Lesson 6 - Learn Arabic Grammar From The Basics

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Learning Arabic Grammar from the basics Lesson 6:

Recap of Last Lesson:

1. We learnt about the feminine demonstrative pronouns - أنتِ (anti)and أنتُنَّ (antunna).

2. We learnt about the detached pronouns - هُوَ (huwa), هِي (hiya), هُم (hum), هُنَّ (hunna).

3. We also learnt about female demonstrative pronouns - هَـٰذِهِ (haadhihi), تِلْكَ (tilka).

Vocabulary:

Meaning

Transliteration

Word

Meaning

Transliteration

Word

Chair

Kursiyyu-n

كُرْسِىٌّ

Watch (f)

Sa’ah-tun

سَاعَةٌ

Desk

Maktabu-n

مَكْتَبٌ

Bed

Sareeru-n

سَرِيرٌ

Shirt

Qameesu-n

قَمِيصٌ

Star

Najm-un

نَجْمٌ

Doctor (m)

Tabeebu-n

طَبِيبٌ

Engineer (m)

Muhandisu-n

مُهَندِسٌ

Car

Saiyarah-tun

سَيَّارَةٌ

Merchant

Taajiru-n

تَاجِرٌ

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مَا – What?

‘Ma’ is used to asked questions about nouns (inanimate objects/concepts)

In this part of lesson we will learn the phraseمَا هَـٰذَا؟ which means "What is this?". It is for asking about a masculine object which is close by.

Examples:

هَـٰذَا؟ مَا : What is this? هَـٰذَا؟ مَا : What is this?

قَمِيصٌ هَـٰذَا : This is a shirt نَجْمٌ هَـٰذَا : This is a star

For feminine object, which is close by, we use مَا هَـٰذِهِ؟

مَا هَـٰذِهِ؟ : What is this?

هَـٰذِهِ سَيَّارَةٌ : This is a car

In a similar fashion, for masculine objects which is far we have مَا ذَلِكَ؟ which means “What is that?”

مَا ذَلِكَ؟ : What is that?

ذَلِكَ سَرِيرٌ : That is a bed

And for feminine objects which is far we have مَا تِلْكَ؟ which means “What is that?”

مَا تِلْكَ؟ : What is that?

سَاعَةٌ تِلْكَ : That is a watch

مَنْ – Who?

‘Man’ used to ask about people (or animate nouns).

In this part we will learn the phrase مَنْ هَـٰذَا؟ which means "Who is this?" It is for asking about a human (male) who is nearby. And for a female, who is close by, we use مَنْ هَـٰذِهِ؟

Example,

مَنْ هَـٰذَا؟: Who is this? مَنْ هَـٰذِهِ؟: Who is this?

طَبِيبٌ هَـٰذَا : This is a doctor هَـٰذِهِ بِنْتٌ: This is a girl

In a similar fashion, for a male who is far, we have مَنْ ذَلِكَ؟ which means “Who is that?” and for a

female who is far, we have مَنْ تِلْكَ؟

مِنْ + مَنْ.

As we have learnt in the earlier lessons that مَنْ is a preposition meaning “from”. When we have مَنْ after it, it is written as مِمَّنْ which means “from who”.

Examples,

خَديجَةَ مِنْ هُوَ الْكِتابُ؟ مِمَّنِ : Who is the book from? It is from Khadijah.

أحمدٍ مِنْ هِيَ السَّاعَةُ؟ مِمَّنِ : Who is the watch from? It is from Ahmad.


Points to note:

Example 1:

Literally, the above sentence would mean, “From who is the book?”, but this construction sounds a little awkward in the English Language. Hence, we translate the above sentence as “Who is the book from?”

The preposition “Min” is not changing the case of the noun “Al-Kitaabu” into genitive, because After “Min” we have “Man” and then “Al-kitaabu”.

The نْ of مِمَّنْ has a kasrah in order to avoid the 2 sukoons (one present on the نْ of مِمَّنْ and the other on لْ of الْكِتابُ .We learnt this in earlier lessons.

خَديجَةَ has a fathah at the last letter, because it is in the genitive case, and we have learnt that genitive case in the case of Female Proper Names and Nouns are Mamnoo Min as-Sarf i.e. they don’t take a kasrah nor do they take a tanween.

Example 2:

The same reasons as above, except that, since Watch is feminine, hence we use “Hiya” instead of “Huwa” and also, أحمدٍ has a kasrahtaan on its last letter, since it is a masculine name and in the genitive case. It is not Mamnoo Min as-Sarf.

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Jazakallah khairan

Lesson 5 - Learn Arabic Grammar From The Basics

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Learning Arabic Grammar from the basics Lesson 5:

Table of Contents

a) Recap of Last Lesson.
b) Vocabulary.
c) Female Personal Pronouns
d) Detached Pronouns
(i) هُوَ (huwa)
(ii) هُم (hum)
(iii) هِي (hiya)
(iv) هُنَّ (hunna)
e) Demonstrative Pronoun (Feminine) - هَذِهِ (haadhihi) and تِلكَ (tilka)

a) Recap of Last Lesson:

(1) We learnt about the preposition مِِنْ (min) – meaning “from”.

(2) We learnt about the Genders in Arabic language – The Masculine and the Feminine forms and their exclusive features and conversion of nouns from masculine to feminine.

(3) Proper Names in Arabic, that male proper names may carry “tanween” while female proper names cannot.

(4) We also learnt about Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf مَمْنُوْعٌ مِنَ الصَّرْفِ that Genitive case in the case of feminine proper names or male names ending in (ة) are indicated by a “fathah” and NOT a “kasrah”

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We highly recommend that you Download this lesson in PDF from here: http://www.islamictreasure.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Lesson-5.pdf

Note: This is just the Lesson. For Examples from the Qur’an and Ahadeeth, for Tests and discussions on this lesson kindy visit: http://islamictreasure.com/forums/index.php?topic=37.0

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b) Vocabulary

  • أنْتِ (anti) – “You” (female singular)  [equivalent to (Anta) for male]
  • أنْتُنَّ (antunna) – “You” (female plural) [equivalent to (Antum) for male]
  • مَدينَةٌ (madeenah-tun) - “a city/town” (f)
  • مُدُنٌ (mudun-un) - “cities/towns”
  • دُنيَا (dunya) – “world” (f)

  • الآخِرَةُ ‎(al-aakhirah-tu) - “the Hereafter” (f)
  • قَلَمٌ (qalam-un) - “a pen” (m)
  • أقلامٌ (aqlaam-un) - “pens”
  • آيةٌ (aayah-tun) - "a verse/sign" (f)
  • آيَاتٌ (aayaat-un) – “verses/signs”
  • أُمٌّ (umm-un) – “mother”

Note: Go through the vocabulary as many times as possible and try and learn these words with meanings in a week’s time Insha’Allah. Remember, that without vocabulary, learning any language would be of no use.

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c) Female Personal Pronouns

We have already learnt about the masculine demonstrative pronouns أنتَ and أنتُمْ in Lesson 2. The feminine equivalent for these are أنْتِ (anti) and أنْتُنَّ (antunna).

Examples: ؟ مَكَّةَ مِِنْ طَالِباتٌ أنْتُنَّ هَلْ (hal antunna taalibaat-un min Makkah-ta?) – Are you all (female) students from Makkah?

؟ عائِشَةُ يَا أنْتِ أَيْنَ مِِنْ (min ayna anti ya Aaishah-tu?) – Where are you from, Oh Aaishah?

d) Detached Pronouns

Masculine

Feminine

(huwa) - He / It (singular) (3rd person)هُوَ

(hum) - They (plural) (3rd person)           هُم

(hiya) - She / It (singular) (3rd person) هِي

(hunna) - They (plural) (3rd person)           هُنَّ

 

Pronouns are of two main categories:  الضَّمائِرُ المُنْفَصِلةُ, the detached pronouns and الضَّمائَر المُتَّصِلَةُ , the attached pronouns. In this lesson we are covering the detached pronouns. We covered the 1st person (أناَ and نَحْنُ) and 2nd person pronouns (أنْتَ and أنْتُم) in Lesson 2.

 

In Arabic all nouns are either masculine or feminine. There is No Neuter Gender.

 ھُوَ (huwa) and هُم (hum)

A masculine noun is referred to by the pronoun ھُوَ (huwa) whether it denotes a human being, an animal or a

thing, and masculine plurals whether human beings or animals are referred to by the pronoun  هُم (hum).

Examples:

أَيْنَ الْوَلَدُ؟ (aynal-waladu?) - Where is the boy?  

؟ الْكِتَابُ أَيْنَ (ayna l-kitabu?) - Where is the book?

فَصْلٍ فِيْ ھُوَ (huwa fi faslin) - He is in a class.    

البَيْتِ فِيْ ھُوَ (huwa fl-bayti) - It is in the house.

هُم طُلابٌ (hum tullab-un) – They are (male) students.

 

Examples from the Qur’an:

 (a) Use of ھُوَ (huwa) for Allah –

 Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 112 verse 1:

قُلۡ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ (Qul huwa Allahu ahadun) – “Say He is Allah (the) One”

(b) Use of ھُوَ (huwa) for non human thing –

 Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 3 verse 78 referring to the false claims of the Jews and the Christians about things in their scriptures which they added themselves:

وَمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ (wa ma huwa minal-kitabi) – “and it is not from the book…”

Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 35 verse 31:

وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ هُوَ الْحَقُّ (Wa al-ladhee awhayna ilayka minal-kitabi huwa al-haqqu) – “And what We have revealed to you (O Muhammad SAW), from the Book (the Qur'ân), it is the truth”

 

هِيَ (hiya) and هُنَّ (hunna)

A feminine noun is referred to by the pronoun هِيَ (hiya) whether it denotes a human being, an animal or a

thing, and feminine plurals whether human beings or animals are referred to by the pronoun  هُنَّ (hunna) e.g.:

بِنْتٌ هِيَ (hiya bintu-n) – She is a girl. 

 البَيْتِ فِيْ هِيَ (hiya fl-bayti) - She is in the house.

هُنَّ طالِباتٌ (hunna taalibaat-un) – They are (female) students.

 

Important Rule: For 3rd person non-human plural we use the 3rd person feminine singular (hiya) as a pronoun. i.e. when we use “They” to refer to non-humans, like books, pens etc, we use هِيَ (hiya).

Examples:

؟ الْكُتُبُ أَيْنَ (ayna l-kutubu?) - Where are the books?  الْمَدرَسَةِ فِيْ هِيَ (hiya fil-madrasati) – They are in the school.

هَلِ الْمُدُنُ في مِصْرَ ؟ (halil-mudunu fi misra?) – Are the cities/towns in Egypt?

نَعَمْ هِيَ في مِصْرَ (na’am hiya fi misra) – Yes, they are in Egypt.

 

Examples from the Qur’an:

(a) Use of هِيَ (hiya) for Allah’s punishments (3rd person Non-Human Plural) -

 Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 11 verse 83 referring to His punishments:

وَمَا هِيَ مِنَ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ بِبَعِيد (wama hiya mina ad-dalimeena bi-ba’eedin) – “and they (Allah’s vengeance / punishments) are not far from the Zâlimûn (polytheists, evil-doers,)”

 

(b) Use of هُنَّ (hunna) for Women (feminine plural)

 Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 2 verse 187 referring to the women:

هُنَّ لِبَاسٞ لَّكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لِبَاسٞ لَّهُنَّۗ (hunna libasun lakum waantum libasun lahunna) – “They (women) are Libas (body cover or clothing) for you and you are Libas (body cover or clothing) for them....”

e) Demonstrative Pronoun (Feminine)

We have already learnt about the masculine demonstrative pronouns هَـٰذَا and ذَلِكَ in Lesson 4. Now we will be learning feminine demonstrative pronouns.

هَذِهِ (haadhihi)

هَذِهِ (haadhihi) is a noun of indication. It is used to indicate/point to feminine objects or people which are close in proximity.

Examples: هذِهِ إمْرَأةٌ (haadhihi ‘imra’ah-tun) – This is a woman.   فِي هَٰذِهِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا (fi haadhihi d-dunya) – In this world. [Note:dunya” is a feminine word, hence we have used the feminine demonstrative pronoun “haadhihi”]

Examples from the Qur’an:

Allah says in the Qur’an in Surah 7 verse 156:

وَٱكۡتُبۡ لَنَا فِي هَٰذِهِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةٗ وَفِي ٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ (Waoktub lana fee hadhihi ad-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati) – “And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter...”


تِلكَ (tilka)

تِلكَ (tilka) is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to feminine objects or people that are distant or far.

Examples: تِلكَ مَدينَةٌ  (tilka madeenah-tun) – That is a city.

تِلكَ زَينَبُ وَ عائِشَةُ هذِهِ (haadhihi Aaishah-tu wa tilka Zainabu) – This is Aaishah and that is Zainab.

lesson5

Jazakallah khayran

Learn Arabic Grammar From Basics: Lesson 3

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Learning Arabic Grammar from the basics Lesson 3:

Recap of Last Lesson:

(1) Default case of Arabic nouns is 'marfoo" i.e. Nominative.
(2) We learnt about the Definite Particle ال "Al"
(3) We learnt that when a noun has "Al" in the beginning then it cannot have a "tanween" at the end.
(4) The اَ "alif" of اَلْ "Al" is pronounced only when it is not preceded by another word.
(5) We learnt about the Sun and the Moon Letters.
(6) We also looked at few of the Examples from the Qur'an and the Ahadeeth.


** We highly recommend that you Download this lesson 3 in PDF **:

http://www.islamictreasure.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Lesson-3.pdf

Table of Contents
(1) Sentences in Arabic
(2) Nominal sentence - الْجُمْلَة ُ الإِسْمِيَّة (al-jumlatul ismiyyah)
(3) Properties of al-mubtada' wa l-khabar
(4) Demonstrative pronoun - اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ (Ismu l-ishaara)
a) هَـٰذَا (haadha
b) ذَلِكَ (dhaalika
(5) Noun and Particle of Questioning - حَرْفُ الإِسْتِفْهَامِ اِسْمٌ وَ
a) أيْنَ (ayna)
b) أَ (Aa)
c) هَلْ (hal)

Vocabulary

  • وَلَدٌ (waladu-n) - "A boy "

  • ﺒِﻨْﺖٌ (bintu-n) - "A girl"

  • كِتابٌ (kitaabu-n) - "A book"

  • كُتُبٌ (kutubu-n) - "Books"

  • مَسْجِدٌ (masjidu-n) - “A mosque”

  • بَابٌ (babun) - “A door”

  • قَرِيْبٌ (qareebu-n) - “Near”

  • بَعِيْدٌ (ba'eedun) – “Far away”

  • مُدَرَِّسٌ (mudarrisun) – “A (male) teacher”

  • مُدَرَِّسُوْنَ (mudarrisoona) – “(Male) Teachers”

Note: Go through the Vocabulary as many times as possible and try and learn these words with meanings in a week’s time Insha’Allah. Remember, that without Vocabulary, learning any Language would be of no use.


Sentences in Arabic

In Arabic language there are two kinds of sentences.

The one which begins with a noun is called a nominal sentence الْجُمْلَة ُ الإِسْمِيَّة (al-jumlatul ismiyyah)

And the one which begins with a verb is called a verbal sentence   اْلفِعْلِيَّةُ الْجُمْلَةُ (al-jumlatul fi'liyya)

We will be learning about the nominal sentences now, and later on we will learn about the verbal sentences Insha’Allah.


Nominal sentence - الْجُمْلَة ُ الإِسْمِيَّة (al-jumlatul ismiyyah)

Just like in English, a nominal sentence in Arabic has two parts:الْمُبْتَدَأ ُ (Al-mubtada’), translated as “Nominative Subject” and الْخَبَرُ (Al-khabar), translated as “Nominative Predicate”

The noun with which the nominal sentence begins is called (الْمُبْتَدَأ ُ) subject, and the other part which says something about it is called (الْخَبَرُ) predicate.


Few Properties of al-mubtada’ wa l-khabar which should be kept in mind.

اَلْمُبْتَدَأ (al-mubtada’) - Nominative Subject

(1) اَلْمُبْتَدَأ is from the Arabic word اَلإِبْتِدَاءُ (al-ibtida’) meaning the beginning or starting, and hence (al-mubtada) is that which comes at the beginning of the sentence.

(2) اَلْمُبْتَدَأ is a noun that is the subject of the talk or discussion.

(3) اَلْمُبْتَدَأ in its أصْلٌ (origin) is generally مَعْرِفَة ٌ (ma’arifa) i.e. definite.

(4) اَلْمُبْتَدَأ is generally مَرْفُوْعٌ (marfoo’) i.e. Nominative, meaning it takes a dhammah or dhammataan on the last letter of the ism.

اَلْخَبَرُ (al-khabar) - Nominative Predicate

(1) اَلْخَبَرُ literally means “information”. It is that which originally comes after اَلْمُبْتَدَأ (al-mubtada).

(2) اَلْخَبَرُ gives information or news about اَلْمُبْتَدَأ, and by which it completes a benefit with اَلْمُبْتَدَأ.

(3) اَلْخَبَرُ in its أصْلٌ (origin) is generally نَكِرَةٌ (nakira) i.e. indefinite.

(4) اَلْخَبَرُ is generally مَرْفُوْعٌ (marfoo’) i.e. Nominative, meaning it takes a dhammah or dhammataan on the last letter of the ism.

Note: اَلْمُبْتَدَأ (al-mubtada’) & اَلْخَبَرُ (al-khabar) will both match in gender i.e. if al-mubtada is masculine, then al-khabar will also be masculine and vice versa.

Anti bintu-n? (Correct) Anta bintu-n? (Incorrect) Anti waladu-n? (Incorrect)

If there are two subjects and they are of different genders, that is, one is masculine and one feminine, the predicate will be masculine, e.g. (ar-rajulu wal-waladu wa l-bintu tullaabun) – The man, the boy and the girl are students (m).

And NOT (ar-rajulu wal-waladu wa l-bintu taalibaatun) – The man, the boy and the girl are students (f). [Don’t get confused here, we will cover these in details in coming lessons Insha’Allah]

[Note: tullaabun means “(male) students” and taalibaatun means “(female) students”]

Examples:

الرَّجُلُ طالِبٌ (ar-rajulu taalibun) - The man is a student (Mubtada’ = ar-rajulu and khabar = taalibun)

(al-masjidu kareebu-n) – The mosque is near (Mubtada’ = al-masjidu and khabar = kareebu-n) اَلْمَسْجِدُ قَرِيْبٌ

(Nahnu fil-buyuti) We are in the houses (Mubtada’ = nahnu and Khabar = fil-buyuti) نَحْنُ في الْبُيوتِ


Demonstrative pronoun - اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ (Ismu l-ishaara)

The الأسْماءُ الإشارَةُ, demonstrative pronouns are similar to the English ‘that’, ‘this’ and they are of two types; لِلقَرِيب for things which are close, and للبَعِيد for things at a distance.

Unlike in English, demonstrative pronouns in Arabic have a different form for singular, dual, and plural, and they also change to correspond to the gender of the noun. So if the noun is feminine then the demonstrative pronoun is also feminine, however there are a few exceptions to this rule.

We will deal with these in coming lessons Insha’Allah.

In this Lesson we will not be going into too much details of all the demonstrative nouns, but will only be learning 2 demonstrative pronouns.

  • هَـٰذَا (haadha) - "This (male)"

  • ذَلِكَ (dhaalika) - “That (male)”

Note: All these above mentioned الأسْماءُ الإشارَةُ ,demonstrative pronouns are always definite by default even though you don’t see an “ال” in front of it

The اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ is used to point or indicate to people, animals, objects, things which can be felt or touched and can also indicate to things that have meaning such as رَأْيٌ ‘opinion’ or عِلْمٌ ‘knowledge’.

هَذَاْ عِلْمٌ نَافِعٌ (haadha ‘ilmu-n naafi’a) - This is beneficial knowledge


هَـٰذَا (haadha) - is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to masculine objects or people which is close in proximity.

Examples: هَـٰذَا بَيْتٌ (haadha baytu-n) – This is a house. هَـٰذَا وَلَدٌ (haadha waladu-n) – This is a boy.


ذَلِكَ (dhaalika) - is a noun of indication it is used to indicate/point to masculine objects or people that are distant or far.

Examples: ذَلِكَ مَسْجِدٌ (dhaalika masjidu-n) – That is a mosque.

بَيْتٌ ذَلِكَ وَ مَسْجِدٌ هَـٰذَا (haadha masjidu-n wa dhaalika baytu-n) – This is a mosque and that is a house.

Note: Since the demonstrative pronouns are definite nouns, so when it comes before a noun which is also definite (like nouns beginning with الْ) then, there can be a problem of ambiguity.

So, normally, a phrase like هَذَاْ الْمُدَرَِّسُ (haadha al-mudarrisu) is not a complete sentence on its own and would normally be a part of a sentence and either have some phrase before it or some phrase after it. Hence depending upon the context, it would either mean “This is the teacher” or “This Teacher”.

Note: As of now just remember this, we will be discussing this in details in the next lesson Insha’Allah.


Noun and Particle of Questioning - حَرْفُ الإِسْتِفْهَامِ اِسْمٌ وَ

أيْنَ (ayna) – Where

This is the Noun of Questioning for Place (اِسْمٌ اِسْتِفْهَامٌ لِلْمَكَانِ). It is used to ask a question about the whereabouts of someone/something.

Examples:

أنْتَ؟ أيْنَ (ayna ‘anta) – Where are you?

؟ أيْنَ الْكِتَابُ (ayna l-kitabu?) - Where is the book?


أَ (Aa) and هَلْ (hal) – equivalent to “Is? /Am? /Are? /Do? /Have?

They turn the sentence into a question. These 2 are used for questions which has YES or NO answers.

When a أَ (‘aa) or هَلْ (hal) is placed in front of a nominal sentence it becomes a question, that’s all!

This أَ is called هَمْزَةُ الإِسْتِفْهَامِ. It comes at the beginning of the sentence as do all the nouns or particles of questioning/interrogative particles. It can be used to ask a question about those possessing intellect as well as the things that do not possess intellect.

Examples:

أَهَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ ؟ (‘aa haadha kitaabu-n) or هَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ ؟ هَلْ (hal haadha kitaabu-n) meaning “Is this a book ?”

نَعَمْ، هَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ (Na’am, haadha kitaabu-n) – Yes this is a book.

أَخَلِيْلٌ مُدَرَِّسٌ ؟ (‘aa khaleelu-n mudarrisu-n?) – Is Khaleel a teacher?

Note: هَلْ has a ‘sukoon’ on the ‘laam’ and when there is another word after ‘hal’ which has a ‘sukoon’ in the beginning, then to avoid presence of 2 sukoons, the sukoon on ‘hal’ is removed and replaced by a ‘kasrah’.


lesson3

So, “Hal + al-fusoolu” will be read and written as “Halil fusoolu” and NOT “Hal al-fusoolu”


هَلِ الْطُلابُ في الْفُصولُ ؟ (hali t-tullaabu fil-fusoolu?) – Are the students in the classrooms?


Note: When you attach the interrogative أَ 'aa- before a word having the definite article Al-, then the combination will become 'aa-l-


أَ الْبَيْتُ بَعِيْدٌ ؟ (‘aa-l-baytu baeedun?) – Is the house far away?

أَ الْطُلابُ في الْفُصولُ ؟ (‘aa-t-tullaabu fil-fusoolu?) – Are the students in the classrooms?

أَ الْبَابُ في ذَلِكَ الْبَيْتُ ؟ (‘aa-l-baabu fee dhaalika l-baytu?) – Is the door in that house?

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Jazakallah khayran

Assalamualaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barkatahu

Lesson 4 - Learn Arabic Grammar From The Basics

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In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy
Assalaamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu to all the members.

We hope that all of you are in an increasing state of Eemaan and good health, Insha Allaah.

Lesson 4:

We highly recommend that you Download this lesson in PDF from here: http://www.islamictreasure.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Lesson-4.pdf



Table of Contents

a) Recap of Last Lesson.
b) Vocabulary.
c) Preposition: مـِنْ - (min).
d) Genders
(1) Masculine Form
(2) Feminine Form
e) Proper Names in Arabic.
f) Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf مَمْنُوْعٌ مِنَ الصَّرْفِ  
g) Few Examples.




a) Recap of Last Lesson:

(1) We learnt that there are two types of sentences in Arabic - nominal sentence الْجُمْلَة ُ الإِسْمِيَّة (al-jumlatul ismiyyah) and verbal sentence الْجُمْلَةُ اْلفِعْلِيَّةُ (al-jumlatul fi'liyya).
(2) We learnt about the 2 parts of a Nominal sentence - الْمُبْتَدَأُ (Al-mubtada’), translated as “Nominative Subject” and الْخَبَرُ (Al-khabar), translated as “Nominative Predicate” and also their properties of which should be kept in mind.
(3) We learnt about Demonstrative pronouns: اِسْمُ الإِشَارَةِ (Ismu l-ishaara) - هَـٰذَا (haadha) & ذَلِكَ (dhaalika).
(4) We learnt about the Noun and Particle of Questioning i.e. أيْنَ (ayna), أَ (‘aa) and هَلْ (hal)



b) Vocabulary

طَالِبَةٌ (taalibah-tun*) - "A (female) student "
طَالِباتٌ (taalibaat-un) - "(female) students"
مُدَرَِّسَةٌ (mudarrisah-tun*) - "A (female) teacher"
مُدَرَِّساتٌ (mudarrisaat-un) - "(female) teachers"
اِمْرَأَةٌ (‘imra’ah-tun*) - “A woman”
نِساء (nisaa’-un) - “women”
اَرْضٌ (ard-un) - “Earth/ground" (f)
مَدرَسَةٌ (madrasah-tun*) – “School” (f)

Note: Go through the Vocabulary as many times as possible and try and learn these words with meanings in a week’s time Insha’Allah. Remember, that without Vocabulary, learning any Language would be of no use.

* The difference between a tied taa'< ـَة and an open one ت is that a tied taa'< is pronounced -ah or -a when you stop on it rather than -at. It will be pronounced -at only if you kept speaking after saying it. If you halt your talk right after pronouncing the tied taa'<, you must turn it into -ah or -a in regular Arabic.



c) Preposition: مـِنْ - (min)

Generally مـِنْ is translated as “from” but among its other meanings are: of, some, some of, belonging to, pertaining to, away from, out of, from the direction of.

When مـِنْ comes before a noun then, like any other preposition, it turns the noun into genitive case.
Also, note that مـِنْ has a ‘sukoon’ on the ‘noon’ and hence if مـِنْ comes before a noun that has a sukoon on it’s first letter, like the definite article الْ, then in order to avoid combining two letters with sukoon on them [something that is avoided in the Arabic language], a FAT-HA is added to the ‘noon’ of مـِنْ

So, “Min + al-fusooli” will be read and written as “Minal fusooli” and NOTMin al-fusooli”.

ONLY in the case of مـِنْ is a fat-ha (َ) used as a linking vowel. IN MOST OTHER CASES A KASRAH IS USED.

[Note: We used a kasrah in case of the interrogative particle, هَلْ (hal). Refer to Lesson 3]


Examples:


مـِنْ أَيْنَ أنتَ؟ (Min ayna anta?) – Where are you from? (Literally: From where are you?)
أَنَا مِنَ الْفَصْلِ (Ana mina l-fasli) – I am from the class. [Note: the sukoon on Min changed to a fathah]
مـِنْ أَيْنَ الْكُتُبُ ؟ (Min ayna l-kutubu) – Where are the books from?
الْكُتُبُ مِنَ النّسَآءِ (Al-kutubu minan-nisaai) – The books are from the women? [Note: nisaa-un changes to genitive i.e. nisaa-i because of the preposition min and the tanween is not there because of (Al)]



d) Genders

In Arabic, all nouns fall into one of two genders: masculine (mudhakkar): مُذَكِّر or feminine (mu’annath): مُئنِّث. There is no neuter. [We will come to this is next Lesson Insha'Allah] There are, however, a few nouns which may be considered either masculine or feminine.

A. Masculine Form:

All nouns are considered masculine unless they have a feminine endings (ة) [taa’ marboota or round/tied taa] or (ى) [alif maqsoora] or (اء) [alif hamza]). There are very few exceptions to this.

B. Feminine Form:

(1) The most common feminine form is the one ending in ة) الْتَاْءُ الْمَرْبُوْطَةُ), (at-taa’ al-marboota or round/tied taa) which is the usual feminine ending e.g. سيَّارَةٌ (sayyarah-tun) meaning “a car”, طَالِبَةٌ (taalibah-tun) - "A (female) student "

Important: The ة) الْتَاْءُ الْمَرْبُوْطَةُ), (at-taa’ al-marboota or round/tied taa) is added to masculine nouns and adjectives to make them feminine. [Note: The last letter before the (ة) takes a fathah.]

Masculine Feminine Arabic

Note: If there are Nouns ending in ة) الْتَاْءُ الْمَرْبُوْطَةُ), (at-taa’ al-marboota or round/tied taa) but clearly indicates a male, then it is masculine and not feminine.

Example: حَمْزَةُ  (Hamzah), أسامَةُ  (Usaamah),   مُعاوِيَةُ (Mu’aawiyah),   طَلْحَةُ (Talhah)

The less common feminine forms are:

(2) ى) ألِف مَقْصُورَة), (alif maqsoorah) - All nouns with an alif maqsoorah are also feminine e.g. مُستَشفى (Mustashfa) meaning hospital.

Note that there aren’t two dots under the "Yaa". It is a classical beginner error to pronounce this word as "Mustashfi" rather than "Mustashfa" so watch for the two dots!

(3) اء) ألِف هَمْزَة), (alif hamzah) – This is also known as الف ممدودة (Alif Mamdooda). All nouns with an Alif Mamdooda are also feminine e.g. نِساءٌ (nisaa-un) - "women" or  أَذْكِياءُ (Adhkiya'u) meaning those men who are intelligent.

However, in determining the gender of a word of such forms, it is advisable to consult the dictionary because of the frequency of exceptions. [Note: As of now, we are not dealing into these in much detail]

There are certain words which are considered feminine by convention. Such words, generally, fall in the following categories:

a. Geographical names, i.e. towns, villages, countries, etc. [Examples: مَكَّةُ (Makkah), جِدَّةُ (Jeddah)]

b. Parts of the human body that occur in pairs [Examples: يَدٌ (yad-un) “hand” and عَيْن (a’yn) “eye”.]

[Note: All body parts which are singular (nose, head, face) are Masculine in Arabic]

c. Certain nouns which are feminine by convention
[Examples: شَمْسٌ (shams-un) “sun”, نَفْسٌ (nafs-un) “soul”, اَرْضٌ (ard-un) “earth”, نارٌ (naar-un) “fire”]

In this category, there are a few words which may be either feminine or masculine such as طَريق (Tareeq) “road”, سِكّين (sikkeen) “knife”, or سوقٌ (sooq-un) “market”.

d. Letters of the Arabic alphabet [Examples: ا (alif-un), ب (baa-un)]



e) Proper Names in Arabic

Proper names in Arabic are definite even though they generally DO NOT have ال  added to the beginning.

Many male proper names which are derived from nouns or adjectives have ( ٌ) (tanween) as their final vowel even though they are DEFINITE.

Example: حَامِدٌ is just "Hamid", and not “a Hamid”

Feminine nouns DO NOT carry a “tanween” as their final vowel as some of the masculine names do.

Example: زَيْنَبُ  (Zainab-u) ,فاطِمَةُ  (Faatimah-tu) ,  عائِشَةُ(Aaishah-tu)

So, Faatimah-tun is Incorrect Zainab-un is Incorrect because of the tanween.

Note: Male names have tanween and hence have (-un) sound in the end.
Female names don’t take tanween and hence only have the (-u) sound in the end.



f) Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf مَمْنُوْعٌ مِنَ الصَّرْفِ

(Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf) is a term that is used for a particular group of nouns which do not accept tanween and when they are in a state of مَجْرُوْرٌ (majroor) i.e. genitive, they take Fathah and NOT kasra.

Remember: The Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf DO NOT like two things, and they are nunation/tanween and the kasra.

As of now just remember that Male names ending in ة) الْتَاْءُ الْمَرْبُوْطَةُ), (at-taa’ al-marboota or round/tied taa) and all female proper names, are Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf.

Example:
If you wanted to say “This book is from Muhammad,” you would say: هاذا الْكِتابُ مِن مُحَمَّدٍ
(haadha l-kitaabu min Muhammad-in). Min is a preposition, hence Muhammadun becomes Muhammadin (genitive case)

But, if you wanted to say “This book is from Talhah,” you’d say:  هاذا الْكِتابُ مِن طَلْحَةَ (haadha l-kitaabu min Talha-ta).


Min is a preposition; Talha-ta is in the genitive case; but since it is mamnoo’ min as-sarf, genitive case is shown with fatha instead of kasra.


It is NOT “Talhat-i” or “Talhat-in” because Males name ending in taa’ marboota, are mamnoo’ min as-sarf and hence cannot take a kasra nor a tanween.

Similarly, if you wanted to say “this book is from Zaynab,” you would say: هاذا الْكِتابُ مِن زَينَبَ (notice it’s Zaynaba, not Zaynabi). Again, since Zaynab is a feminine word, hence it is mamnoo min as-sarf.

Example: هَلْ فاطِمَةُ مِن مَكَّةَ ؟ (hal Faatimah-tu min makkata?) – Is Faatimah from Makkah ?

Note: This section is just an introduction to this topic of Mamnoo’ Min As-Sarf. Insha’Allah in the near future, we’ll discuss what classes or categories of words are mamnoo’ min as-sarf.



g) Examples:

مـِنْ أَيْنَ عائِشَةُ ؟ (Min ayna Aaishatu?) – Where is Aaishah from?

عائِشَةُ طَالِبَةٌ مـِنْ مَدرَسَةَ فِي مَكَّةَ (Aaishatu taalibaatun min madrasah-ta fee Makkah-ta) – Aaisha is a student from a school in Makkah.

أَهَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ مـِنْ فاطِمَةَ ؟ (‘aa haadha kitaabu-n min Faatimah-ta?) – Is this book from Faatimah?

لاَ, هَـٰذَا كِتَابٌ مـِنْ زَينَبَ (Laa, Haadha Kitaabu-n min Zaynaba) – No, This book is from Zaynab

الْكُتُبُ مـِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مـِنْ زَينَبَ وَ عائِشَةُ مُدَرَِّسَةٌ فِي مَدرَسَةٍ (al-kutubu min Muhammad-in wa min zaynab-a wa Aaishah-tu mudarrisah-tun fi madrasah-tin) – The books are from Muhammad and from Zainab and Aaishah is a teacher in a school.




Advice:

We are here to help you and waiting to answer your queries Insha'Allah.
Anyone having any queries after they go through Lesson 4 can post his/her questions/queries here or contact us Insha'Allah.

Note:

(1) Don't feel shy that your question may sound silly or something like that. We are here to help you learn the language properly Insha'Allah, and if you don't clear even your minutest doubt then you will be building on a weak platform. You need to master the fundamentals and basics to build the whole building of learning Arabic Grammar.

(2) Few questions will soon be posted related to Lesson 4, to test what you have learnt Insha'Allah.

(3) Those who are following or taking up the course are requested to write down the vocabularies and the sentences in Arabic which they find in the lesson on a piece of paper insha'Allah. (Even if you take printouts, you should still write down the vocabulary and sentences in Arabic on a piece of Paper).

You will yourself notice why we recommend this Insha'Allah.

May Allah ease our path of seeking Knowledge. Aameen.

If we said anything correct, then it is from Allah (subhanahu wa taa'ala), and if we erred, then that is from us and shaytan.
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JazakumAllahu khairan,
wa'as salaamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu.

Learn Arabic Grammar From Basics: Lesson 2

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Learning Arabic Grammar from the basics Lesson 2:

 Table of Contents
a) Recap of Last Lesson
b) Vocabulary
c) Arabic Nouns are by default in the Nominative Case - Marfoo
d) The Definite Particle
e) Sun and Moon Letters
f) Some Solved Examples to Test Your Progress

a) Recap of Last Lesson:
(1) We learnt that the Arabic Language having 3 parts of Speech – Noun, Verbs & Particles.
(2) There are 3 Cases of Nouns in Arabic – Nominative (dhammah or dhammataan on the last letter), Accusative (fatha or fathataan on the last letter) & Genitive Case (khasrah or khasrataan on the last letter).
(3) We learnt about the Indefinite Particle "a/an" indicated by a Tanween on the last letter of the noun.
(4) We learnt about the preposition في "fee" meaning "in" which changes the case of noun to a Genitive one.
(5) We learnt that the Arabic verb 'to be' in its present tense "is/are/am" is not written in Arabic, rather it is understood to be there by default. Example: أنَا فِيْ بَيْتٍ "Ana fee baytin" means "I am in a house"

** We highly recommend that you Download this lesson 2 in PDF **:

http://www.systemoflife.com/attachments/article/345/Lesson2.pdf OR http://www.islamictreasure.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Lesson-2.pdf

b) Vocabulary
  • طَالِبٌ (taalibun) - "A (Male) Student "

  • طُلابٌ (tullaabun) - "Students"

  • فَصْلٌ (faslun) - "A class/classroom"

  • فُصولٌ (fusoolun) - "classes/classrooms"

  • رَجُلٌ (rajulun) - "A man"

  • رِجَالٌ (rijalun) - "Men"

  • وَ (wa) - “And”

  • نَعَمْ (na’am) - “Yes”

  • لا (laa) - “No”

  • أنتَ (anta) – “You” (male) singular

  • أنتُمْ (antum) – “You” (male) plural

  • أنتِ (anti) – “You” (female) singular

Note: Do not concern yourself with the vocabulary too much. You have a week’s time to learn them up Insha’Allah. Go through the Vocabulary as many times as possible and try and learn these words with meanings in a week’s time Insha’Allah. Remember, that without Vocabulary, learning any Language would be of no use.

c) Arabic Nouns are by default in the Nominative Case - Marfoo

By default, Arabic Nouns are Marfoo and something happens to the word for it to become Accusative Case (Mansoob) or Genetive Case (Majroor) so it is safe to pronounce most words with a Dammatain (double dhammah) on the last letter

Example: مسجدٌ , , طَالِبٌ بَيْتٌ , رِجَالٌ

It is essential that the vowel on the last letter is pronounced and not pronouncing it, is a critical mistake that many students make!

d) The Definite Particle (حَرْفٌ مَعْرِفَةٌ) – ال (Al)

By default a noun in Arabic is always indefinite and it is made definite by prefixing the definite particle “Alif-Laam” “ال” to it which corresponds to the English ‘the’.

When “ال” is added, one of the vowels (e.g. one of the Dhammas, Fathas or Kasras) drops out.

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Example: اَلْبَيْتُ (al-baytu) meaning “The House”, الْبُيوتُ (al-buyutu) meaning “The Houses”, الرَّجُلُ (ar-rajulu) – “The man” , الْفُصولُ (al-fusoolu) – “The Class”

When preceded by any preposition for example في (fee), these definite nouns will be in the Genitive Case and will become,

الْبَيْتِ في (fil-bayti) meaning “in the house” and NOT (fil-baytin)

الْبُيوتِ في (fil-buyooti) meaning “in the houses” and NOT (fil-buyootin)

الْفُصولِ في (fil-fusooli) meaning “in the class” and NOT (fil-fusoolin)

Note: It is essential that the second vowel on the last letter is dropped i.e. there should be only 1 dhammah or fatha or khasrah. It should not be (al-buyutun) or (al-fusoolun). This is a critical mistake that many students make by having “ال” and also Dammatain (double dhammah), Fathatain (double fatha) & Khasratain (double khasrah) on the last letter.

“So, it is grammatically incorrect for any noun to begin with Alif-Laam and end with a tanween”

Note: The اَ “alif” of اَلْ “Al” is pronounced only when it is not preceded by another word. If it is preceded by a word it is dropped in pronunciation, though remains in writing.

Example: When اَلْبَيْتُ “al-baytu” does not have any word before it, then the “al” will be pronounced, but if it is preceeded by any word like “wa” or “fee” eg. الْبَيْتِ في then the اَ (alif) is dropped and the phrase is pronounced as “fi l-bayti” and NOT “fi al-bayti”.

e) Solar Letters الْحُرُوْفُ الشَّمْسِيَّة (Al-huroof Ash-shamsiya) and

Moon Letters الْحُرُوْفُ الْقَمَرِيَّة ُ (Al-huroof Al-Qamariya)

solar_and_moon_letters

In the definitive noun, in Arabic, 2 types of letters follow the “alif lam”:

1) The Solar Letters (uncircled) : ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن

When الْ is prefixed to a noun beginning with a Solar Letter the laam of ‘al’ is not pronounced but is written, and the first letter of the ism takes a shaddah –ّ.

Examples: شَمْسٌ + اَلْ  --> اَلشَّمْسُ (ash-shamsu). رَجُلٌ + اَلْ  --> الرَّجُلُ (ar-rajulu).

2) The Lunar Letter (circled): ء ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق أ ك م ه و ي

When اَلْ is prefixed to an ism beginning with a Lunar Letter the laam of ‘al’ is pronounced and written.

Examples: قَمَرٌ + اَلْ -->  اَلْقَمَرُ (al-qamaru). بَيْتٌ + اَلْ  --> اَلْبَيْتُ (al-baytu)

In the articulation of the Solar Letters the tip or the blade of the tongue is involved in the pronunciation. The tip or the blade of the tongue does not play any part in the articulation of the Lunar Letters.

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 Note: If you want to go through examples from all the Solar and Lunar Letters, then you can do so by clicking here:

http://www.systemoflife.com/attachments/article/345/SunandMoonletterschart.pdf OR http://www.islamictreasure.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Sun-and-Moon-letters-chart.pdf

This is just a supplementary note. No need of learning them up.

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f) Some Solved Examples to Test Your Progress :

الرَّجُلُ طالِبٌ (ar-rajulu taalibun) - The man is a student

فَصْلٍٍ في أنا وَ أنا خالِدٌ (ana Khaalidun wa ana fi faslin) – I am Khaalid and I am in a class.

رَجُلٌ أنا , نَعَمْ (na’am, ana rajulun) – Yes, I am a man.

طُلابٌ مُحَمَّدٌ وَ أَنْتِ ,لا (laa, anti wa Muhammadun tullaabun) – No, you (f) and Muhammad are students.

, وَ نَحْنُ في فُصولٍ الْبَيْتِ في مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammadun fil bayti, wa nahnu fi fusoolin) - Muhammad is in the house, and we are in classrooms.

نَحْنُ في الْبُيوتِ وَ أَنْتُمْ في الْفُصولِ (Nahnu fil-buyuti wa antum fil-fusooli) - We are in the houses and you (plural) are in the classrooms.

Lesson_2

Jazakallah khayran

Assalamualaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barkatahu

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