Initiating salam to Non Muslims

Initiating Salam to Kuffar.
 
In short, Most of the scholars said that we should not initiate salam with the greetings (Assalamu alikum), and some of them say, we can initiate them by saying (Assalamu alikum). But there is NO disagreement on initiating salam to the kuffar with the words other than Assalamu alikum.
 
Contents:
 
1. The companion Abu Umama would initiate salam to everyone.
2. Ibn Masood initiated salam due to circumstances. Same was the opinion of (3). at-Tabari.
4. The Taba Tabiyee Imam Sufyan ibn ʽUyaynah and a group says it is allowed to initiate salam.
5. The opinion of Umar bin Abdul Aziz and (6), Muhammad bin Ka`b (the student of Great Sahaba like Ibn Abbad and Ibn Umar).
7. The companions Abu Darda, (8) Abdullah and (9) Fadala bin Ubaid used to initiate salam.
10: Abu Barda may Allah be pleased with him
11. Ibn al Qayyim beautifully said:
12. Conclusion of a Pakistani Salafi shaykh Khawar Rasheed Butt.
1. The companion Abu Umama would initiate salam to everyone.
 
Ibn Hajar al asqalani said:
 
وَعَكَسَ ذَلِكَ أَبُو أُمَامَةَ فَأَخْرَجَ الطَّبَرِيُّ بِسَنَدٍ جَيِّدٍ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ كَانَ لَا يَمُرُّ بِمُسلَّمٍ وَلَا نَصْرَانِيٍّ وَلَا صَغِيرٍ وَلَا كَبِيرٍ إِلَّا سَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّا أُمِرْنَا بِإِفْشَاءِ السَّلَامِ وَكَأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَطَّلِعْ عَلَى دَلِيلِ الْخُصُوصِ
Abu Umama did opposite (to this majority opinion of NOT initiating salam) as it is narrated by at-Tabari with a powerful Chain that He (Abu Umama) would say salam to to Muslims, Christians, little ones or elder ones. He was asked about it and he said: We are ordered to promote the Salam (i.e. ‘As-Salamu ‘Alaikum’ peace be onto you). (Ibn Hajar commented) As if he didn’t know the specific evidence (of not initiating salam) [Fath al Bari under the hadith no. 6255]
 
2. Ibn Masood initiated salam due to circumstances. Same was the opinion of (3). at-Tabari.
 

Ibn Hajar said:

وَاسْتَثْنَى بن مَسْعُودٍ مَا إِذَا احْتَاجَ لِذَلِكَ الْمُسْلِمُ لِضَرُورَةٍ دِينِيَّةٍ أَوْ دُنْيَوِيَّةٍ كَقَضَاءِ حَقِّ الْمُرَافَقَةِ فَأَخْرَجَ الطَّبَرِيُّ بِسَنَدٍ صَحِيحٍ عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ قَالَ كُنْتُ رِدْفًا لِابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ فَصَحِبَنَا دَهْقَانُ فَلَمَّا انْشَعَبَتْ لَهُ الطَّرِيقُ أَخَذَ فِيهَا فَأَتْبَعَهُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بَصَرَهُ فَقَالَ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَقُلْتُ أَلَسْتَ تَكْرَهُ أَن يبدؤا بِالسَّلَامِ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَلَكِنْ حَقُّ الصُّحْبَةِ وَبِهِ قَالَ الطَّبَرِيُّ

Ibn Masood excluded (the prohibition) from the one who has a religious or worldly necessity like the right of companionship. at-Tabari narrated with an authentic chain from Alqama that I was traveling with Ibn Masood sitting behind him. A Non Muslim living under Islamic rule also came with us. When he changed his way Ibn Masood saw him and said “Assalamu alikum” (May Peace be on you). Alqama said: Didn’t you consider it disliked to initiate salam to them? Ibn Masood said yes but I (said salam) due to the right of (our) companionship (i.e. he was his companion during the travel). (Ibn Hajar commented) and at-Tabari had this opinion (like that of Ibn Masood). [Fath al Bari under the hadith no. 6255]
 
4. The Taba Tabiyee Imam Sufyan ibn ʽUyaynah and a group says it is allowed to initiate salam.
 
Ibn Hajar said:
 
وقالت طائفة يجوز ابتداؤهم بالسلام فأخرج الطبري من طريق ابن عيينة قال يجوز ابتداء الكافر بالسلام لقوله تعالى لا ينهاكم الله عن الذين لم يقاتلوكم في الدين وقول إبراهيم لأبيه سلام عليك
A Group said it is allowed to initiate salam to them (kuffar) Tabari narrated from Ibn Uyainah who said it is allowed to initiate salam to the kafir due to the saying of Allah “llah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. ” [Quran, 60 : 8] (Meaning initiating salam is also being kind to them) and Ibraheem Peace be upon him said to his (Kafir) father: “Peace be upon you” [Quran 19 : 47] . [Fath al Bari under 6254]
5. The opinion of Umar bin Abdul Aziz and (6), Muhammad bin Ka`b (the student of Great Sahaba like Ibn Abbad and Ibn Umar).
 
Ibn Hajar said:
وأخرج ابن أبي شيبة من طريق عون بن عبد الله عن محمد بن كعب أنه سأل عمر بن عبد العزيز عن ابتداء أهل الذمة بالسلام فقال نرد عليهم ولا نبدؤهم قال عون فقلت له فكيف تقول أنت قال ما أرى بأسا أن نبدأهم قلت لم قال لقوله تعالى فاصفح عنهم وقل سلام
Ibn Abi Shayba narrated from Awn bin Abdullah from Muhammad bin Ka`b who asked from Umar bin Abdul Aziz regarding initiating salam to people of dhimma. He replied we will not initiate salam but we will respond their greetings. Awn asked from (Muhammad bin Ka`ab). What do you say? He replied: I do not see any harm in it. I (Awn) ask: why? He replied: Due to the verse of Allah (who said to Prophet peace be upon him) “So turn aside from them (mushriqeen) and say, “Peace.” [Quran 43 : 89] [Fath al Bari under 6254]
 
7. The companions Abu Darda, (8) Abdullah and (9) Fadala bin Ubaid used to initiate salam.
 
Ibn Ajlaan said:
أن عبد الله وأبا الدرداء وفضالة بن عبيد كانوا يبدؤون أهل الشرك بالسلام
Abullah, Abu Darda and Fadala bin Ubaid used to initiate salam to polytheists. [al Musannaf Ibn Abu Shayba 26266, authenticity is questioned but quoted as a shahid]
 
10: Abu Barda may Allah be pleased with him
 
al Shoabi said:
 
كتب أبو بردة إلى رجل من أهل الذمة يسلم عليه، فقيل له: لم قلت له؟ فقال: إنه بدأني بالسلام.
Abu Barda wrote a letter to a non muslim living under islamic rule and said salam. He was asked about it? he said: I am returning his salam. [al Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 6/141]
 
11. Ibn al Qayyim beautifully said:
وقد اختلف السلف والخلف في ذلك ، فقال أكثرهم : لا يبدءون بالسلام ، وذهب آخرون إلى جواز ابتدائهم كما يرد عليهم ، روي ذلك عن ابن عباس ، وأبي أمامة ، وابن محيريز ، وهو وجه في مذهب الشافعي رحمه الله لكن صاحب هذا الوجه قال : يقال له : السلام عليك فقط بدون ذكر الرحمة ، وبلفظ الإفراد ، وقالت طائفة : يجوز الابتداء لمصلحة راجحة من حاجة تكون له إليه ، أو خوف من أذاه ، أو لقرابة بينهما ، أو لسبب يقتضي ذلك ، يروى ذلك عن إبراهيم النخعي ، وعلقمة .
 
The salaf and khalaf differed in this case, many of them said, Do not initiate salam and others say it is allowed to initiate the salam… This is narrated from Ibn Abbas, Abi Amama, Ibn Muhayreez and this is one of the opinion in the madhab of ash-Shafiee May Allah have mercy on him, but the one who have this opinion said: Say to him Assalamu alika rather than saying (wa rahmatullah) i.e. and mercy.
 
And A group (of scholars) said: it is allowed to initiate the salam due to some purpose, like due to some interest that one intends to achieve, or because one fears the harm, or because they are relatives, or due to some other reasons like this, this is narrated from Ibraheem an-Nakh`ee and Alqama.
 
al Awzaai said: If you greet then the righteous have greeted, and if you left then the righteous have left.
 
(Zaad al-Ma’aad, 2/425, 426)
 
12. Conclusion of a Pakistani Salafi shaykh Khawar Rasheed Butt.
 
He said:
 
Many contemporary wise people say the prohibition of initiating the salam to kuffar has a specific background. Meaning The salam should not be initiated to the non Muslims who do not want Muslims to live, and like the jews of Madina they try to eliminate Islam and Muslims. And if these people say salam then say Wa alikum in return… The jews used to conspire against Islam.. when they used to say salam and talk to Muslims they used to say things against them (i.e. Al-Saamu alikum meaning May death be upon you)… It is possible that not initiating salam to them is under these circumstances and it is obvious that when circumstances change the shar`ee order also changes. [Islam me ghair Muslimoon k huqooq page 42-43]
 
The he concluded that the evidence of those who prohibits initiating is more powerful but if a Muslim initiate salam due to circumstances and think that it will make him come nearer to islam and that person is not like the jews of madina then he will not be called a man going against righteous predecessors. Because, some of the salaf used to initiate salam to them. If possible initiate with other greetings, and in case of necessities initiate with shar`ee salam. [Islam me ghair Muslimoon k huqooq page 44]