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=34&ID=193&idfrom=221&idto=251&bookid=34&startno=4

18. Imam Mohammad Abdul Azeem Roomi Ibn Mulla Farookh Makki al-Hanafee (996h to 1061h the student of Mulla Ali Qari) said
إعلم أنه لم يكلف الله تعالى أحدا من عباده بأن يكون حنفيا أو مالكيا أو شافعيا أو حنبليا بل أوجب عليهم الإيمان بما
بعث به محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم والعمل بشريعته
Know that Allah never obliged any of his slave to become a Hanafee or Shaafi or Maalaki or Hanbalee. But enjoined them to believe on what was sent through Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and practicing on Shariyah. [القول السديد في بعض مسائل الاجتهاد والتقليد page 2]

19: Allama at-Teebi (743 h) said
في هذا الحديث توبيخ وتقريع نشأ من عظيم على من ترك السنة والعمل با لحديث, استغناء عنها بالكتاب, هذا مع الكتاب فكيف بمن رجح الرأي على الحديث؟ وإذا سمع حديثا من الأحاديث الصحيحة قال: لا علي بأن أعمل بها, فإن لي مذهبا أتبعه
In this hadeeth there is great scolding and bashing for the one who leaves Sunnah… and when he hears the hadith from authentic ahadeeth he says: I do not have to practice on it, I am follower of my Madhab [Sharah Mishkaat at-Taybee 2/631 Maktaba tul Shamela, Hashiya al-sindhee Ibn Maja vol 1 page 3, Tohfa tul Hawdi Kitab al Ilm under the hadeeth no. 2664]

20) Imam al Izz bin Abdus Salam said:
لا يتعين على العامي أن يقلد إماماً في سائر المسائل؛
لأن الناس منذ عهد الصحابة إلى أن ظهرت المذاهب يسألون من ظهر لهم من غير نكير
Aami should not specify an Imam to make taqleed in all of the issues. As the people used to ask question from the one (of those scholars) who was (present) there without any objection from the time of Saahaba upto the madaahib came into being [Fatawa Al Izz bin Abdus Salam no. 46, Sharah Tehreer of Ibn Hammam, Shah Wali ullah in Aqad al Jayyad page 36, Shaykh Nazeer Husayn Muhaddith Dehalwi mentioned in Miyaar al Haq page 99-100]

He also said:
I have seen they gather in the Majalis and If it is mentioned in front of them the issue which is against them. They feel surprised and they do not listen to the evidence rather accept the blind following of their Imam. They think that Truth is with the madhab of our Imam.
It is waste of time to argue with them and there is no use of it…. It is better not to argue with them because when they do not find any evidence for the madhab of their Imam they say maybe our Imam had evidence for this issue and we do not know it. SubhanAllah Allah has taken the vision from many people who speak like this [Qawaid al Ahkam of Imam al Izz bin Abdus Salam 2/275]

21. Abu Shama Maqdisi (d. 656) says
ثم اشتهرت المذاهب الأربعة وهجر غيرها فقصرت همم أتباعهم إلا قليلا منهم فقلدوا بعدما كان التقليد لغير الرسل حراما بل صارت أقوال أئمتهم عندهم بمنزلة الأصلين وذلك معنى قوله تعالى اتخذوا أحبارهم و رهبانهم أربابا من دون الله
فعدم المجتهدون وغلب المقلدون وكثر التعصب وكفر بالرسول حيث قال يبعث الله في كل مائة سنة من ينفي تحريف الغالين وانتحال المبطلين
وحجروا على رب العالمين مثل اليهود أن لا يبعث بعد أئمتهم وليا مجتهدا حتى آل بهم التعصب إلى أن أحدهم إذا أورد عليه شيء من الكتاب والسنة الثابتة على خلافه يجتهد في دفعه بكل سبيل من التآويل البعيدة نصرة لمذهبه ولقوله
ولو وصل ذلك إلى إمامه الذي يقلده لقابله ذلك الإمام بالتعظيم وصار إليه وتبرأ من رأيه مستعيذا بالله من الشيطان الرجيم وحمد الله على ذلك ثم تفاقم الأمر حتى صار كثير منهم لا يرون الاشتغال بعلوم القرآن والحديث ويرون أن ما هم عليه هو الذي ينبغي المواظبة عليه
Then four school of thoughts became famous and the rest disappeared. Majority followed them with the exception of few, after that they did taqleed. Taqleed of the one who is not messenger (of Allah) is prohibited, and the sayings of their Imams became root for them And this is the meaning of the saying of Allah tala “They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah”
Mujtahid became lesser and Muqallideen, Fanaticism and Kufr with Rasool became more…. Madhhab became greater upto an extent that when the evidence from the Book of Allah or from the Saheeh Sunnah of Prophet Salallahu aleyhi wassalam was shown to them against their madhhab then they would try every quibble to do ta’weel to repel it…The things became more worst, Many of them(Muqallideen) did not seem being engaged with Quran and Sunnah as permissible [Khutbah al kitaab al Momil liraddi ilal amril awwal. pages 41-42 with the tehqeeq of Salah ad-din Maqbool Ahmad Published by مكتبة الصحوة الإسلامية – الكويت ، 1403]

Than he made chapters of فصل في كلام العلماء في الرأي والقياس “Saying of scholars on Raaye and Qiyaas”

فصل في الرجوع إلى كتب السنة وتمييز الطيب من الخبيث من الأحاديث “Returning to the books of sunnah and distinction of good ahadeeth from false ahadeeth.

في نصوص الأئمة في الرجوع إلى الكتاب والسنة والنهى عن تقليدهم “Nusoos that scholars referred to Quran and Sunnah and prohibited their taqleed” in which He said

فإذا ظهر هذا وتقرر تبين أن التعصب لمذهب الإمام المقلد ليس هو باتباع أقواله كلها كيفما كانت بل الجمع بينها وبين ما ثبت من الأخبار والآثار والأمر عند المقلدين أو أكثرهم بخلاف هذا إنما هم يؤولونه تنزيلا على نص إمامهم
[Khutbah al kitaab al Momil liraddi ilal amril awwal. page 127 translated by Abdul Raheem Salafi]

Then he wrote Sayings of Imam Shafiee, Maalik, Ahmad, Abu Hanifa May Allah be pleased with them all, regarding prohibition of taqleed. Then he made a chapter نصوص بعض الأئمة الآخرين في اتباع السنة “Nusoos of Some of other scholars regarding Itteba of sunnah” and in it he mentioned sayings of Mujahid, Shoabi, Ibn Uyainuya and Maalik regarding taking and rejecting the saying of every Imam except Imam of the righteous Prophet peace be upon him.

He also writes:
ومن العجب أن كثيرا منهم إذا ورد على مذهبهم أثر عن بعض أكابر الصحابة يقول مبادرا بلا حياء ولا حشمة مذهب الشافعي الجديد أن قول الصحابي ليس بحجة ويرد قول أبي بكر وعمر ولا يرد قول أبي إسحاق والغزالي
It is Strange that when athaar of some Akaabr Sahabaa is mentioned against thier Madhhab many of them shamelessly say, The saying of Sahabi is not hujjah against the latter saying of Shafi’ee madhab..They reject the saying of Abu Bakr ra and Umar ra but they do not leave the sayings of Abu Ishaaq Sheraazi and alGhazzali. [Khutbah al kitaab al Momil liraddi ilal amril awwal page 71 translated by Abdul Raheem Salafi, taken from taqleed ka hukam by Wasi ullah Abbas]

he also said:
“حيث جاء الأمر بلزوم الجماعة، فالمراد به لزوم الحق واتباعه وإن كان المتمسك به قليلا، والمخالف كثيرا، أي: الحق هو ما كان عليه الصحابة الأول من الصحب، ولا حظ لكثرة أهل الباطل بعدهم”
“The order to stick to the jamâ’ah means sticking to the truth and its followers; even if those who stick to the truth are few and those who oppose it are many, since the truth is that which the first jamâ’ah from the time of the Prophet (sall Allâhu ‘alayhi wasallam) and his companions (may Allâh be pleased with them) were upon. No attention is given to the great number of the people of futility coming after them.”[Faydh al Qadir 4/19,Al-Bâ`ith `alâ Al-Bid`ah wal-Hawâdith page 19]

22. Ibn Arabi the extreme sufi said:

والذي أوصيك به إن كنت عالما فحرام عليك إن تعمل بخلاف ما أعطاك دليلك ويحرم عليك تقليد غيرك مع تمكنك من حصول الدليل وإن لم تكن لك هذه الدرجة وكنت مقلدا فإياك إن تلتزم مذهبا بعينه بل اعمل كما أمرك الله فإن الله أمرك أن تسأل أهل الذكر إن كنت لا تعلم وأهل الذكر هم العلماء بالكتاب والسنة فإن الذكر القرآن بالنص واطلب رفع الحرج في نازلتك ما استطعت فإن الله يقول ما جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ في الدِّينِ من حَرَجٍ وقال صَلَّى اللهُ عَليهِ وسَلَّم دين الله يسر
فاسأل عن الرخصة في المسألة حتى تجدها فإذا وجدتها اعمل بها وإن قال لك المفتي هذا حكم الله أو حكم رسوله في مسألتك فخذ به وإن قال لك هذا رأيي فلا تأخذ به وسل غيره
My advice for you is, If you are a scholar then it is prohibited for you to practice against the evidence which Allah has given you. And it is Prohibited for you to make taqleed of others if you have ability to find the evidence. And if you are Muqallid then avoid following specific madhab, rather follow which Allah ordered you. And that is if you don’t know then ask People of knowledge, and they are scholars of Quran and hadeeth… Because Allah says “He has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty” and The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The religion (of Islam) is easy.. and If the Mufti says This is the order of Allah and his Rasool in your so and so mas`ala then take it and if he says this is my opinion then leave and ask another mufti.
[al Futuhaat al Makkiyah 8/299]

He also said:

والتقليد في دين اللّه لا يجوز عندنا، لا تقليد حيّ ولا ميّت
“Taqleed in the religion of Allah is not allowed according to me, neither the taqleed of alive nor the dead”[Al Futuhaat al Makyyata 3/248]

taqleed_pro_02

23. Imam al Haakim said:

ذكر النوع العشرين من علم الحديث النوع العشرون من هذا العلم بعد معرفة ما قدمنا ذكره من صحة الحديث إتقانا ومعرفة لا تقليدا وظنا معرفة فقه الحديث إذ هو ثمرة هذه العلوم وبه قوام الشريعة فأما فقهاء الاسلام أصحاب القياس والرأي والاستنباط والجدل والنظر فمعرون في كل عصر وأهل كل بلد ونحن ذاكرون بمشية الله في هذا الموضع فقه الحديث عن أهله ليستدل بذلك على أن أهل هذه الصنعة من تبحر فيها لا يجهل فقه الحديث إذ هو نوع من أنواع هذا العلم
These are twenty types of knowledge of hadeeth, We have mentioned these twenty types after knowing as mentioned earlier regarding authenticty of hadeeth itteqaana and learning without doing any taqleed… [Muarifat Aloom al Hadeeth page 63]

24. Suyuti mentioned (Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai said it is from Ibn Hazam)
ولم أجد أحد ممن يوصف بالعلم قديما و حديثا يستجيز التقليد
I have not seen any scholar of the past and present who allowed or ordered to make taqleed [Ar Radd min al Akhlad min al Ardh by Suyuti]

Suyuti said
قوله تعالى فاسئلو أهل الذكر إن كنتم لاتعلمون استدل به على جواز التقليد في الفروع العامي
Allah says Ask the followers of the Remembrance if ye know not! [16:43] this verse is used as proof on the permissibility of Taqleed for an Ordinary person in secondary issues [Ikleel’ fe Istanbaat al Tanzeel page 163 Surah An-Nahl ayah 43, tehqeeq of Saif ud din Abdul Qadir, Dar ul Kutub Ilmiyah, Beruit-Lebnon]

Comment: This is not his own opinion rather he is quoting the opinion of people.

Shaykh Badi ad-Din Shah Rashidi said: as-Suyuti mentioned this with the Seegha at-Tamreedh “Istadal” and he mentioned many of the Istedlaal in his Ikeel [Tanqeed e Sadeed page 118]

This is Like his (as-Suyuti`s) other statement when he said
استدل به على إبطال التقليد فى العقائد واستدل به الظاهرية على إبطال مطللقا وابطال القياس
This verse is used for evidence of invalidation of Taqleed in Aqaaid, and Dad-Daahiriyah used this for invalidation (of taqleed) Mutlaqan and invalidation of Qiyas [Ikeel Surah an-Najam verse 23 page 250]

Now see his own sayings as Jalal ud din as-Suyuti said:
فيه دلالة على الأمر باستعمال حجج العقول وإبطال التقليد
In it there is an evidence of using arguments with mind and Invalidation of Taqleed [Ikeel fe Istanbaat al Tanzeel page 27 under Surah al Baqrah verse 22 tehqeeq of Saif ud din Abdul Qadir, Dar ul Kutub Ilmiyah, Beruit-Lebnon]

Shaykh Muhammad Rasheed bin Ali Raza (d 1354) said
قال الإمام عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر السيوطي في كتابه ( الرد على من أخلد إلى الأرض وجهل أن الاجتهاد في كل عصر فرض ) في ص42 ط الجزائر ( الباب الثالث ) في ذكر من حث على الاجتهاد وأمر به وذم التقليد ونهى عنه : اعلم أنه ما زال السلف والخلف يأمرون بالاجتهاد ويحضون عليه , وينهون عن التقليد ويكرهونه ويذمونه , وقد صنف جماعة لا يحصون في ذم التقليد , فممن صنف في ذلك المزني صاحب الإمام الشافعي ألف كتاب ( فساد التقليد ) نقل عنه ابن عبد البر في كتاب العلم والزركشي في البحر , ولم أقف عليه , وألف ابن حزم ثلاثة كتب في إبطال التقليد وقفت عليها , وألف أبو شامة في ذلك كتابه خطبة الكتاب ( المؤمل في الرد إلى الأمر الأول ) وقفت عليه , وألف ابن دقيق العيد كتاب ( التسديد في ذم التقليد ) لم أقف عليه , وألف ابن قيم الجوزية كتابًا في ذم التقليد وقفت على كراسين منه , وألف المجد الفيروزآبادي صاحب القاموس كتاب الإصعاد إلى رتبة الاجتهاد ولم أقف عليه , وهذه نصوص العلماء في ذم التقليد . ا هـ .
Imam Abul Rehman bin Abi Bakar as-Suyuti said in his book (Ar-Radd al min Akhlad Ilal Ardh wa Jahal Inn al Ijtihaad fe Kull Asr Fardh) page 42 (chapter no. 3) in which Ijtihaad is promoted and condemnation and prohibition of taqleed: (Suyuti said) Know that Salaf and Khalaf ordered to do Ijtihaad,, and they forbade and disliked taqleed. A group of them wrote against taqleed. al-Muzani who was student of ash-Shafiee wrote a book (Fasaad at-Taqleed) Ibn Abdul Barr quoted from him in Kitab al Ilm. Zarkashi in alBhr and I (was unable) to find (this book). Ibn Hazam wrote three books against Taqleed and I have found them, Abu Shama wrote the Book Khutbah al Kitaab (alMomal fe ar-Radd Ilal-amr aL-awwal) and i found it. Ibn Daqeeq al Eed wrote a book (al-Tasdeed fe Dham at-Taqleed) and I (was unable) to find this book. Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyah wrote book against Taqleed and i found in booklets, al Majd Fayrozabadi author of al Qamoos wrote Kitab al-Saad ila Rutba tul Ijtihaad and I (was unable) to find it. These are the nusoos of scholars against taqleed [Majallah al Manaar 28/776]

25. Mohammed Hayaat Sindhi Hanafi(d.1163) says
ومن تعصب لواحد بعينه من الأئمة دون الباقين فهو بمنزلة من تعصب لواحد بعينه من الصحابة دون الباقين كالرافضي و المناجي و الخارجي
The one who follows fanatically only one Imam among the Aimmah and leave the rest then this person status is like the who follow fanatically some companions and leave the rest like Raafdee, Munajee and Khaarjee. These are the ways of the people of innovations and desires about which the Quran and Sunnah and Consensus have established that they are dispraised and have left off the Shariyah.[Tuhfat ul Anaam page no. 31 translated by Abdul Raheem Salafi]

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Almost the same thing was also said by Shaykh ul Islaam Ibn Tamiyah
ومن تعصب لواحد بعينه من الأئمة دون الباقين فهو بمنزلة من تعصب لواحد بعينه من الصحابة دون الباقين . كالرافضي الذي يتعصب لعلي دون الخلفاء الثلاثة وجمهور الصحابة . وكالخارجي الذي يقدح في عثمان وعلي رضي الله عنهما . فهذه طرق أهل البدع والأهواء الذين ثبت بالكتاب والسنة والإجماع أنهم مذمومون خارجون عن الشريعة والمنهاج الذي بعث الله به رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم . فمن تعصب لواحد من الأئمة بعينه ففيه شبه من هؤلاء سواء تعصب لمالك أو الشافعي أو أبي حنيفة أو أحمد أو غيرهم
The one who follows fanatically only one Imam among the Aimmah and leave the rest then this person status is like the who follows fanatically some companions and leave the rest like Raafdee who followed fanatically Ali ibn Abee Talib with the exclusion of the remaining three ‘Khulafaah’ (Caliphates: Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan) and the rest of the companions. And this is like the Khawarij who slander and defame Uthmaan and Ali may Allah be pleased with them. These are the ways of the people of innovations and desires which the Quran and Sunnah and Consensus have established that they are dispraised and have left off the Shariyah with which Allah sent His Messenger. Whoever becomes bigoted to one person from amongst the scholars in specific he is similar to those (Rafidah and Khawarij) even if they are bigoted to Imam Malik or Imam ash Shafee’ee or Imam Abu Haneefah or Imam Ahmed or others. [Majmoo’ Fatwaa 22/252 translated by brother Abdul Raheem Salafi]

26. Ibn Hajar al Asqalani

Ibn Hajr rah says
وقد نقل البيهقي عن الشافعي أنه قال أنهى الرجل الحلال بكل حال أن يتزعفر وآمره إذا تزعفر أن يغسله قال وأرخص في المعصفر لأنني لم أجد أحدا يحكي عنه إلا ما قال علي نهاني ولا أقول أنهاكم قال البيهقي قد ورد ذلك عن غير علي وساق حديث عبد الله بن عمر وقال رأى على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثوبين معصفرين فقال إن هذه من ثياب الكفار فلا تلبسهما أخرجه مسلم وفي لفظ له فقلت أغسلهما قال لا بل احرقهما قال البيهقي فلو بلغ ذلك الشافعي لقال به اتباعا للسنة كعادته وقد كره المعصفر جماعة من السلف ورخص فيه جماعة وممن قال بكراهته من أصحابنا الحليمي واتباع السنة هو الأولى اه وقال النووي في شرح مسلم أتقن البيهقي المسألة والله أعلم
Imam Bayhaqi has narrated from Imam Shafi’ee that he said: I forbade men in every situation from (wearing clothes) that are dyed with saffron and if they wore then i order them to clean it and i permit men regarding wearing clothes that are dyed with yellow (because) i did not find any narration in which he(Prophet صلى الله عليه وسل) has forbidden it(i.e clothes dyed with yellow) except the saying of Ali r.a that he forbade but i don’t say that it is forbidden.Imam Bayhaqi said this has come from other than ali in the detail Hadeeth of Abdullah bin Amr that he said Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم saw him wearing two clothes dyed with yellow so he said these are the clothes of Kuffar do not wear them. Muslim has collected it and the words in it are Shall i wash it out? He replied You better set them to fire.(Imam Bayhaqi says) IF THIS WOULD HAVE REACHED SHAFI’EE he would have followed the sunnah as usual. And a group from salaf disliked clothes dyed with yellow and a group permitted it and among those who said it is disliked from our companions is Halimee and following the Sunnah is better. And Imam Nawawi said in Sharah Sahih Muslim that Imam Bayhaqi is more perfect in this Maslah and Allah knows best. [Fath ul Baari 10/304]

27. Imam Bayhaqi after quoting all the evidences which forbids wearing clothes dyed with yellow says
وفي كل ذلك دلالة على أن نهي الرجال عن لبسه على العموم، ولو بلغ الشافعي لقال به إن شاء الله
أخبرنا أبو عبد الله الحافظ قال: أخبرني الحسين بن محمد الدارمي قال: أخبرنا عبد الرحمن بن محمد قال: حدثنا أبي، وهو أبو حاتم، قال: حدثنا حرملة بن يحيى قال: قال الشافعي، رحمه الله: «كلما قلت وكان عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خلاف قولي مما يصح، فحديث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أولى، ولا تقلدوني
And in all these are proofs on the prohibition of clothes dyed with yellow fro men in general if this would have reached Shafi’ee then he would have this view In sha’Allah.
Imam Shafi’ee rah said What ever i said if it is against the saying of Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم among the Sahih then Hadeeth of prophet is better and do not do taqleed of me. [Ma’rif as Sunan wal Asaar 2/453-454 passage translated by Abdul Raheem Salafi]

28. Qaadi Obaidullah Abu Zaid ad-Dabusi al Hanafi (d 430 h) said:

Muqallid makes himself in the list of animals because of taqleed like kids of animals walk behind their mother , muqallid has a mental problem, He should not debate, if he has sound mind even than he is doing taqleed than his cure is sword [Taqweem al Adillah fe Usool al Fiqh page 390]

He also says that following Rasool peace be upon him, and a layman asking question from scholars of their time etc is allowed but For sons to believe their forefathers and for the young to believe the elders of this world is not allowed.

taqleed_pro_03

29. Ibn al Arabi Maaliki

Few blind followers claimed he was staunch muqallid of Imam Malik?

Ibn Hajar al asqalani said
قال ابن العربي : وجاء عن مالك رواية أنه لا أثر لرجوعه ، وحديث النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أحق أن يتبع
Ibn al Arabi said: In a narration from Maalik, his (zaani’s) ruju (after confessing his sin in front of qadhi) has no effect (i.e. his ruju after confessing that he did zina has no effect, he will still be punished). But following the hadith of Prophet peace be upon him has a priority. (where Prophet peace be upon him said to the one who confessed his sin of zina “Woe to you! Go back and pray to Allaah for forgiveness and repent to Him.”) [Fath al-Baari, 12/125]

30) Daarki ash-Shafiee, The great Shaykh and Imam of Shafiyah in Iraq

Khateeb Baghdadi quoted
كان عبد العزيز بن عبد الله الداركي إذا جاءته مسألة يستفتى فيها تفكر طويلا ثم أفتى فيها وربما كانت فتواه خلاف مذهب الشافعي وأبي حنيفة رضي الله وتعالى عنهما فيقال له في ذلك فيقول ويحكم حدث فلان عن فلان عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بكذا وكذا والأخذ بالحديث عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أولى من الأخذ بقول الشافعي وأبي حنيفة رضي الله عنهما إذا خالفاه أو كما قال
i.e. Daraki used to give fatwa against Shafiee and Abu Hanifa many times, and if someone would say this is against their fatwa, he would say: Woe be to you, so and so narrated this from Prophet peace be upon him, and following hadith is better than the saying of ash-Shafiee and Abu Hnaifa May Allah be pleased with them all.
[Tareekh Baghdad (10/463]

ad-Dahabee commented
قلت : هذا جيد ، لكن بشرط أن يكون قد قَالَ بذلك الحديث إمام من نظراء الإمامين مثل مالك ، أو سفيان ، أو الأوزاعي ، وبأن يكون الحديث ثابتا سالما من علة ، وبأن لا يكون حجة أبي حنيفة والشافعي حديثا صحيحا معارضا للآخر ، أما من أخذ بحديث صحيح وقد تنكبه سائر أئمة الاجتهاد ، فلا ، كخبر : ” فإن شرب في الرابعة فاقتلوه ” ، وكحديث ” لعن الله السارق ، يسرق البيضة ، فتقطع يده “.
توفي الداركي ببغداد في شوال سنة خمس وسبعين وثلاث مائة ، وهو في عشر الثمانين ، وكان ثقة صدوقا.
I say this is true, but with a condition that hadeeth should be said by an Imam who is equivalent to Imam’s like Maalik, Sufiyaan, Awza’ee and that hadeeth should be proven and free from defects and that the hujjah of abu hanifa or Shafi’ee must not be a Saheeh hadeeth which is contradicting other hadeeth. As for the one who takes saheeh hadeeth then all ai’mmah of ijtehaad have already taken it upon themselves (to take saheeh hadeeth).
[Seyar Ailaam an-Nubala under the bio of Daarki]

31) Imam al-Shawkani wrote in his book Irshad al-Fuhool:
‘If a common man is confused in any rulings of Shari’a on the basis of the different opinions of the contemporary scholars, it is said that he can select any of them as reported from the majority of Shafi’e scholars and Sheik Abu Ishaq al-Sheerazi , al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi , Ibn al-Sabbagh , al-Qadi , al-Amidi and others supported this opinion. They say that the companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) agreed upon that acting according to a lesser opinion is permissible even though there is a superior opinion’ . [P: 452] [Islamweb Fatwa No : 87888]

32) Ibn Daqeeq al Eed

Ash-Shawkaani may Allaah have mercy upon him said:

“The scholars have also differed in opinion over whether it is permissible for a layman who abides by a given Mathhab to act in opposition to his Imaam in some issues, and act in accordance with the view of other Imaams; it was said that it is not permissible; it was also said that it is permissible; a third opinion said that if he had already been acting on the issue, it is not permissible for him to switch to another view, otherwise it is permissible for him to do so… It was further said that it is permissible for him to do so on condition that his chest is opened for it, he is not intending to be evasive, and it does not run counter to a decision ruled (by an Ialmic judge) against his favor in the issue. This is the view chosen by Ibn Daqeeq Al-‘Eed.” [Islamweb Fatwa No : 234370]

33) anNawawi said:

If he sees different fatwas from two muftis, then there are five scenarios according to our companions:… The fifth scenario is that he should choose, and he may choose whatever view he wants. This is the most correct view according to Shaykh Abu Ishaaq ash-Shiraazi and al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, and it was narrated by al-Mahaamili at the beginning of al-Majmoo‘ from most of our companions. It was also the view favoured by the author of ash-Shaamil in cases where one thinks equally well of both muftis. … What appears to be the case is that the fifth view is the most correct, because the ordinary Muslim is not qualified to engage in ijtihaad; rather what he must do is follow the view of a scholar who is qualified to engage in ijtihaad, and he has done that by following the view of whichever of them he chooses. [End quote from al-Majmoo‘ (1/56), taken from Islamqa fatwa 229013]

34) Muhammad bin Ismaeel as-San-ani said:
هلا جعل هَذَا الْمُقَلّد الْمُجْتَهد أَمَامه كتاب الله وَسنة نبيه صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم عوضا عَن كَلَام إِمَامه وتتبع نُصُوص الْكتاب وَالسّنة عوضا عَن تتبع نُصُوص إِمَامه والعبارات كلهَا أَلْفَاظ دَالَّة على مَعَانِيهَا فَهَلا استبدل بِأَلْفَاظ إِمَامه ومعانيها أَلْفَاظ الشَّارِع ومعانيها وَنزل الْأَحْكَام عَلَيْهَا إِذا لم يجده نصا شَرْعِيًّا عوضا عَن تنزيلها على مَذْهَب إِمَامه فِيمَا لم يجده مَنْصُوصا تالله لقد استبدل الَّذِي هُوَ أدنى بِالَّذِي هُوَ خير من معرفَة السّنة وَالْكتاب إِلَى معرفَة كَلَام الشُّيُوخ وَالْأَصْحَاب وتفهم مرامهم والتفتيش عَن كَلَامهم وَمن الْمَعْلُوم يَقِينا أَن كَلَام الله وَكَلَام رَسُوله أقرب إِلَى الأفهام وَأدنى إِلَى إِصَابَة بُلُوغ المرام فَإِنَّهُ أبلغ الْكَلَام بِالْإِجْمَاع وأعذبه فِي الأفواه والأسماع وأقربه إِلَى الْفَهم وَالِانْتِفَاع وَلَا يُنكر هَذَا إِلَّا جلمود الطباع وَمن لَا حَظّ لَهُ فِي النَّفْع وَالِانْتِفَاع والأفهام الَّتِي فهم بهَا الصَّحَابَة الْكَلَام الإلهي وَالْخطاب النَّبَوِيّ هِيَ كأفهامنا وأحلامهم كأحلامنا إِذْ لَو كَانَت الأفهام مُتَفَاوِتَة تَفَاوتا يسْقط مَعَه فهم الْعبارَات الإلهية وَالْأَحَادِيث النَّبَوِيَّة لما كُنَّا مكلفين وَلَا مأمورين وَلَا منهيين لَا اجْتِهَادًا وَلَا تقليدا أما الأول فلاستحالته وَأما الثَّانِي فلأنا لَا نقلد حَتَّى نفهم جَوَازه وأدلته وَلَا يفهم ذَلِك إِلَّا من أَدِلَّة الْكتاب وَالسّنة وَقد تعذر ذَلِك كَمَا قُلْتُمْ .

Urdu Translation
اس مقلد مجتہد نے امام کے کلام کو چھوڑ کر کتاب و سنت میں اجتہاد کیوں نہیں کیا ؟ ، امام کے اقوال کھنگالنے کی بجائے کتاب و سنت کی نصوص کو تلاش کیوں نہیں کیا ؟ حالانکہ دونوں طرف عبارات ہیں جو با معنی الفاظ پر مشتمل ہوتی ہیں اس نے امام کے الفاظ و معانی کو شارع کے الفاظ و معانی کا نعم البدل کیوں سمجھ لیا ؟ جب کسی جگہ واضح نص نہیں تھی تو امام کے منصوص اقوال پر قیاس کرنے کی بجائے نصوص شرعیہ میں غور و فکر کیوں نہیں کیا ؟
اللہ کی قسم ! اس نے اعلی کو چھوڑ کر ادنی کو اختیار کیا ہے کتاب و سنت کی معرفت حاصل کر نے کی بجائے اپنے شیوخ اور اصحاب کی باتوں کو سمجھنے اور ان کے مقاصد تلاش کرنے پر زور دیا ہے ۔ حالانکہ یہ بات قطعی طور پر معلوم ہے کہ اللہ اور اس کے رسول کی بات اقرب الی الأفہام اور مقاصد تک پہنچنے میں زیادہ رہنمائی کرتی ہے کیونکہ یہ بالاجماع سب سے بلیغ ہے اور زبان سے ادا کرنا یا اس کی سماعت زیادہ شیریں ہے ۔ اس بات کا انکار وہی شخص کرتا ہے جو جلمود الطبع اور افادہ و استفادہ کی اہلیت سے بالکل عاری ہے
جو سمجھ بوجھ صحابہ کو عطا ہوئی تھی کہ انہوں نے کلام الہی اور خطاب نبوی کو سمجھا اسی نعمت سے اللہ نے ہمیں بھی نوازا ہے کیونکہ ( تغیر زمان وغیرہ کے سبب ) اگر اتنا زیادہ فرق پڑ جائے کہ ہم سے قرآن وسنت کی سمجھ بوجھ کی اہلیت ہی ختم ہوجائے تو اس طرح تو ہم قرآن وسنت کے اوامر و نواہی کے مکلف ہی نہیں رہیں گے نہ اجتہاد کے ذریعے اور نہ کسی کی تقلید کرکے ۔
اجتہاد کے ذریعے اس لیے نہیں کیونکہ اس کی ہم اہلیت ہی نہیں رکھتے ۔ ( جیساکہ مقلدین کہتے ہیں )
اور تقلید کے ذریعے اس طرح نہیں کہ تقلید ہم اسی وقت کریں گے جب اس کے جواز کے دلائل سمجھتے ہوں گے اور یہ کتاب و سنت سے ہی معلوم ہوگا جس کو پہلے ہی محال قرار دے دیا گیا ہے ۔
[Irshaad ul Naqaad page 162]

6) Asking Scholar is Obligatory for a Lay person

Allah says: {then ask those who possess the Message (Ahl adh-Dhikr) if you do not know}[Soorah 21, Aayah 7 and Soorah 6, Aayah 43].

Hadith says
“We set out on a journey. One of our people was hurt by a stone that injured his head. He then had a sexual dream. He asked his fellow travelers: Do you find a concession for me to perform tayammum? They said: We do not find any concession for you while you can use water. He took a bath and died. When we came to the Prophet (saws), the incident was reported to him. He said: They killed him, may Allah kill them! Could they not ask when they did not know? The fire of ignorance is inquiry. It was enough for him to perform tayammum and to pour some drops of water or bind a bandage over the wound (the narrator Musa was doubtful); then he should have wiped over it and washed the rest of his body.”[Sunan Abi Dawud, Book of Purification, Chapter: The Wounded Person Performing Tayammum, no. 336. Albani declared this narration acceptable in his checking of Abu Dawud’s Sunan, see no. 325.]

Comment: Above verse and hadith is clear that If a lay person don`t know the matter than It is a must to ask from the one who is knowledgable otherwise it is really harmful.
a) Al-Qurtubi may Allaah have mercy upon him wrote,

“A lay Muslim, who does not have adequate knowledge to practice Ijtihaad, given his lack of qualification to do that, is obliged to consult the most knowledgeable scholars of his time and country and follow their Fatwa; Allaah, The Exalted, says (what means): {… So ask the people of the message if you do not know.} He has to look for the most knowledgeable scholar until he finds the scholar upon whose knowledge most people agree.” [Islamweb Fatwa No : 241156] b) Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
The one who has no knowledge and no ability to engage in ijtihaad must ask the scholars, because Allaah says: “So ask the people of the Reminder if you do not know” [al-Anbiya’ 21:7].Allaah does not enjoin us to ask them except for the purpose of following their opinions. This is taqleed (following). But with regard to taqleed what is forbidden is adhering to a specific madhhab by following it in all cases and believing that this is the way to Allaah, so one follows it even if it goes against the evidence.

But the one who has the ability to work things out (ijtihaad), such as the seeker of knowledge who has an abundant share of knowledge may engage in ijtihaad on the basis of the evidence, and follow the one who he thinks is correct, or is most likely to be correct.

As for the ordinary Muslim and the beginner seeker of knowledge, they should strive to follow the one who they think is closer to the truth, because of his abundant knowledge, strong religious commitment and piety. [Al-‘Ilm, p. 205 see Islam qa fatwa no. 113687]

7) The claim that we must follow only one of the four Imams otherwise you are ignorant

It is true that we must follow the Imams of Ahlus sunnah and mostly we find them correct but to say that we must follow one of the Imam and his madhab otherwise you are ignorant is a false claim. Know that its mentioned in the books of fiqh that lay man has no madhab but the madhab of his mufti, because he is free to ask any scholar of ahlus sunnah as he can not make Ijtihaad like Mujtahideen. So If he ask from a Shafiee scholar than he is free, if he is asking a Hanbalee than he is free to ask. According to their books these people of subcontinent are LA MADHAB. They should not accuse people of sunnah as ignorants and la madhab. See the fatawa

a. It is mentioned in Radd al Mukhtaar 1/116
. ثم ذكر أنه لو التزم مذهبا معينا . كأبي حنيفة والشافعي ، فقيل يلزمه ، وقيل لا وهو الأصح ا هـ وقد شاع أن العامي لا مذهب له .
Then they mentioned about iltizam to one Madhab particular ( Madhab Mu’in) as Abu Haneefah or Shafii, it has been said it is lazim ( compulsory) for him ( to make iltizam), and it has been said it is not lazim for him, and this is more Saheeh. And it is propagated that the ‘Aami ( layman) has no madhab

b) Rafiee said in Sharah al Kabeer 2/422
هذا أبو الفتح الهروي وهو من أصحاب الإمام قدس الله روحه يقول في الأصول: مذهب عامة أصحابنا أن العامي لا مذهب له
He is Abu al Fath al Harwi. He is in the companions of Imam. he said in alUsool: The madhab of generality of our companions is that layman has no madhab.

c) Ibn Qadhi Shubah said in at-Tabqaat 1/214
“أبو الفتح الهروي أحد أصحاب الإمام، لا أعلم وقت وفاته، ويحتمل أن يكون من هذه الطبقة، أو من التي قبلها، نقل عنه الرافعي في أوائل القضاء: أن مذهب عامة أصحابنا أن العامي لا مذهب له. ”

d) Ibn Muflih Hanbali in his book “the Principles” said: ‘Not sticking to a particular school of thought is the opinion of the majority of scholars.’ Ibn Burhan and Nawawi said that ‘this is the predominant opinion.’ [Islamweb Fatwa No : 86931]

e) an-Nawawi quoted ikhtilaf and said in Rodha tul Talibeen 8/101 dar al kutub beruit
“وليس له التمذهب بمجرد التشهي، ولا بما وجد عليه أباه. هذا كلام الأصحاب. والذي يقتضيه الدليل أنه -أي العامي- لا يلزمه التمذهب بمذهب، بل يستفتي من يشاء، أو من اتفق، لكن من غير تلقط للرخص”، والله أعلم.
It’s not allowed for him to choose a madhhab following his desires or because he saw his father following that madhhab. This is the opinion of our companions. What is dictated by the evidence is that a person is not obliged to adhere to a madhhab; rather he should ask for fatwa whoever he wishes or whomever he can find but without picking and collecting reliefs and dispensations.

Faida: Imam an-Nawawi said:

وفيه دلالة ظاهرة لمذهب المحققين والجماهير من السلف والخلف أن الإنسان إذا اعتقد دين الإسلام اعتقادا جازما لا تردد فيه كفاه ذلك وهو مؤمن من الموحدين ولا يجب عليه تعلم أدلة المتكلمين ومعرفة الله تعالى بها ، خلافا لمن أوجب ذلك وجعله شرطا في كونه من أهل القبلة ، وزعم أنه لا يكون له حكم المسلمين إلا به . وهذا المذهب هو قول كثير من المعتزلة وبعض أصحابنا المتكلمين . وهو خطأ ظاهر فإن المراد التصديق الجازم ، وقد حصل ، ولأن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – اكتفى بالتصديق بما جاء به – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ولم يشترط المعرفة بالدليل ;

(Rough translation)

In it (the hadith) There is evidence of apparent Madhab of researchers and Majority of the Salaf and Khalaf, if a Man have a firm belief on the religion of Islam and do not doubt about it, He is Mumin among the Muwahhideen, its not obligation on him to know about the evidence of Mutakallimeen to know about Allah Ta`la. Against this madhab there is an opinion of those who say, it is obligation to know about the evidence… This is the madhab of many of the Mutizilies and some of our Mutakallimeen companions. This is a mistake because the purpose is a firm belief which is attained by following. Prophet peace be upon him did not mentioned any requirement of knowing the evidence rather acceptance of truth (by people) was sufficient for him. [Sharah Sahih Muslim, Kitab al Iman Chapter 8]

f) Ibn Nujaym said in al Bhr al Raaiq 2/90
وإن كان عاميا ليس له مذهب معين فمذهبه فتوى مفتيه
Lay person has no specific madhab (i.e. hanafi, shafie, malaki, hanbalee), his madhab is on the fatwa of Mufti.

g) Muhammad Abid al Sandee al Hanafi said

Shaykh Abul Mu`ali naarrated from Ullema of Sanad that there is no evidence in Shariya and aql that Taqleed of a specific Imam is Wajib as it is mentioned by Ibn al Hammam among the Ahnaf in his book Fath al Qadeer and Tahreer al Usool, and Ibn Abdus salam among the Malikis mentioned this in his book Muntahi al Usool that it is not wajib to follow one specific Mujtahid, And among the Shafiees Muhaqqiq Azd al din mentioned this, And in Tahbeer Sharah Tahreer Ameer Ibn a Haaj mentioned that It is consensus of classical scholars that it is not allowed for Haakim and Mufti that he only gives fatwa on particular Mujtahid and leave others [طوالع الانوار شرح الدر المختار لمحمد عابد بن محمد السندي, taken from Meyar al Haq by Nazeer Husayn Dehalwi page 117]

h) Ibn Hammam mentioned in his Tahrir
لا يرجع فيما قلد فيه أي عمل به اتفاقا ، وهل يقلد غيره في غيره المختار نعم للقطع بأنهم كانوا يستفتون مرة واحدا ومرة غيره غير ملتزمين مفتيا واحدا
I.e. If a person follows a mas`ala of Imam he should not do ruju as it is ittefaq, and whether he should follow others? then the accepted answer is yes he can follow other Imams as well because people ask from different muftis without specifying a madhab

i) Muhammad Ameen Bukhari famously known as Ameer Badshah al Hanafi (d 972 h) commented in تيسير التحرير 4/253,254
(لَا يرجع الْمُقَلّد فِيمَا قلد فِيهِ) من الْأَحْكَام أحدا من الْمُجْتَهدين (أَي عمل بِهِ) تَفْسِير لقلد، وَالضَّمِير الْمَجْرُور رَاجع إِلَى الْمَوْصُول (اتِّفَاقًا) نقل الْآمِدِيّ وَابْن الْحَاجِب الْإِجْمَاع على عدم جَوَاز رُجُوع الْمُقَلّد فِيمَا قلد بِهِ. وَقَالَ الزَّرْكَشِيّ: لَيْسَ كَمَا قَالَا، فَفِي كَلَام غَيرهمَا مَا يَقْتَضِي جَرَيَان الْخلاف بعد الْعَمَل أَيْضا (وَهل يُقَلّد غَيره) أَي غير من قَلّدهُ أَو لَا (فِي) حكم (غَيره) أَي غير الحكم الَّذِي عمل بِهِ أَو لَا (الْمُخْتَار) فِي الْجَواب (نعم) يُقَلّد غَيره فِي غَيره، تَقْدِير الْكَلَام الْمُخْتَار جَوَاز التَّقْلِيد لغيره فِي غَيره (للْقطع) بالاستقراء (بِأَنَّهُم) أَي المستفتين فِي كل عصر من زمن الصَّحَابَة (كَانُوا يستفتون مرّة وَاحِدًا) من الْمُجْتَهدين (وَمرَّة غَيره) أَي غير الْمُجْتَهد الأول حَال كَونهم (غير ملتزمين مفتيا وَاحِدًا) وشاع ذَلِك من غير نَكِير: وَهَذَا إِذا لم يلْتَزم مذهبا معينا (فَلَو الْتزم مذهبا معينا كَأبي حنيفَة أَو الشَّافِعِي) فَهَل يلْزم الِاسْتِمْرَار عَلَيْهِ فَلَا يُقَلّد غَيره فِي مسئلة من الْمسَائِل أم لَا؟ (فَقيل يلْزم) كَمَا يلْزمه الِاسْتِمْرَار فِي حكم حَادِثَة مُعينَة قلد فِيهِ، وَلِأَنَّهُ اعْتقد أَن مذْهبه حق فَيجب عَلَيْهِ الْعَمَل بِمُوجب اعْتِقَاده (وَقيل لَا) يلْزم وَهُوَ الْأَصَح، لِأَن الْتِزَامه غير مُلْزم إِذْ لَا وَاجِب إِلَّا مَا أوجبه الله وَرَسُوله، وَلم يُوجب على أحد أَن يتمذهب بِمذهب رجل من الْأمة فيقلده فِي كل مَا يَأْتِي ويذر دون غَيره، والتزامه لَيْسَ بِنذر حَتَّى يجب الْوَفَاء بِهِ. وَقَالَ ابْن خرم: أَنه لَا يحل لحَاكم وَلَا مفت تَقْلِيد رجل فَلَا يحكم وَلَا يُفْتِي إِلَّا بقوله، بل قيل لَا يَصح للعامي مَذْهَب، لِأَن الْمَذْهَب إِنَّمَا يكون لمن لَهُ نوع نظر وبصيرة بالمذاهب، أَو لمن قَرَأَ كتابا فِي فروع مَذْهَب وَعرف فَتَاوَى إِمَامه وأقواله، وَإِلَّا فَمن لم يتأهل لذَلِك، بل قَالَ: أَنا حَنَفِيّ أَو شَافِعِيّ لم يصر من أهل ذَلِك الْمَذْهَب بِمُجَرَّد هَذَا، بل لَو قَالَ: أَنا فَقِيه أَو نحوي لم يصر فَقِيها أَو نحويا. وَقَالَ الإِمَام صَلَاح الدّين العلائي: وَالَّذِي صرح بِهِ الْفُقَهَاء مَشْهُور فِي كتبهمْ جَوَاز الِانْتِقَال فِي آحَاد الْمسَائِل وَالْعَمَل فِيهَا، بِخِلَاف مذْهبه إِذا لم يكن على وَجه التتبع للرخص (وَقيل) الْمُلْتَزم (كمن لم يلْتَزم) بِمَعْنى (إِن عمل بِحكم تقليدا) لمجتهد (لَا يرجع عَنهُ) أَي عَن ذَلِك الحكم (وَفِي غَيره) أَي غير ذَلِك الحكم (لَهُ تَقْلِيد غَيره)
(Muqallid should not do ruju in which he followed) a Mujtahid in one of the issues,.. (It is consensus) as mentioned by al Amdi and Ibn Haajib, But Zarkashi said it is not like what Ibn Haajib and al Amdi say rather there are other scholars who said against this specific mas`alah as well.
And the saying can he follow other scholar in other issue? then the preferred answer is yes he can because after doing hard work this came to know from the era of Sahaba till today people ask from scholars without iltizam of specific madhab.
And if someone make it must for him i.e. following a madhab like Abu Hanifa and Shafiee, then it should be discussed whether he should follow this madhab in all cases or not? Some say he should follow in all other cases as well like he followed in one opinion because he considered this madhab the truth. Others say Iltizam is not laazim, AND THIS SAYING IS MORE CORRECT because it is not laazim on Muqallid to follow a madhab because it is not something which Allah and his Rasool made wajib and it is not wajib on the one to take one Imam;s fatwa and leave others
…..
It is said that the lay person has no Madhab rather Madhab is for the one who knows the Masaail of his Madhab or he read a book on masaail of his madhab and came to know about fatawa of his Imam, And the one who is unable to do all this and still he say I am a Hanafi or Shafiee then actually he can not be a Hanafi or shafiee just because he said so. It is as if he says I am faqeeh or Nahwi, How can he be a faqeeh or Nahwi? (enq quote, roughly translated)

No where the fatawaa states that if he asked one fatwa from a hanafi imam than he must ask all the questions from hanafi imam. Rather he can ask any good scholar who is easily avalaible. These people also quote Imam al Haramayn who said lay people should not follow the Sahaba they must only follow one Imam.

Response is that Imam al Haramayn also said its obligation on all the people to follow the madhab of Imam Shafiee and no one else, see his following quote

نحن ندَّعي أنه يجب على كافَّة العاقلين وعامَّة المسلمين -شرقًا وغربًا، بُعدًا وقربًا- انتحالُ مذهب الشافعي، ويجب على العوامِّ الطَّغَام، والجُهَّال الأنذال أيضًا انتحالُ مذهبه؛ بحيث لا يَبْغُون عنه حِوَلاً، ولا يريدون به بدلاً
[Mughees al Khalaq page 16]

Why don`t these people of subcontinent follow this statement of Imam al Haramayn? they will surely say he was wrong as this statement made al-Kawthari (the Jahmi of this era) furious and he said its against Usool and Ijma and Kawthari also said its a foolish statement regarding the saying of Imam al Haramayn that the Usool of sahaba are not enough, see his book Ehqaaq al Haq be Abtaal al Baatil fe Mugheeth al Haqq page 21. The thing is that they follow his one statement on taqleed but they reject his other quote, and they also do not see their book of asool which refutes the claim of Imam al Haramayn. see the following quotes

i) It is mentioned in Fawateh ar-Rahmoot be sharah Muthalam uth Thubut by Abdul ‘Ali Bahr Al Ulum
قال الإمام أجمع المحققون على منع العوام من تقليد) أعيان (الصحابة) رضوان الله تعالى عليهم فان أقوالهم قد يحتاج في استخراج الكم منها إلى تنقير كما في السنة ولا يقدر العوام عليه (بل) يجب (عليهم اتباع الذين سبروا) أي تعمقوا (وبوبوا) أي أوردوا أبوابا لكل مسئلة على حدة (فهذا بوا) مسئلة) كل باب (ونقحوا) كل مسئلة عن غيرها (وجمعوا) بينهما بجامع (وفرقوا) بفارق (وعللوا) أي أوردوا لكل مسئلة مسئلة علة (فصلوا) تفصيلا يعني يجب على العوام تقليد من تصدى لعلم الفقه لا لأعيا الصحابة المجملين القول (وعليه اتتى ابن الصلاح منع تقليد غير) الأئمة (الأربعة) الإمام
الهمام إمام الأئمة امامنا أبى حنيفة الكوفي والإمام مالك والإمام الشافعي والإمام أحمد رحمهم الله تعالى وجزاهم عنا أحسن الجزاء (لان ذلك) المذكور (لم يدر في غيرهم وفيه ما فيه) في الحاشية قال العراقي انعقد الاجماع على أن من أسلم فله أن يقلد من شاء من العلماء من غير حجر وأجمع الصحابة على أن من استفتى أبا بكر وعمر أمير المؤمنين فله أن يستفتي أبا هريرة ومعاذ بن جبل وغيرهما ويعمل بقولهم من غير نكير فمن ادعي رفع هذين الاجماعين فعليه البيان انتهى فقد بطل بهذين الاجماعين قول الإمام وقوله أجمع المحققون لا يفهم منه الاجماع الذي هو الحجة حتى يقال يلزم تعارض الاجماعين بل الذي يكون مختارا عند أحد ويكون الجماعة متفقين عليه يقال أجمع المحققون على كذا ثم في كلامه خلل آخر وهو أن التبويب لا دخل له في التقليد وكذا التفصيل فان المقلدان فهم مراد الصحابي عمل وإلا سال عن مجتهد آخر فافهم وبطل بهذا قول ابن الصلاح أيضاً ثم في قوله خلل آخر إذا المجتهدون الآخرون أيضاً بذلوا جهدهم مثل بذلك الأئمة الأربعة وإنكار هذا مكابرة وسوء أدب بل الحق أنه انما منع من تقليد غيرهم لأنه لم تبق رواية مذهبهم محفوظة حتى لو وجد رواية صحيحة من مجتهد آخر يجوز العمل بها ألا ترى أن المتأخرين أفتوا بتحليف الشهود اقامة له موقع التزكية على مذهب ابن أبى ليلى فافهم
Imam (ul Harmain) said that Muhaqiqeen have agreed that the lay person should not follow the companion(May Allah be pleased with them) because deduction from their saying is similar that of Hadeeth and the laymen does not have that ability(to deduce) so, The conclusion is to follow Fuqahaa and not companions and Ibn Salah has put the base on it and said that taqleed should only be of Aimma Arba i.e Our Imam Abu Hanifa Kufi, Imam Malik, Imam Shafiee and Imam Ahmed because other Madhaahib are not like these four Madhhab. There is objection in it and he said in the Hashiya that Iraaqi said there is Ijma(consequences) that a Muslim can follow of any scholar he wishes and the companions agreed that whoever asks Fatwaa from Ameer ul Momineen Abu bakr r.a then he can also ask Fatwaa from Abu Hurairah and Mu’az bin Jabal and can easily act upon thier Fatwaa. Whoever claims that these two consequences are lifted then he should provide the evidence then fromt these two consequences the saying of Imam ul Harmain became baatil(false) and the saying of Imam ul Harmain that Muhaqiqeen have agreed then from this Ijma is not considered as hujjah until it is said that there is always contradiction between two consequences., Instead when a ruling is liked and a specific group agrees with it then it is usually said that muhaqiqeen have agreed on this. And there is one more eror in his(Imam ul harmain) speech because other mujtahideen have strived like Aimma Arba and the rejection of this is obstinacy and arrogance rather the truth is whoever has prevented the taqleed of other mujtahideen(except Aimma Arba) gave reason that their narrations are not preserved and if you get a Sahih narration from any mujtaid then you can act upon it. Didn’t you see that Mutakhireen(later scholars) have replaced the fatwaa and gave accordance with the Madhhab of Ibn Abi laila about the witnesses taking oath then try to understand this point. [quote translated by Abdul Raheem Salafi, see Fawateh ar-Rahmoot be Sharah Muthalum ath-Thabut 4/305,306]

ii) Allamah Taj Uddin Subki(d.771 h) says
وأما تعصبكم في فروع الدين وحملكم الناس على مذهب واحد فهو الذي لا يقبله الله منكم ولا يحملكم عليه إلا محض التعصب والتحاسد ولو أن الشافعي وأبا حنيفة ومالكا وأحمد أحياء يرزقون لشددوا النكير عليكم وتبرءوا منكم فيما تفعلون

Your fanaticism in Furoo’ Deen and encouraging people to follow one Madhhab is an act which Allah will never accept from you and nothing encourages you do this except your fanaticism and jealousy. And if Shafi’ee, Abu hanifa, Malik and Ahmed would have been alive they would have refuted you badly and would have disavowal from what you do. [passage translated by Abdul Raheem Salafi “Mu’eed an Na’m wa Mubeed an Naqm page” 76] iii) As-Subki said: “It is permissible for someone with no knowledge to occasionally follow the concessions of the scholars in cases of necessity as long as he or she does not seek out concessions [as a habit].” [Islamweb Fatwa No : 234370]

iv) Ibne Rajab said

“The wisdom of Allaah dictated that this religion and its guidelines should be protected by means of appointing leaders of the people concerning whom the ummah is unanimously on their knowledge and understanding, and that they reached the highest level of knowledge of rulings and fatwas among ahl al-ra’y wa’l-hadeeth. So the people became dependent on them for fatwas, and referred to them to understand rulings. So Allaah guided them to set guidelines for their madhhabs and explain foundations and principles, so that the madhhab of each imam has its own guidelines, principles and categories, in the light of which rulings and issues of halaal and haraam are to be understood.

This is by the mercy of Allaah towards His slaves, and it is one of the ways in which He preserves this religion.

Were it not for that, people would have seen strange things, whereby every fool who was filled with self-admiration could have tried to mislead the people; so you would have seen such fools claiming to be great imams, saying that they were the guide of this ummah and the only ones to whom people should refer and rely on, to the exclusion of all others.

But by the mercy and grace of Allaah, this door, which could have lead to grave danger, has been blocked and these great evils have been kept away. That is a sign of His great mercy and kindness towards His slaves.
Despite this, there are still those who claim to have reached the level of ijtihaad and talk about issues of knowledge without following any of these four imams.
The claims of some of them may be accepted because of evidence which proves their claims, and others may be rejected. As for those who did not reach this level, they have no choice but to follow those imams and join in what all the ummah joined in.[al-Radd ‘ala man attaba’a ghayra al-Madhaahib al-Arba’ah (2/624)]

Al-Haafiz ibn Rajab also said
“Therefore it is obligatory on anyone who hears of a command of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) or knows it, to explain it to the Ummah, advise them sincerely, and order them to follow his command, even if it contradicts the opinion of someone great. This is because the authority of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has the most right to be respected and followed, over and above the opinion of anyone great who has unknowingly contradicted the Messenger’s command in any matter. This is why the Companions and those after would refute anyone who contradicted the authentic Sunnah, sometimes being very stern in their refutation”[Quoted in the notes on Eeqaaz al-Himam (p. 93), mentioned by Shaykh Al Albani in Siffat Salat an Nabyy] Comment: So we have to reject the saying of Imam when the matter is clear, otherwise we should see the Madhabid of Imams without specifying one. The Imam who made the mistake will get one thawab and if he is on right than he will get two thawab Insha`Allah. Here Hafiz Ibne Rajab is refuting those who make rulings from their own, the ruling is only accepted only if The claim is supported with authentic evidence.

 

v) The easiest way to understand this concept is This FatwaIt says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (5/28):

Question: What is the ruling on restricting oneself to the four madhhabs and following their opinions in all circumstances and at all times?

Answer:

– The one who is able to derive rulings directly from the Qur’aan and Sunnah should derive them as those who came before him did. There is no justification for him to follow a view when he believes that the correct view is something opposite. Rather he should follow what he believes is true. It is permissible for him to follow (another scholar) with regard to that which he is not able to work out himself and he needs an answer concerning it.

-It is permissible for one who is not able to derive rulings to follow one whom he feels comfortable following. But if he feels any sense of unease he should ask until he feels comfortable.

-From the above it is clear that their views should not be followed in all situations and at all times, because they may be wrong; rather the truth of what they say, for which there is evidence, should be followed. End quote.(taken from IslamQA fatwa no: 103339)

8. The Claim that all the Ahnaf are ignorants according to Ahlul hadeeth of Pakistan

Above claim is false as I have provided the video QA Session of Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai Rahimullah where he said Ahnaf are our brothers, he again said regarding Sultan Nur al-Din Zanki rahimullah that:

 

Ibn al Atheer said: He was scholar of fiqh on the Madhab of Abu Hanifa, and he was not biased on this [alKamil 9/125]

(Shaykh Zubair commented) These type of Hanafi scholars are not blind followers and worshipers of taqleed rather even after affiliation with school of thought and fiqh they remain followers of Quran and sunnah. Against them deobandi and brailwi people are stuck in the swamp of blind following and are biased in blind following [al Hadith no. 62 page 10]

Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai Rahimullah also used to praise Arab Ahnaf in his life, once an Arab Hanafi Mujahid was following a sunnah of Prophet peace be upon him in Salah. Shaykh Zubair Rahimullah asked you are a Hanafi still doing this? He replied its sunnah of Prophet peace be upon him, Shaykh Zubair said that shaykh Salah ud din Yusaf Hafidhaullah said we all are Ahnaf like this. [see QA session of shaykh Zubair rahimullah]

9) Conclusion

1. There is nothing wrong in following School of Thought but making taqleed even after watching authentic rulings from Qur`an and Sunnah against the Imam is Haram

2. Asking questions from Scholars is Obligatory for a lay person.

3. It is Prohibited to say that, It is Obligatory to follow one single Imam from four Imams.

4. One Should not make rulings from his own opinion, Rather he should see the opinions of Imams and then take the best ruling which is close to hadeeth.

10) Related links

d) Mathabistic Taqleed Versus The Hanafiyyah, This is one of the best topic http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showpost.php?p=75022&postcount=41

e) ḤANAFĪ AUTHORITIES BY CENTURY (A.H.) WHO DID NOT OBLIGE THE CONTEMPORARY VERSIONS OF SINGLE-MADHHAB TAQLĪD UPON THE LAYMAN http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showpost.php?p=81274&postcount=44

f) SOME ḤANAFĪ AUTHORITIES* BY MAJOR CONTEMPORARY GEOGRAPHICAL** ASSOCIATION*** WHO DID NOT OBLIGE THE PRESENT SUNNIFORUM.COM VERSION OF TAQLĪD UPON THE LAYMAN http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showpost.php?p=83024&postcount=45