Tawassul Refutation Series (Athar of Imam Malik & Jafar)

The Athar

Once caliph Abū Ja‘far Mansūr visited Medina and he asked Imam Mālik: “While supplicating, should I turn my face to the prayer niche [and turn my back to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] or should I turn my face to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) (and turn my back to the prayer niche)?” On this interrogation, Imam Mālik replied: “(O caliph!) Why do you turn your face from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), as he is the source of mediation for you and for your ancestor Adam (عليه السلام) on the Day of Judgement? Rather you should (pray and supplicate by) turning towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and seek his intercession so that he intercedes for you before Allah on the Day of Judgement. Allah has declared:

“We sent not an apostle, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah. If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah.s forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful”(4:64)

Qādī ‘Iyād in his ash-Shifā (2:596) Subki copied in Shifā’-us-siqām fī ziyārat khayr-il-anām

Reply

This story does not state anything regarding Istigatha, rather it clearly states “(O caliph!) Why do you turn your face from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), as he is the source of mediation for you and for your ancestor Adam (عليه السلام) ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT. Rather you should (pray and supplicate by) turning towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and seek his intercession so that he intercedes for you before Allah ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT.”

So, this is regarding seeking the intercession of the Prophet peace be upon him on the day of judgement, There is not a single word in the narration which states the Prophet peace be upon him will help you if you ask him for help etc. That is why Imam Ibn Taymiyyah said:

ولكن بعض الجهال ينقل هذا عن مالك ويستند إلى حكاية مكذوبة عن مالك ولو كانت صحيحة لم يكن التوسل الذي فيها هو هذا ؛ بل هو التوسل بشفاعته يوم القيامة ولكن من الناس من يحرف نقلها وأصلها ضعيف
Some of the ignorants mentioned this from Imam Maalik and accept a false narration from Imam Malik in this regard, And even if the narration is considered as authentic than it has nothing to do with innovative tawassul, rather it is regarding intercession on the day of judgement, but some of the people change its meaning, first thing is that the narration is weak itself. [Majmu al Fatawa 1/69]

This Story is Fabricated

Shaykh Muhiydeen Muhammad ibn Ali al-Birqivi al-Hanafi (929 h) said in his book “Ziyaratul quboor” On page 58,

قال أبو حنيفة رحمه الله : يستقبل القبلة عند السلام أيضاً ولا يستقبل القبر وقال غيره : يستقبل القبر عند السلام خاصة ولم يقل أحد من الأئمة الأربعة أنه يستقبل القبر عند الدعاء ، إلا حكاية مكذوبة عن مالك ؛ ومذهبه بخلافها

Abu Hanifah Rahimullah says one should also face qiblah during salam and he should not face the grave, and other than him said one should face grave during salam only, and none of the 4 Imams said to face the grave during du’a, except a lied story from Malik, and his madhab is opposed to that..(end)

Story is Against Authentic Ahadith and Madhab of Imam Malik

Abu dawud

‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أحمد بن صالح ‏ ‏قرأت على ‏ ‏عبد الله بن نافع ‏ ‏أخبرني ‏ ‏ابن أبي ذئب ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏سعيد المقبري ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي هريرة ‏ ‏قال ‏
‏قال رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏لا تجعلوا بيوتكم قبورا ولا تجعلوا قبري ‏ ‏عيدا ‏ ‏وصلوا علي فإن صلاتكم تبلغني حيث كنتم ‏
Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Do not make your houses graves, and do not make my grave a place of festivity. But invoke blessings on me, for your blessings reach me wherever you may be. (Abu Dawood Book #10, Hadith #2037 and Albani Authenticated it)

and Muwatta Book 9, Number 9.24.88:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “O Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped. The anger on those who took the graves of their Prophets as places of prostration was terrible.”

 

Al Haythamee Quoted this Hadeeth under the Chapter of باب قوله‏:‏ لا تجعلن قبري وثناً “Chapter Saying Do not turn my grave into an idol” in his Majma Az Zawaid.

 

Ibne Abdul Hadee Authenticated By saying

وَالْحَدِيث حَسَن جَيِّد الْإِسْنَاد وَلَهُ شَوَاهِد كَثِيرَة يَرْتَقِي بِهَا إِلَى دَرَجَة الصِّحَّة . قَالَهُ الشَّيْخ الْعَلَّامَة مُحَمَّد بْن عَبْد الْهَادِي رَحِمَهُ اللَّه . ‏

Awn al Mabood Sharah Sunan Abi Dawood under the commentary of this hadeeth

Imam Malik Said

” سئل مالك رحمه الله تعالى عن الغريب يأتي قبر النبي كل يوم ، فقال : ما هذا من الأمر ، وذكر حديث : ( اللهم لا تجعل قبري وثنًا يُعبد )

Imam Malik (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about a stranger who comes to the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) each day. He said, ‘That is not right,’ and quoted the hadith, ‘O Allah, do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped.’”[al-Jami’ li’l-Bayan by Ibn Rushd Classed as sahih by al-Albani in Tahdhir al-Sajid min Ittikhadh al-Qubur Masajid, p. 24-26.]

Al-Qaadi ‘Iyaad al-Maliki said that Imam Maalik was asked:

Some of the people of Madina who “HAD NEITHER COME FROM A JOURNEY NOR WERE GOING ON A JOURNEY” would do that once a day or more, sometimes once or twice on Jumu’a or other days, giving the greeting and “MAKING SUPPLICATION FOR AN HOUR”.

He replied:

لم يبلغني هذا عن أهل الفقه ببلدنا وتركه واسع ولا يصلح آخر هذه الأمة إلا ما أصلح أولها ولم يبلغني عن أول هذه الأمة وصدرها أنهم كانوا يفعلون ذلك ويكره إلا لمن جاء من سفر أو أراده . قال ابن القاسم : ورأيت أهل المدينة إذا خرجوا منها أو دخلوا أتوا القبر فسلموا قال ولذلك رأى .
“I have not heard of this from any of the fuqaha’of my city, Leaving it is permitted and nothing is good for the latter generations of this ummah except that which was good for its first generations. I have not heard that any of the first generations of the ummah used to do that. It is disliked “EXCEPT FOR SOMEONE WHO HAS COME FROM OR IS GOING ON A JOURNEY” Imam Ibn al-Qasim (Authentic narrator from Imam Malik) said: When the people of Madina left or entered Madina, I saw that they used to come to the grave and give the greeting. He said: “AND THAT IS MY OPINION” [Al-Shifa bi Ta’reef Huqooq al-Mustafa, 2/676, Shaykh al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah quoted same passage in Majmoo Fatawa 1/232]

al-Qadi ‘Iyaad al-Maliki on how the Prophet’s intercession is sought:
وقد عرف بالنقل المستفيض سؤال السلف الصالح – رضي الله عنهم – شفاعة نبينا – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ورغبتهم فيها ، وعلى هذا لا يلتفت إلى قول من قال إنه يكره أن يسأل الإنسان الله تعالى أن يرزقه شفاعة محمد – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ، لكونها لا تكون إلا للمذنبين فإنها قد تكون كما قدمنا لتخفيف الحساب ، وزيادة الدرجات ثم كل عاقل معترف بالتقصير ، محتاج إلى العفو ، غير معتد بعمله ، مشفق من أن يكون من الهالكين ، ويلزم هذا القائل ألا يدعو بالمغفرة والرحمة ; لأنها لأصحاب الذنوب ، وهذا كله خلاف ما عرف من دعاء السلف والخلف . هذا آخر كلام القاضي – رحمه الله – والله أعلم .
From the famous narrations it is evident that the righteous predecessors would seek the Prophet’s intercession and they had a desire to do that. So, do not pay attention to the one who claim that it is disliked to ask Allah for the intercession of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. Because his intercession is not limited to the sinners, rather ease in the hisaab (of the person), and It would also be for it would also be for increase in darajaat. [Sharah Sahih Muslim hadith no: 183]

It clearly states that we should ask Allah for the intercession of the Prophet peace be upon him.
Reply by Ibne Abdul Hadi to As Subki

Taken From: http://www.umm-ul-qura.org/info/user_pages/page.asp?art_id=111

As-Subki also quoted the narration of Qadhi ‘Iyad in his “Shifa” that Ja’far Mansur, the second ‘Abbasid caliph, when visiting the Prophetic mosque asked Imam Malik: “Shall I turn my face towards the Ka’ba or face the grave of the Messenger of Allah (saw) for invocation?” To which Imam Malik replied: “How can you turn your face away from the Messenger of Allah? He is your Wasilah and the Wasilah of your father Adam, peace be upon him! Rather turn your face towards him and seek intercession though him!…”

The Isnad is Qadhi ‘Iyadh: Qadhi Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad ibn ‘AbdirRahman Al-Ash’ari and Abu Al-Qasim Ahmad ibn Baqi Al-Hakim and others who gave me the authority to narrate this, they said: Abu Al-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn Dalhath narrated to us, Abul Hasan ‘Ali ibn Fihr narrated to us, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Faraj narrated to us, Abul Hasan ‘Abdullah ibn Al-Muntab narrated to us, Ya’qub ibn Ishaq ibn Abi Israil narrated to us, ibn Humayd narrated to us: he said Abu Ja’far Emir Al-Muminin called Malik in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (saw)…

Ibn ‘Abdil Hadi said after quoting the story attributed to Imam Malik: “I say: What is known from Malik is not facing the grave for invocation, and this story quoted by Qadi ‘Iyad with his Isnad to Malik is not true from him, and the objector (As-Subki) said in a place of his book its Isnad is a good (Jayd) Isnad, and he is mistaken in this saying with a clear mistake, rather the Isnad is not good, it is an unjust Munqati’ (disconnected) Isnad, and it comprehends someone accused of lying, and on some whose condition is not known, and ibn Humayd is Muhammad ibn Humyd Ar-Razi, he is weak with a lot of Manakir, not based upon in narrations, and he did not hear anything from Malik nor met him, rather this narration from him is Munqati’ not continuous.

And the objector thought that he (Muhammad ibn Humayd) is Abu Sufyan Muhammad ibn Humayd Al-Mu’amari, one of the trustworthy narrators present in “Sahih Muslim”, he said: “Al-Khatib mentioned him among those who narrated from Malik” and he made a clear mistake in his thinking and an ugly error, because Muhammad ibn Humayd Al-Mu’amari came before, Ya’qub ibn Ishaq ibn Abi Israil the narrator from ibn Humayd in the story did not reach him, rather there is a great gap between them. Al-Mu’amari narrated from Hisham ibn Hasaan, Mu’amar and Ath-Thawri, and he did in 182H before the birth of Ya’qub ibn Ishaq ibn Abi Israil. As for Muhammad ibn Humayd Ar-Razi then he is among the narrators from Al-Mu’amari like Abu Khaythamah, ibn Numayr, ‘Amr An-Naqid and others, and his death was in 248, and it is possible for Ya’qub ibn Ishaq to narrate from him contrary to narrating from Al-Mu’amari, because it is impossible.

Muhammad ibn Humayd Ar-Razi, and he is the one from whom the narration is narrated, has been criticised by many Imams and some attributed lie to him.

Ya’qub ibn Shaybah As-Sudusi said: “Muhammad ibn Humayd Ar-Razi mentions many Manakir” (note from Muhaqiq of “Sarim Al-Munki: see “Tahzib” 9/129)

Al-Bukhari said: “Hadithuhu fihi Nadhar (his Hadith has observations)” (At-Tarikh Al-Kabir 1/69 and “Ad-Du’afa As-Saghir” n°315)

An-Nassa’i said “He is not Thiqah” (“Ad-Du’afa wal Matrukin” p 32)

Ibrahim ibn Ya’qub Al-Juzjani said: “He had a bad Madhab, he is not trustworthy” (“Ahwal Ar-Rijal” n°382)

Fadlak Ar-Razi said: “I have fifty thousands Ahadith from ibn Humayd, and I do not narrate a word from him.” (“Tahzib” 9/129)

Abul ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Azhari said: “I heard Ishaq ibn Mansur saying: “I witness in front of Allah that Muhammad ibn Humayd and ‘Ubayd ibn Ishaq Al-‘Atar are both liars.” (“Tahzib” 9/129)

Salih ibn Muhammad Al-Hafiz: “Every Hadith from Sufyan that reached him he would turn it to Mihran, and every Hadith from Mansur that reached him he would turn it ‘Amr ibn (Abi) Qays, and every Hadith of Al-A’mash that reached him he would turn it to similar to these and to ‘Anbasah” then he said: “Everything he was narrating, we would accuse him (of lying in it).”

And he said in another place: “His Ahadith would add (in words) and I have not seen someone daring (more lies) on Allah than him, he would take the Ahadith of people and would inverse them” and he said in another place: “I have not seen anyone more keen to lie than two men: Sulayman Ash-Shazkuni and Muhammad ibn Hameed Ar-Razi, he would learn a Hadith one day, and would add, and every day he would add (words). Abul Qasim said: ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdil Karim Ar-Razi, the nephew of Abu Zur’ah: I asked Abu Zur’ah about Muhammad ibn Humayd and he made a sign putting his finger on his mouth” I asked him: “Would he lie?” and he answered with his head saying yes…

Abu Nu’aym ‘Abdul Malik ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Adi: I heard Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn Idris Ar-Razi in his house, and ‘AbdurRahman ibn Yusuf ibn Kharash was present with him and also a group of scholars of (region of) Ray and their Hufaz of Hadith, and they mentioned ibn Humayd and they agreed on the fact that he was very weak in Hadith and he narrates what he did not hear, and he would take the Ahadith of the people of Basrah and Kufah and narrate them from the two Razi. Abul ‘Abbas ibn Sa’id said: I heard Dawud ibn Yahya saying: Abu Hatim heard from him before, meaning from Muhammad ibn Humayd then he left him at the end, he said: I heard ‘AbdurRahman ibn Yusuf Kharash saying that ibn Humayd narrated to him and by Allah he was a liar. (Al-Kamil 6/2277)

Abu Hatim ibn Hibban Al-Busti said in his “Kitab Ad-Du’afa”: Muhammad ibn Humayd Ar-Razi, his Kubiyah is Abu ‘Abdillah, he narrates from ibn Al-Mubarak and Jarir, our Shuyukh narrated from him and he died in 248H, and he was among those who were alone in inversing narrations of Thiqat, and specially when he narrated from the Shuyukh of his country…”

Al-‘Uqayli said in his “Kitab Ad-Du’afa”: “Ibrahim ibn Yusuf narrated to us, he said: Abu Zur’ah, Muhammad ibn Muslim narrated a lot from Muhammad ibn Humayd then they stopped narrating from him. And Al-Hakim Abu Ahmad said in his “Kitab Al-Kuna”: Abu ‘Abdillah Muhammad ibn Humayd Ar-Razi is not strong for them and Abu ‘Abdillah ibn Yahya Az-Zuhli and Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah abandoned him.” End of ibn ‘Abdil Hadi’s words

Also after the weakness of ibn Humayd, there is also disconnection as ibn Humayd did not meet Malik as explained by Ibn Taymiyah in his “Al-Qa’idah Al-Jalilah fi Tawassul Wal Wasilah” and this chain contains other unknown narrators.

Related Links

http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showthread.php?t=1649
http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vbe/showthread.php?t=435