Muslims VS Hulaku/Hulagu Khan the ruthless Mongol king and Battle of Ain Jalut

The Great Victory for Muslims against Hauaku or Hulagu Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan) at Ain Jalut and took back the lands the blood thirsty Mongol captured including Halab. First I will quote the massacre of Mongols.

1.The Mongols made fun of the Muslim Slogan “Allahu Akbar”.

Ibn Atheer said:

A man from Neshapur mentioned that he saw dreadful killing of Muslims hiding in a house from a window. When they used to kill a Muslim they would make fun of Takbeer and shout “Allahu Ilaahi” and after the mass killing they took the women. I heard them saddling up, singing and shouting “Allahu Ilahi” (end quote, Taken from Malik al Zaahir al Baibars by Talib Hashmi page 24.)

2. Mongols killed Millions of Muslims. Worst fitna Muslims have ever faced.

Thomas Walker Arnold (Teacher of Allama Iqbal and Sayed Suleman Nadwi) said:

When the Mongol army had marched out of the city of Herāt, a miserable remnant of forty persons crept out of their hiding-places and gazed horror-stricken on the ruins of their beautiful city—all that were left out of a population of over 100,000. In Bukhārā, so famed for its men of piety and learning, the Mongols stabled their horses in the sacred precincts of the mosques and tore up the Qur’āns to serve as litter; those of the inhabitants who were not butchered were carried away into captivity and their city reduced to ashes. Such too was the fate of Samarqand, Balkh and many another city of Central Asia, which had been the glories of Islamic civilisation and the dwelling-places of holy men and the seats of sound learning —such too the fate of Baghdād that for centuries had been the capital of the ‘Abbāsid dynasty.

[The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith. by Thomas Walker Arnold, CHAPTER VIII. Page 168]

3. Ibn Athir on Horror of Mongols, says this was the greatest calamity since the time of Adam peace be upon him.

Ibn al-Athīr comes to describe the inroads of the Mongols into the countries of Islam, ” for many years,” he tells us, ” I shrank from giving a recital of these events on account of their magnitude and my abhorrence. Even now I come reluctant to the task, for who would deem it a light thing to sing the death song of Islam and of the Muslims, or find it easy to tell this tale ? O that my mother had not given me birth ! ‘ Oh would that I had died ere this, and been a thing forgotten, forgotten quite !’ Many friends have urged me and still I stood irresolute; but I saw that it was of no profit to forego the task and so I thus resume. I shall have to describe events so terrible and calamities so stupendous that neither day nor night have ever brought forth the like; they fell on all nations, but on the Muslims more than all; and were one to say that since God created Adam the world has not seen the like, he would but tell the truth, for history has nothing to relate that at all approaches it. Among the greatest calamities in history is the slaughter that Nebuchadnezzar wrought among the children of Israel and his destruction of the Temple; but what is Jerusalem in comparison to the countries that these accursed ones laid waste, every town of which was far greater than Jerusalem, and what were the children of Israel in comparison to those they slew, since the inhabitants of one of the cities they destroyed were greater in numbers than all the children of Israel ? Let us hope that the world may never see the like again.”

[Ibn al-Athīr, vol. xii. pp. 233-4, Taken from THE PREACHING OF ISLAM by Thomas Walker Arnold page 169]

4. When Hulaku Khan killed approx one to two crore Muslims.

Ibn Kathir said Rafadis and Munafiqeen sided Hauaku Khan and asked him to kill Ahlus sunnah, He mentioned the difference of numbers who were killed:
وقد اختلف الناس في كمية من قتل ببغداد من المسلمين في هذه الوقعة.

فقيل ثمانمائة ألف، وقيل ألف ألف وثمانمائة ألف، وقيل بلغت القتلى ألفي ألف نفس، فإنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ولا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم.

وكان دخولهم إلى بغداد في أواخر المحرم، وما زال السيف يقتل أهلها أربعين يوما، وكان قتل الخليفة المستعصم بالله أمير المؤمنين يوم الأربعاء رابع عشر صفر وعفي قبره.

People differed over how many Muslims were killed in Baghdad.

It is said eight hundred thousand, it is also said one crore and 8 lacs and it is also said 2 crores.

They came to baghdad at the end of Muharram and killed for forty days and Caliph Mutasimbillah was also killed.

[al Bidaya wal Nihaya under the things happened in 656 h]

In short, no one knows the exact number but whole Baghdad was killed apart from very few people as per Ibn Kathir. This was also the end of Abbasi Caliphate.

5. The Battle of Ain Jalut.

After two years of this loss Battle of Ain Jalut Happened and Muslims won Alhumdulillah.

Ibn Kathir mentioned:

والمقصود أن المظفر قطز لما بلغه ما كان من أمر التتار بالشام المحروسة وأنهم عازمون على الدخول إلى ديار مصر بعد تمهيد ملكهم بالشام، بادرهم قبل أن يبادروه وبرز إليهم وأقدم عليهم قبل أن يقدموا عليه.
 
In short when (King) al Muzaffar Qutuz heard about what Tatar (i.e. mongol) did to al Sham and that after al Sham they are planning to capture Egypt. He started march towards them before they march at them.
 
[al Bidaya wal nihaya vol 13 under the things happened in 658 h]
 
Then he mentioned the details and said:
 
ولما كسر الملك المظفر قطز عساكر التتار بعين جالوت ساق وراءهم ودخل دمشق في أبهة عظيمة وفرح به الناس فرحا شديدا ودعوا له دعاء كثيرا، وأقر صاحب حمص الملك الأشرف عليها، وكذلك المنصور صاحب حماه، واسترد حلب من يد هولاكو، وعاد الحق إلى نصابه ومهد القواعد.
When al Muzaffar Qutuz won the battle against Tatar (Mongol) at Ain Jalut.. He entered Damascus with greatness and people became extremely happy and prayed for him… He took Halab back from Hulaku and truth came back to its place.

[al Bidaya wal nihaya vol 13 under the things happened in 658 h]

After that Hulaku sent his army to take al Sham back from the Muslims but they couldn’t do that and could’t get close to it Alhumdulillah see al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 13 under the kingship of al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari.

Note: Ibn Taymiyah was born after three years of this battle. He also did jihad with Mongols and asked Sultan to fight against them.

6. 1400 Muslims VS 6000 Mongols
 
Ibn Kathir said:
وفي هذا السنة: أغارت التتار على حلب فلقيهم صاحبها حسام الدين العزيزي، والمنصور صاحب حماه، والأشرف صاحب حمص، وكانت الوقعة شمالي حمص قريبا من قبر خالد بن الوليد، والتتار في ستة آلاف، والمسلمون في ألف وأربعمائة فهزمهم الله عز وجل.
وقتل المسلمون أكثرهم فرجع التتار إلى حلب فحصروها أربعة أشهر، وضيقوا عليها الأقوات وقتلوا من الغرباء خلقا صبرا، فإنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون.

والجيوش الذين كسروهم على حمص مقيمون لم يرجعوا إلى حلب، بل ساقوا إلى مصر، فتلقاهم الملك الظاهر في أبهة السلطنة، وأحسن إليهم، وبقيت حلب محاصرة لا ناصر لها في هذه المدة ولكن سلم الله سبحانه وتعالى.

In this Year (i.e. 659 h) the Tatar (Mongols) raided Halab and Hassam ud din al Azizi the Sultan of Halab, Munsor the Sultan of Hamaah and Ashraf the Sultan of Hamas fought them. It happened North of Hamas near the grave of Khalid bin Waleed (May Allah be pleaed with him) Tatar were 6000 and Muslims were only 1400. Allah defeated them (Mongols) and Muslims killed most of them. Then Tatar came back they had a siege on Halab for four months.. and killed the travelers.. because the armies who won the battle against the tatar were living in Hamas and they didn’t came back to Halab rather went to Egypt.. (i.e. Tatar found it useful for them and came for a siege of Halab).. but Allah saved it.
 
[al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 13 under 659 h]
7. When Hulaku Khan ran away with very few people and most of his army was defeated by Berke Khan and his alliance with Malik Zakir Baibars.
 
Berke Khan (Grandson of Ghengis Khan) made a treaty with Malik al Zaahir Rukn ad din Baibars against Hulaku Khan (Also a Grandson of Ghenghis) and defeated him.
 
Ibn Kathir said:
وفيها قدمت رسل بركه خان إلى الظاهر يقول له: قد علمت محبتي للإسلام، وعلمت ما فعل هولاكو بالمسلمين، فاركب أنت من ناحية حتى آتيه أنا من ناحية حتى نصطلمه أو نخرجه من البلاد وأعطيك جميع ما كان بيده من البلاد، فاستصوب الظاهر هذا الرأي وشكره وخلع على رسله وأكرمهم.
 
In this year Berke Khan sent his messenger to al Zaahir who said:
 
You know my Love for Islam and you also know what Hulaku did to Muslims. You should come on one side and I will come on the other side so that we may strike him or sent him (Hulaku) out of the country. I will give you all the cities which are captured by him. al Zaahir agreed with him and thanked his messengers and gave them respect.
 
[al Bidaya wal Nihaya 13 under the things happened in 661 h]
 
Then Ibn Kathir said:
وفيها التقى بركه خان وهولاكو ومع كل واحد جيوش كثيرة فاقتتلوا فهزم الله هولاكو هزيمة فظيعة وقتل أكثر أصحابه وغرق أكثر من بقي وهرب هو في شرذمة يسيرة ولله الحمد.
ولما نظر بركه خان كثرة القتلى قال: يعز علي أن يقتل المغول بعضهم بعضا ولكن كيف الحيلة فيمن غير سنة جنكيز خان ثم أغار بركه خان على بلاد القسطنطينية فصانعه صاحبها وأرسل الظاهر هدايا عظيمة إلى بركه خان.
And in the (same) year Bereke Khan and Hauaku Khan fought and both had great armies and they fought. Allah punished Hulaku and his most of the companions were killed and remaining drowned. Hulaku ran away with few people Alhumdulillah.
 
When Bereke Khan saw many dead bodies he said:
 
“I don’t like it when Mongols kill each other but what is heelah for the man who change the way of Genghis Khan then Bereke Khan attacked Constantinople… and al Zaahir sent many gifts to Bereke Khan.
 
[al Bidaya wal Nihaya 13 under the things happened in 661 h]
8. Death of Hulaku Khan
 
Ibn Kathir said:
وفيها: جاءت الأخبار بأن سلطان التتار هولاكو هلك إلى لعنة الله وغضبه في سابع ربيع الآخر بمرض الصرع بمدينة مراغة،
In this year (i.e. 663 h) the news reached that the Sultan of Tatar Hulaku died, Allah’s curse and anger be upon him on 7th Rabi al Akhir in the disease of Epilepsy.
 
[al Bidaya wal Nihaya 13 under the things happened in 663 h]
 Ibn Kathir mentioned that he died in 664 h and also said some say he died in 663 h.
9. Bereke Khan who defeated his ruthless cousin Hulaku Khan was a Muslim.
 
Ibn Kathir said:
السلطان بركه خان بن تولي بن جنكيز خان
وهو ابن عم هولاكو، وقد أسلم بركه خان هذا، وكان يحب العلماء والصالحين ومن أكبر حسناته كسره لهولاكو وتفريق جنوده
Sultan Bereke Khan bin Tawalla bin Genghis Khan was cousin of Hulaku Khan, Bereke Khan accepted Islam and he loved the scholars and the righteous. The best deed he did was to defeat Hulaku and despair his soldiers.

[al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 13 under the people who died in 665 h]

 

10. Help of Breke Khan for Muslims when A Christian reverted to Islam and Christians from the help of Mongols tortured him and Martyred him.

al-Jūzjānī, who claims to have heard the story, while in Delhi, from the lips of a certain Sayyid Ashraf al-Dīn who had come there from Samarqand.

“The eminent Sayyid thus related, that one of the Christians of Samarqand attained unto the felicity of Islam, and the Musalmans of Samarqand, who are staunch in their faith, paid him great honour and reverence, and conferred great benefits upon him. Unexpectedly, one of the haughty Mongol infidels of China, who possessed power and influence, and the inclinations of which accursed one were towards the Christian faith, arrived at Samarqand. The Christians of that city repaired to that Mongol, and complained saying: ‘ The Musalmans are enjoining our children to turn away from the Christian faith and from serving Jesus—on whom be peace—and calling upon them to follow the religion of Muṣ ṭ afặ 1—on whom be peace— and, in case that gate becomes unclosed, the whole of our dependents will turn away from the Christian faith. By thy power and authority devise a settlement of our case. The Mongol commanded that the youth, who had turned Musalman, should be produced, and they tried with blandishment and kindness, and money and wealth to induce the newly-converted Musalman to recant, but he refused to recant, and put not off from his heart and spirit that garment of freshness—the Muslim faith. The Mongol ruler then turned over a leaf in his temper, and began to speak of severe punishment; and every punishment, which it was in his power to inflict, or his severity to devise, he inflicted upon the youth, who, from his great zeal for the faith of Islam, did not recant, and did not in any way cast away from his hand the sweet draught of religion through the blow of infidel perverseness s. As the youth continued firm in the true faith, and paid no heed to the promises and threats of that depraved company, the accursed Mongol commanded that they should bring the youth to public punishment; and he departed from the world in the felicity of religion—may God reward and requite him !” [Jūzjānī, pp. 448-50. Raverty, pp. 1288-90]

Muslims asked Baraka Khan to help them.

The quote continues

“and the Musalman community in Samarqand were overcome with despondency and consternation in consequence. A petition was got up, and was attested with the testimony of the chief men and credible persons of the Musalman religion dwelling at Samarqand, and we proceeded with that petition to the camp of Baraka Khān, and presented to him an account of the proceedings and disposition of the Christians of that city. Zeal for the Muslim religion was manifested in the mind of that monarch of exemplary faith, and the defence of the truth became predominant in his disposition. After some days, he showed honour to this Sayyid, appointed a body of Turks and confidential persons among the chief Musalmans, and commanded that they should slaughter the Christian company who had committed that dire oppression, and despatch them to hell. When that mandate had been obtained, it was preserved until that wretched sect had assembled in the church, then they seized them all together, and despatched the whole of them to hell, and reduced the church again to bricks.”

[Jūzjānī, pp. 448-50. Raverty, pp. 1288-90, Taken from THE PREACHING OF ISLAM by Thomas Walker Arnold page 171]
11. After 29 years most of the Tatar (Mongols) accepted Islam.
 
Ibn Kathir said:
 
وفيها: ملك التتار قازان بن أرغون بن أبغا بن تولى بن جنكيز خان فأسلم وأظهر الإسلام على يد الأمير توزون رحمه الله، ودخلت التتار أو أكثرهم في الإسلام، ونثر الذهب والفضة واللؤلؤ على رؤوس الناس يوم إسلامه، وتسمى بمحمود.
In this year (i.e. 694 h) The king of Tatar Qazaan bin Arghoon bin Abgha bin Tawalla bin Genghis Khan accepted Islam. He accepted Islam on the hands on Ameer Tozoon Rahimaullah, Tatar or most of them accepted Islam. He (Qazaan) spent Gold, Silver and pearl on people on the day of his acceptance (i.e. due to happiness) and named himself Mahmood.
 
[al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 13 under the year 694 h]