Killing Non Combatants in War with Kuffar

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Contents
1. The order of Prophet peace be upon him And consensus of the Muslims.
2. The order of Abu Bakr May Allah be pleased with him.
3. The order of Umar ibn al Khattab May Allah be pleased with him.
4. The practice of Sahaba i.e. not to kill the businessmen among the mushrikeen.
5.The Clarification of Ibn Abbas that thhe Prophet peace be upon him fought only with the mushrikeen who used to fight him.
6.
 Meaning of the hadith "I have been commanded that I should fight against people till they declare that there is no god but Allah "
7. Commentary on the hadith where a woman was killed and the Prophet peace be upon him said: "They (women and children) are from them (pagans).
8. The commentary of Righteous predecessors and school of thoughts on Surah al Baqarah verse 190-193 
9. Commentary on Surah al Maaida verse 8
10. Making the children hostage. 
11. Ibn Kathir on doing harm to dhimmi's in retaliation to the killing of Christian Army.
12. Non combatants are not to be killed purposely even if he may be a zaani or faasiq.
13. Killing other than killers in retaliation.
14. Rights of a Non Muslim living under the Muslim rule.
15. Giving Asylum to a Harbi Kafir
16. The practice of Salah ad-Din Ayyubi.
17. Consensus of the Muslims.
18. Advice of Shaykh al Albani to the young Khawarij who are trying to please Allah.
  • 1. The order of Prophet peace be upon him.
Hadith no. 1
 
Abd ar-Rahman ibn Kab said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade those who fought ibn Abi Huqayq (a treacherous jew from Madina) to kill women and children. He said that one of the men fighting had said, 'The wife of ibn Abi Huqayq began screaming and I repeatedly raised my sword against her. Then I would remember the prohibition of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, so I would stop. Had it not been for that, we would have been rid of her.'" [Maliks Muwatta Book 021, Hadith Number 008. Section : Prohibition against Killing Women and Children in Military Expeditions.]
 
Hadith no. 2

The Prophet peace be upon him said: "Tell Khalid not to kill a woman or a hired servant."
[Grade Hasan Sahih (Al-Albani) Sunan Abi Dawud 2669]

Hadith no. 3 


Ibn Umar  said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.. forbade the killing of women and children. [Maalik's Muwatta Book 21, Hadith 9]
  • 2. The order of Abu Bakr May Allah be pleased with him.
Maliks Muwatta Book 021, Hadith Number 010. Section : Prohibition against Killing Women and Children in Military Expeditions.

Abu Bakr advised Yazid."I advise you ten things, Do not kill women or children or an aged, infirm person. Do not cut down fruit-bearing trees. Do not destroy an inhabited place. Do not slaughter sheep or camels except for food. Do not burn bees and do not scatter them. Do not steal from the booty, and do not be cowardly."

  • 3. The order of Umar ibn al Khattab May Allah be pleased with him.
Ibn Abi Shayba mentioned two narrations from Umar May Allah be pleased with him.
 حدثنا عبد الله بن نمير قال ثنا عبيد الله عن نافع عن ابن عمر قال : كتب عمر إلى أمراء الأجناد أن لا تقتلوا امرأة ولا صبيا وأن تقتلوا من جرت عليه المواسي . 
 حدثنا عبد الرحيم بن سليمان عن عبيد الله عن نافع عن أسلم مولى عمر أن عمر كتب إلى عماله ينهاهم عن قتل النساء والصبيان وأمرهم بقتل من جرت عليه المواسي . 
Ibn Umar and the freed slave of Umar, Aslam that Umar wrote to his governors, that do not kill women and children (in war) rather kill their grown ups (i.e. the fighters) 
 
[  حدثنا محمد بن فضيل عن يزيد بن أبي زياد عن زيد بن وهب قال : أتانا كتاب عمر : لا تغلوا ولا تغدروا ولا تقتلوا وليدا واتقوا الله في الفلاحين . 
Zayd ibn Wahab said: Umar wrote.. Do not kill the children and fear Allah regarding the farmers. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, Kitab al Jihad, Chapter 95 "Those who are NOT allowed to kill in Dar al Harb i.e. in War"]

Consensus of the Muslims


Mulla Ali al qar said that Ibn Humam said:
 وما أظن إلا أن حرمة قتل النساء والصبيان إجماع  وعن أبي بكر ، أنه أوصى يزيد بن أبي سفيان حين بعثه إلى الشام فقال لا تقتلوا الولدان ولا النساء ولا الشيوخ الحديث . قال : لكن يقتل من قاتل من كل من قلنا إنه لا يقتل كالمجنون والصبي والمرأة والشيوخ والرهبان ، إلا أن الصبي والمجنون يقتلان في حال قتالهما 
What I think is that there is consensus on prohibition of killing  women and children, When Abu Bakr sent Yazeed bin abi Sufiyan towards ash-Sham, He advised not to kill children, women and old men. He (Ibn Humam) said: But kill those who kill you among them.  [Mirqaat al mafateeh under 3942]
  • 4. The practice of Sahaba i.e. not to kill the businessmen among the mushrikeen.
Ibn Abi Shayba narrated:
حدثنا عبد الرحيم عن أشعث عن الزبير عن جابر بن عبد الله قال : كانوا لا يقتلون تجار المشركين
Jabir bin Abdullah said: They (the Sahaba) would not kill the businessmen of mushrikeen.
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, Kitab al Jihad, Chapter 95 "Those who are NOT allowed to kill in Dar al Harb i.e. in War"] 
  • 5. The Clarification of Ibn Abbas that  the Prophet peace be upon him fought only with the mushrikeen who used to fight him.
Ibn Abbas said something very clear which Islamic critics need to understand about Islam and violence…
كان المشركون على منزلتين من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والمؤمنين، كانوا مشركي أهل الحرب يقاتلهم ويقاتلونه، ومشركي أهل العهد لا يقاتلهم ولا يقاتلونه
The pagans were of two kinds as regards their relationship to the Prophet and the Believers. Some of them were those with whom the Prophet was at war and used to fight against, and they used to fight him; the others were those with whom the Prophet made a treaty, and neither did the Prophet fight them, nor did they fight him. [Saheeh Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 63, Number 210]
  • 6. Meaning of the hadith "I have been commanded that I should fight against people till they declare that there is no god but Allah "
Shaykh al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said
 وَقَوْلُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ {أُمِرْت أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَنْ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ؛ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ} مُرَادُهُ قِتَالُ الْمُحَارِبِينَ الَّذِينَ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ فِي قِتَالِهِمْ لَمْ يُرِدْ قِتَالَ الْمُعَاهَدِينَ الَّذِينَ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِوَفَاءِ عَهْدِهِمْ. 
The saying of Prophet peace be upon him "I have been commanded that I should fight against people till they declare that there is no god but Allah" It refers to fighting those who are waging war, whom Allah has permitted us to fight. It does not refer to those who have a covenant with us with whom Allah commands us to fulfill our covenant.” [Majmu Fatawa 19/20]
  • 7. Commentary on the hadith where the woman was killed, the Prophet peace be upon him said: "They (women and children) are from them (pagans).
Narated By As-Sab bin Jaththama : The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, "They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans)." I also heard the Prophet saying, "The institution of Hima is invalid except for Allah and His Apostle."
 
Ibn Hajar writes in his commentary on this hadîth in Fath al-Bârî:
( هم منهم ) أي في الحكم تلك الحالة ، وليس المراد إباحة قتلهم بطريق القصد إليهم ،
“They are of them” means that they are construed as such under those circumstances. It does not mean that it is permissible to deliberately target them.
 
Then he said
وكان الزهري إذا حدث بهذا الحديث قال : وأخبرني ابن كعب بن مالك عن عمه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لما بعث إلى ابن أبي الحقيق نهى عن قتل النساء والصبيان " انتهى ، وهذا الحديث أخرجه أبو داود بمعناه من وجه آخر عن الزهري ، وكأن الزهري أشار بذلك إلى نسخ حديث الصعب ، وقال مالك والأوزاعي : لا يجوز قتل النساء والصبيان بحال حتى لو تترس أهل الحرب بالنساء والصبيان أو تحصنوا بحصن أو سفينة وجعلوا معهم النساء والصبيان لم يجز رميهم ولا تحريقهم . وقد أخرج ابن حبان في حديث الصعب زيادة في آخره : ثم نهى عنهم يوم حنين ، وهي مدرجة في حديث الصعب ، وذلك بين في سنن أبي داود فإنه قال في آخره : قال سفيان قال الزهري : ثم نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد ذلك عن قتل النساء والصبيان " ويؤيد كون النهي في غزوة حنين ما سيأتي في حديث رياح بن الربيع الآتي " فقال لأحدهم : الحق خالدا فقل له لا تقتل ذرية ولا عسيفا ، والعسيف بمهملتين وفاء الأجير وزنا ومعنى ، وخالد أول مشاهده مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم غزوة الفتح ، وفي ذلك العام كانت غزوة حنين ، وأخرج الطبراني في " الأوسط " من حديث ابن عمر قال " لما دخل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مكة أتي بامرأة مقتولة فقال ما كانت هذه تقاتل ونهى " فذكر الحديث ، وأخرج أبو داود في " المراسيل " عن عكرمة أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى امرأة مقتولة بالطائف فقال : ألم أنه عن قتل النساء ، من صاحبها ؟ فقال رجل : أنا يا رسول الله أردفتها فأرادت أن تصرعني فتقتلني فقتلتها ، فأمر بها أن توارى ويحتمل في هذه التعدد ، والذي جنح إليه غيرهم الجمع بين الحديثين كما تقدمت الإشارة إليه ، وهو قول الشافعي والكوفيين ، وقالوا : إذا قاتلت المرأة جاز قتلها . وقال ابن حبيب من المالكية : لا يجوز القصد إلى قتلها إلا إن باشرت القتل وقصدت إليه . قال : وكذلك الصبي المراهق . ويؤيد قول الجمهور ما أخرجه أبو داود والنسائي وابن حبان من حديث رياح بن الربيع وهو بكسر الراء والتحتانية التميمي قال " كنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في غزوة ، فرأى الناس مجتمعين ، فرأى امرأة مقتولة فقال : ما كانت هذه لتقاتل " فإن مفهومه أنها لو قاتلت لقتلت ، واتفق الجميع كما نقل ابن بطال وغيره على منع القصد إلى قتل النساء والولدان ، أما النساء فلضعفهن ، وأما الولدان فلقصورهم عن فعل الكفر ، ولما في استبقائهم جميعا من الانتفاع بهم إما بالرق أو بالفداء فيمن يجوز أن يفادى به ، وحكى الحازمي قولا بجواز قتل النساء والصبيان على ظاهر حديث الصعب ، وزعم أنه ناسخ لأحاديث النهي ، وهو غريب ، وسيأتي الكلام على قتل المرأة المرتدة في كتاب القصاص . 
 
When Zuhri mentioned the narration of ("They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).") he used to mention another narration i.e. "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade those who fought ibn Abi Huqayq (a treacherous jew from Madina) to kill women and children.” Abu Dawud also mentioned the meaning of it from him, ZUHRI POINTED OUT THE ABROGATION OF THE HADITH OF As-Sab bin Jaththama (i.e. where The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, "They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).").
MALIK AND AL AWZAAI SAID IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO KILL WOMEN AND CHILDREN AT ALL EVEN IF THE PEOPLE OF WAR TAKE THEM AS A SHEILD OR TAKE THEM IN A CASTLE OR A SHIP THEN IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO ATTACK.
Ibn Hibban mentioned the takhreej of this hadeeth OF As-Sab bin Jaththama (i.e. where The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, "They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).) and mentioned the words “Then It was prohibited on the day of al Hunain” But this is Mudarraj in this hadith (i.e. a Hadith in which the words of a narrator or an author creep into the Matn or Sanad, such that it is thought that it is part of the Hadith) which can be cleared from the hadith of abu Dawud which states “Al-Zuhri said (after quoting the narration "They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).") “Thereafter the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) prohibited to kill women and children”.
 
The evidence of this prohibition being on the day of al Hunain is the hadith of Rabah ibn Rabi' in which Prophet peace be upon him said: “Tell Khalid not to kill children or a hired servant.” Khalid’s first Ghazwah with Prophet peace be upon him was Fatah al Makkah and right after that Hunain happened.
 
at-Tabrani mentioned in al Awsat from Ibn Umar ra when Prophet peace be upon him entered into Makkah, there was a dead body of a woman who was killed. Prophet peace be upon him said: She was not fighting then he forbade it.
 
Abu Dawud mentioned in Maraseel from Ikrimah that when Prophet peace be upon him saw a dead body of a woman at the time of siege of Taaif, He said: Didn’t I forbade killing women?
Other scholars reconciled these ahadeeth that if the woman herself participate in the war (against Muslims to kill them) then it is allowed to kill. This is the opinion of ash-Shafiee and Kufis, Ibn Habeeb Maliki states if a boy who is going to be adult is taking part in war then it is allowed to kill.
 
The opinion of the majority of the scholars is supported by the hadeeth mentioned in Abu Dawud, an-Nisaee and Ibn Hibban Narrated Rabah ibn Rabi':
 
When we were with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) on an expedition, he saw some people collected together over something and sent a man and said: See, what are these people collected around? He then came and said: They are round a woman who has been killed. He said: This is not one with whom fighting should have taken place.” Meaning if she was taking part in war then it is allowed to kill.
 
ALL THE SCHOLARS ARE AGREED as mentioned by Ibn Battal and others that IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO KILL A WOMAN AND CHILDREN DELEBRATELY. Women due to physical weakness and the children due to not doing kufr, and it is good not to kill them (in war with kuffar) they will be either slaves or ransom will be taken from them.
 
Hazimi mentioned the saying of jawaz and they falsely claim that the hadith of Sab ra is abrogation of the hadith of prohibition (of killing women) but this saying is ghareeb. [Fath al Bari Kitab: Al Jihad wal Sayr, Chapter: Probability of killing the babies and children hadith no. 3012 6/146]
  • 8. The commentary of Righteous predecessors and school of thoughts on Surah al Baqarah verse 190-193.
Allah says in Surah al Baqarah.
 
(190. And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.) (191. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. ) (192. But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and the religion (all and every kind of worship) is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimin (the polytheists and wrongdoers).)
 
at-Tabari narrated from Mujahid (Student of Ibn Abbas) 
حدثنـي مـحمد بن عمرو، قال: ثنا أبو عاصم، قال: ثنا عيسى، عن ابن أبـي نـجيح، عن مـجاهد: { فإنِ انْتَهَوْا فَلا عُدْوَانَ إلاَّ علـى الظَّالِـمِينَ } يقول: لا تقاتلوا إلا من قاتلكم.
 
حدثنـي الـمثنى، قال: ثنا أبو حذيفة، قال: ثنا شبل، عن ابن أبـي نـجيح، عن مـجاهد، مثله.
Mujahid said:  "let there be no transgression except against Az-Zalimin" i.e. Do not fight except those who fight you. [Tafsir at-Tabari under 2 : 193]
 
at-Tabari narrated from Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz 
حدثنـي ابن البرقـي، قال: ثنا عمرو بن أبـي سلـمة، عن سعيد بن عبد العزيز، قال: كتب عمر بن عبد العزيز إلـى عديّ بن أرطاة: إنـي وجدت آية فـي كتاب الله: { وَقاتِلُوا فِـي سَبِـيـلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلا تَعْتَدُوا إنَّ اللَّهَ لا يُحِبُّ الـمُعْتَدِينَ } أي لا تقاتل من لا يقاتلك، يعنـي النساء والصبـيان والرهبـان.
He said: "And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors." Meaning, Do not fight those who do not fight you, meaning the women, children and Rahbaan. [Tafsir at-Tabari under 2 : 191]
 
at-Tabari narrated from Ibn Abbas 
حدثنـي علـيّ بن داود، قال: ثنا أبو صالـح، قال: ثنـي معاوية، عن علـيّ، عن ابن عبـاس: { وَقاتِلُوا فِـي سَبِـيـلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلا تَعْتَدُوا إنَّ اللَّهَ لا يُحِبُّ الـمُعْتَدِينَ } يقول: لا تقتلوا النساء ولا الصبـيان ولا الشيخ الكبـير ولا من ألقـى إلـيكم السلـم وكفّ يده، فإن فعلتـم هذا فقد اعتديتـم.
"And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors."  Meaning do not fight the women, the children, the old man, the one who want peace and stop his hand from fighting, If you fight them then you will be the transgressors. [Tafsir at-Tabari under 2 :191, Ali ibn Abi Talha did not hear from Ibn Abbas but this goes along with the ahadith and the tafsir of his student Mujahid, who learned the whole tafsir from Ibn Abbas, also in one narration he forbade the killing of the children of mushriqs Musnad Ahmad (2685); Saheeh by Ahmad Shaakir]
 
al Qurtubi commented
 وقال ابن عباس وعمر بن عبد العزيز ومجاهد : هي محكمة أي قاتلوا الذين هم بحالة من يقاتلونكم ، ولا تعتدوا في قتل النساء والصبيان والرهبان وشبههم ، على ما يأتي بيانه . قال أبو جعفر النحاس : وهذا أصح القولين  في السنة والنظر ، فأما السنة فحديث ابن عمر أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رأى في بعض مغازيه امرأة مقتولة فكره ذلك ، ونهى عن قتل النساء والصبيان ، رواه الأئمة ، وأما النظر فإن " فاعل " لا يكون في الغالب إلا من اثنين ، كالمقاتلة والمشاتمة والمخاصمة ، والقتال لا يكون في النساء ولا في الصبيان ومن أشبههم ، كالرهبان والزمنى والشيوخ والأجراء فلا يقتلون ، وبهذا أوصى أبو بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه يزيد بن أبي سفيان حين أرسله إلى الشام ، إلا أن يكون لهؤلاء إذاية ، أخرجه مالك وغيره ، وللعلماء فيهم صور ست : 
الأولى : النساء إن قاتلن قتلن ، قال سحنون : في حالة المقاتلة وبعدها ، لعموم قوله : وقاتلوا في سبيل الله الذين يقاتلونكم ، واقتلوهم حيث ثقفتموهم . وللمرأة آثار عظيمة في القتال ، منها الإمداد بالأموال ، ومنها التحريض على القتال ، وقد يخرجن ناشرات شعورهن نادبات مثيرات معيرات بالفرار ، وذلك يبيح قتلهن ، غير أنهن إذا حصلن في الأسر فالاسترقاق أنفع لسرعة إسلامهن ورجوعهن عن أديانهن ، وتعذر فرارهن إلى أوطانهن بخلاف الرجال . 
 
الثانية : الصبيان فلا يقتلون للنهي الثابت عن قتل الذرية ; ولأنه لا تكليف عليهم ، فإن قاتل [ الصبي ] قتل . 
 
الثالثة : الرهبان لا يقتلون ولا يسترقون ، بل يترك لهم ما يعيشون به من أموالهم ، وهذا إذا انفردوا عن أهل الكفر ، لقول أبي بكر ليزيد : " وستجد أقواما زعموا أنهم حبسوا أنفسهم لله ، فذرهم وما زعموا أنهم حبسوا أنفسهم له " فإن كانوا مع الكفار في الكنائس قتلوا ، ولو ترهبت المرأة فروى أشهب أنها لا تهاج . وقال سحنون : لا يغير الترهب حكمها . قال القاضي أبو بكر بن العربي : " والصحيح عندي رواية أشهب ; لأنها داخلة تحت قوله : " فذرهم وما حبسوا أنفسهم له " . 
 
الرابعة : الزمنى . قال سحنون : يقتلون ، وقال ابن حبيب : لا يقتلون ، والصحيح أن تعتبر أحوالهم ، فإن كانت فيهم إذاية قتلوا ، وإلا تركوا وما هم بسبيله من الزمانة وصاروا مالا على حالهم وحشوة . 
 
الخامسة : الشيوخ . قال مالك في كتاب محمد : لا يقتلون ، والذي عليه جمهور الفقهاء : إن كان شيخا كبيرا هرما لا يطيق القتال ، ولا ينتفع به في رأي ولا مدافعة فإنه لا يقتل ، وبه قال مالك وأبو حنيفة . وللشافعي قولان : أحدهما : مثل قول الجماعة ، والثاني : يقتل هو والراهب ، والصحيح الأول لقول أبي بكر ليزيد ، ولا مخالف له فثبت أنه إجماع ، وأيضا فإنه ممن لا يقاتل ولا يعين العدو فلا يجوز قتله كالمرأة ، وأما إن كان ممن تخشى مضرته بالحرب أو الرأي أو المال فهذا إذا أسر يكون الإمام فيه مخيرا بين خمسة أشياء : القتل أو المن أو الفداء أو الاسترقاق أو عقد الذمة على أداء الجزية . 
 
السادسة : العسفاء ، وهم الأجراء والفلاحون ، فقال مالك في كتاب محمد : لا يقتلون وقال الشافعي : يقتل الفلاحون والأجراء والشيوخ الكبار إلا أن يسلموا أو يؤدوا الجزية . والأول أصح ، لقوله عليه السلام في حديث رباح بن الربيع الحق بخالد بن الوليد فلا يقتلن ذرية ولا عسيفا ، وقال عمر بن الخطاب : اتقوا الله في الذرية والفلاحين الذي لا ينصبون لكم الحرب ، وكان عمر بن عبد العزيز لا يقتل حراثا ، ذكره ابن المنذر . 
 
Ibn Abbas, Umar bin Abdul Aziz and Mujahid said: This verse is Muhkam meaning Qitaal is for those who do qitaal against us, And do not transgress the limits in killing women, children and Raahibaan it will be mentioned further. 
 
Abu Jafar an-Nahaas said this is the best saying in sunnah and nazar. In sunnah it is mentioned in the hadith of Ibn Umar that Prophet peace be upon him saw a woman who was killed in some Ghazwa and did not liked it and he prohibited killing women and children, This is narrated by scholars.... Qitaal is not done with women, children and people like them i.e. Raahib, disabled, old ones and laborers. These people will not be killed. Abu Bakr ra did same Naseeha to Yazeed bin Sufiyan when he was sent to ash-Sham, unless if these people are among those who harm (Muslims and Islam) as mentioned by Maalik and others. 
 
The scholars mentioned six categories on this:
 
1. IF the women kill then they will be killed, Sahnoon said in war and after the war these type of women will be killed as the verse of Quran is general " And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you" and "And kill them wherever you find them". There are athaar to know (whether the women is among them or not), like they help them with wealth, encouraging for fight, sometimes they come with open hair and by doing nubada, by encouraging that not to run away. Then killing them is Mubah in this situation but when they are captives then it is more beneficial because 
they accept Islam early, and leave their religion, and it is hard that they run back to their home unlike men.
 
2. Children should not be killed because the prohibition of killing them is proven as there is no hardship on them. But if they are also killing then they will be killed.
 
3. Rahbaan should not be killed. neither they will be taken as captives, their weal will not be taken which they use to live the life. This is when they are not with people of kufr because Abu Bakr ra said to Yazeed ra "You will find a people who claim to have totally given themselves to Allah. Leave them... If they are with kuffar in the kanaais then they will be killed. If a woman is raahib then ash-hab said do not threat her. Sahnoon said being a raahiba will not change the ruling. qadhi Abu Bakr Ibn al Arabi said: The narration of AshHab is proven to me (i.e. she will not be threatened) because it is under the saying "leave those who totally given themselves to God". 
 
4. Disabled. Sahnoon said they will be killed, Ibn Habeeb said they will not be killed. Truth is that their apparent things will be judged, if they are among those who harm then they will be killed otherwise they will be left. 
 
5. The old one, Malik said in book of Muhammad that the old ones will not be killed. This is said by Majority that if the old one can not do qitaal and benefit can be taken with his opinion and he is among those who defend  then he should not be killed. This is the saying of Malik and Abu Hanifa, there are two sayings of ash-Shafiee first if with the Majority and second is to kill the raahib. But true is his first saying as Abu Bakr said to Yazeed same thing. And there is no one who went against this saying so it is proven that it is consensus. These (old ones) are not among those who kill neither they help the enemies. So it is not allowed to kill them like the woman. But the one who harm and fight, give advice and wealth. When he will be in captivity then it is upto the Imam whether to kill, do Ehsaan or take fidya, or make him slave or take Jizya.
 
6. Labour and  The Farmers, Malik said in the book of Muhammad that they will not be killed, ash-Shafiee said Labour, Farmers and old will be killed if they don't accept Islam or give Jiziyah. The first saying (of not killing) is correct as mentioned in the hadith of Ribah bin Rabi that Prophet peace be upon him said: Go to Khalid bin Waleed and do not kill any child and Labour. Umar ra said fear Allah with regards to Children and the Farmers who do not wage war, Umar bin Abdul Aziz did not kill the Farmers as mentioned by Ibn Muzar. [Tafsir al Qurtubi under surah al Baqarah verse 190-191]  
  • 9. Commentary on Surah al Maaida verse 8
Allah says
 
O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah , witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what you do. [5:8]
 
Al-Qurtubi commented
دلت الآية على أن كفر الكافر لا يمنع من العدل معه، وأن يقتصر بهم على المستحق من القتال والاسترقاق، وأن المثلة بهم غير جائزة وإن قتلوا نساءنا أو أطفالنا وغمونا بذلك، فليس لنا أن نقتلهم بمثله قصداً لإيصال الغم والحزن إليهم
"This verse is an evidence that the disbelief of a disbeliever does not prevent us from being just to him, and that our dealing with them (in a state of war) should only be restricted to fighting or capturing them if they deserve so. And it is not permissible for us to retaliate in the same manner, even if they kill our women and children and cause sorrow to befall us, it is not permissible for us to kill them likewise with the intention of making them feel grief and sorrow".
("Al Jaami' li Ahkaamil Qur'aan" 6/110).
  • 10. Making the children hostage.
When a companion of the Prophet peace be upon him "Khubaib" was captured by the mushriqs after they killed other companions, He was captured in a house and the mushriqeen decided to kill him.
 
A Woman (Daughter of al Harith) said:
 
"I was heedless of a little baby of mine, who moved towards Khubaib, and when he reached him, he put him on his thigh. When I saw them, I got scared so much that Khubaib noticed my distress while he was carrying the razor in his hand. He said 'Are you afraid that I will kill the child? Allah willing, I will never do that,' [Sahih al-Bukhari 4086]
 
Khubaib could easily make the child hostage, but he didn't. Even after knowing that he is going to be killed and his friends are killed by the mushriqeen. 
 
  • 11. Ibn Kathir on doing harm to dhimmi's in retaliation to the killing of Christian Army.
Ibn Kathir said:
استيلاء الفرنج لعنهم الله على الاسكندرية وفي العشر الاخير من شهر الله المحرم احتيط على الفرنج بمدينة دمشق وأودعوا في الحبوس في القلعة المنصورة، واشتهر أن سبب ذلك أن مدينة الاسكندرية محاصرة بعدة شواين، وذكر أن صاحب قبرص معهم، وأن الجيش المصري صمدوا إلى حراسة الاسكندرية حرسها الله تعالى وصانها وحماها، وسيأتي تفصيل أمرها في الشهر الآتي، فإنه وضح لنا فيها، ومكث القوم بعد الاسكندرية بأيام فيما بلغنا، بعد ذلك حاصرها أمير من التتار يقال له ماميه، واستعان بطائفة من الفرنج ففتحوها سرا، وقتلوا من أهلها خلقا وغنموا شيئا كثيرا واستقرت عليها يد ماميه ملكا عليها.... 

دت الاخبار بما وقع من الامر الفظيع بمدينة الاسكندرية من الفرنج لعنهم الله، وذلك أنهم وصلوا إليها في يوم الاربعاء الثاني والعشرين من شهر الله المحرم، فلم يجدوا بها نائبا ولا جيشا، ولا حافظا للبحر ولا ناصرا، فدخلوها يوم الجمعة  بكرة النهار بعد ما حرقوا أبوابا كثيرة منها، وعاثوا في أهلها فسادا، يقتلون الرجال ويأخذون الاموال ويأسرون النساء والاطفال، فالحكم لله العلي الكبير المتعال.
وأقاموا بها يوم الجمعة والسبت والاحد والاثنين والثلاثاء، فلما كان صبيحة يوم الاربعاء قدم الشاليش المصري، فأقلعت الفرنج لعهم الله عنها، وقد أسروا خلقا كثيرا يقاومون الاربعة آلاف، وأخذوا من الاموال ذهبا وحريرا وبهارا وغير ذلك ما لا يحد ولا يوصف،...
، وجاء المرسوم الشريف من الديار المصرية إلى نائب السلطنة بمسك النصارى من الشام جملة واحدة، وأن يأخذ منهم ربع أموالهم لعمارة ما خرب من الاسكندرية، ولعمارة مراكب تغزو الفرنج، فأهانوا النصارى وطلبوا من بيوتهم بعنف وخافوا أن يقتلوا، ولم يفهموا ما يراد بهم، فهربوا كل مهرب، ولم تكن هذه الحركة شرعية، ولا يجوز اعتمادها شرعا، وقد طلبت يوم  السبت السادس عشر من صفر إلى الميدان الاخضر للاجتماع بنائب السلطنة، وكان اجتماعنا بعد العصر يومئذ بعد الفراغ من لعب الكرة، فرأيت منه أنسا كثيرا، ورأيته كامل الرأي والفهم، حسن العبارة كريم المجالسة، فذكرت له أن هذا لا يجوز اعتماده في النصارى، فقال: إن بعض فقهاء مصر أفتى للامير الكبير بذلك، فقلت له: هذا مما لا يسوغ شرعا، ولا يجوز لاحد أن يفتي بهذا، ومتى كانوا باقين على الذمة يؤدون إلينا الجزية ملتزمين بالذلة والصغار، وأحكام الملة قائمة، لا يجوز أن يؤخذ منهم الدرهم الواحد - الفرد - فوق ما يبذلونه من الجزية....
وفي أوائل هذا الشهر ورد المرسوم الشريف السلطاني بالرد على نساء النصارى ما كان أخذ منهن مع الجباية التي كان تقدم أخذها منهن ، وإن كان الجميع ظلما ، ولكن الأخذ من النساء أفحش وأبلغ في الظلم ، والله أعلم

In short
 
The Christian army along with tatar attacked Muslims, and looted, killed the men, took the women and children which were four thousand and took lots of the things which include gold, silk and other expensive things which can not be counted, They remained there for  5 days Friday, Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, and when Wednesday came Egyptian (Muslim) army came and they (the Christian army) fled. After this The order came to deputy of the state to take the (dhimmi) Christians of ash-Sham in custody and to take fourth part of their income, so that they may repair  the places and ships of Alexandria (which were attacked by Christian army). So they forcefully went to their (christian's) homes and took there things, they (the dhimmis) fled fearing about their death. THIS IS NOT THE WAY OF SHARIYAH NEITHER ONE CAN TAKE EVIDENCE FROM IT. Then I (Ibn Kathir) was invited by the deputy of the state on Saturday, 16th of the safar... I (Ibn kathir) told him it is not allowed for you to harm Christians. He replied some of the fuqaha of Egypt have given fatwa to the Ameer in favor of this. I (Ibn Kathir) said: This is not allowed neither one should give fatwa over this issue, Until they are under our custody and they are giving Jiziyah in humiliation... It is not allowed to take anything above jiziya not even one dirham.... Then in this month the ORDER CAME FROM THE SULTAN THAT PREVIOUSLY THE THINGS WHICH WERE TAKEN WITH TAX FROM THE WOMEN OF THE CHRISTIANS SHOULD BE GIVEN BACK TO THEM AS ALL OF THAT IS WRONG, RATHER TAKING FROM WOMEN IS WORSE AND GREAT INJUSTICE. [al Bidaya wal Nihaya vol 14 pages 343-344-346 the year 767 h]
  • 12. Non combatants are not to be killed purposely even if he may be a zaani or faasiq.
Ibn Hajr said regarding a Lover of a girl, that when Prophet peace be upon him sent a سرية:
وقد روى النسائي والبيهقي في " الدلائل " بإسناد صحيح من حديث ابن عباس نحو هذه القصة وقال فيها : " فقال إني لست منهم ، إني عشقت امرأة منهم فدعوني أنظر إليها نظرة - قال فيه - فضربوا عنقه ، فجاءت المرأة فوقعت عليه فشهقت شهقة أو شهقتين ثم ماتت ، فذكروا ذلك للنبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فقال : أما كان فيكم رجل رحيم " ؟
It is narrated by an-Nisai and al Bayhaqi in "ad-Dalaail" with an authentic chain from Ibn Abbas a story like this, which states that he said: I am not from them (Bani Juzayma), I am the lover of a woman among them and i want to look at her. The narration states that he was killed (by a man) and that woman wept over him and died, Someone (complaint) in front of the Prophet peace be upon him and He said: There was no one (among you) who was merciful?.
[Fath al Bari, Kitab al Maghazi ch 64, Declared authentic by Ibn Hajr and al Albani in as-Saheeha no. 2594]
  • 13. Killing other than killers in retaliation.
Abdullah ibn Sab'a said:
قَالَ : سَمِعْتُ عَلِيًّا رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ , عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ : " وَمَا يَنْتَظِرُ أَشْقَاهَا عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , لَتُخَضَّبَنَّ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذَا " وَأَشَارَ ابْنُ دَاوُدَ إِلَى لِحْيَتِهِ وَرَأْسِهِ , فَقَالُوا : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَخْبَرَنَا مَنْ هُوَ حَتَّى نَبْتَدِرُهُ , فَقَالَ : " أَنْشَدَ اللَّهُ رَجُلا قُتِلَ بِي غَيْرَ قَاتِلِي , قَالُوا : أَلا تَسْتَخْلِفُ ؟ قَالَ ابْنُ دَاوُدَ : وَسَقَطَ عَلَيَّ مَا بَعْدَ هَذَا .
 
"I heard 'Ali May Allah be pleased with him say on the minbar: 'We are only waiting for a wretched man. The Messenger of
Allah (peace be upon him) promised me that this (his beard) would be contaminated with the blood of this (his head).' They said: 'Tell us who your killer is, so that we may go and annihilate his family.' He said: 'I urge you by Allah not to kill anyone for my killing except the one who kills me.' 
 
[ash-Shariyah by al Ajurry:1655, The Muhaqqiq of the book سيف بن نبيه بن سيف النصر said: Its Saheeh Lighairihi]
  • 14. Rights of a Non Muslim living under the Muslim rule.
a) The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: 
 
“If anyone wrongs a mu‘aahid [non-Muslim living under Muslim rule], detracts from his rights, burdens him with more work than he is able to do or takes something from him without his consent, I will plead for him (the mu‘aahid) on the Day of Resurrection.”
 
[Narrated by Abu Dawood (3052); classed as hasan by Ibn Hajar in Muwaafaqat al-Khabr, 2/184; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood]
 
b) It was narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever kills a mu‘aahid will not smell the fragrance of Paradise, although its fragrance may be detected from a distance of forty years.”
 
[Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3166)]
  • 15. Giving Asylum to a Harbi Kafir
Narrated Um Hani the daughter of Abu Talib:
 
I went to Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) on the day of the conquest of Mecca ..
 
I said, "O Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him)! My brother `Ali has declared that he will kill a man to whom I have granted asylum. The man is Fulaan bin Hubaira."
 
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said:
 
"O Um Hani! We will grant asylum to the one whom you have granted asylum." [Sahih al-Bukhari 3171]
  • 16. The practice of Salah ad-Din Ayyubi.
Ibn Kathir wrote about fights between Muslims and Crusaders and said, quoting al Imaad (a Historian who was at the service of Salah ud din):
فَاتَّفَقَ أَنَّ بَعْضَهَمْ أَخَذَ صَبِيًّا رَضِيعًا مِنْ مَهْدِهِ ابْنَ ثَلَاثَةِ أَشْهُرٍ، فَوَجَدَتْ عليه أمه وجدا شديدا، وَاشْتَكَتْ إِلَى مُلُوكِهِمْ فَقَالُوا لَهَا:
إِنَّ سُلْطَانَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ رَحِيمُ الْقَلْبِ، وَقَدْ أَذِنَّا لَكِ أَنْ تَذْهَبِي إِلَيْهِ فَتَشْتَكِي أَمْرَكِ إِلَيْهِ، قَالَ الْعِمَادُ فجاءت إلى السلطان فَأَنْهَتْ إِلَيْهِ حَالَهَا، فَرَقَّ لَهَا رِقَّةً شَدِيدَةً حتى دمعت عينه. ثم أمر بِإِحْضَارِ وَلَدِهَا فَإِذَا هُوَ قَدْ بِيعَ فِي السُّوقِ، فَرَسَمَ بِدَفْعِ ثَمَنِهِ إِلَى الْمُشْتَرِي، وَلَمْ يَزَلْ وَاقِفًا حَتَّى جِيءَ بِالْغُلَامِ فَأَخَذَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَأَرْضَعَتْهُ سَاعَةً وَهِيَ تَبْكِي مِنْ شِدَّةِ فَرَحِهَا وشوقها إليه، ثم أمر بحملها إلى خيمتها على فرس مكرمة رحمه الله تعالى وعفا عنه.
One of them (Muslim) kidnapped a three months old child, the mother felt really sad and asked help from christian leaders. They said: 
 
The Sultan of Muslims is very soft-hearted, we have informed you so go and take your case in his court. 
 
al Imaad said: She came to the Sultan and informed him about her case, He felt sorry while tears were in his eyes. He ordered to find her child and found out that he was sold out. He ordered to give the money to the buyer and stayed their until the child came. The mother breast fed and wept due to her love for the child. The Sultan ordered to take her to her place honorably. May Allah have mercy on him and forgive his mistakes. [Al Bidaya wal Nihaya 12/342]
  • 17. Consensus of the Muslims.
Kitab al Ijma of Ibn al Mundhir, book of Jihad.
 
It is not full translation of Kitab al Jihad, just selective parts are translated.
 
It is consensus:
1. That There is No Jiziya taken from (non Muslim) Women and children.
2. That there is no Jiziya on a (non Muslim) slave.
3. That There is No Jiziya on Muslims.
4. That It is not obligatory on non Muslims to give sadaqaat.
5. That there is no tax on dhimmis on there residence (منازلهم) apart from Bani Taghlab as it is mentioned.
6. That It is allowed to give Amaan to the opponents by the Muslim leader or any of the Muslim Man among the army, and the rest of the army will follow it.
7. That A Woman can give Amaan.
8. That In the Ghazwa of Taaif, the Prophet peace be upon him freed the slaves (of mushrikeen) who came to him from them. [Al Ijma li Ibn al Mundhir, Kitab al Jihad pages 81-85]
  • 18. Advice of Shaykh al Albani to the young Khawarij who are trying to please Allah.
He said:
لكن مجاهدة اليهود المحتلين للأرض المقدسة، والسافكين لدماء المسلمين أوجب من قتال مثل ذاك الحاكم من وجوه كثيرة، لا مجال الآن لبيانها، من أهمها أن جند ذاك الحاكم من إخواننا المسلمين، وقد يكون جمهورهم- أو على الأقل الكثير منهم- عنه غير راضين، فلماذا لا يجاهد هؤلاء الشباب المتحمس اليهود، بدل مجاهدتهم لبعض حكام المسلمين؟! أظن أن سيكون جوابهم عدم الاستطاعة بالمعنى المشروح سابقاً، والجواب هو جوابنا، والواقع يؤكد ذلك؛ بدليل أن خروجهم- مع تعذر إمكانه- لم يثمر شيئاً سوى سفك الدماء سُدى! والمثال - مع الأسف الشديد- لا يزال ماثلاً في الجزائر، فهل من مدَّكر؟!.
Doing Jihad with the jews who have occupied the sacred land, and who shed the blood of the Muslims is more wajib then fighting against these type of rulers (i.e. who stop from fasting etc) due to many reasons... One of them is that the soldiers of this ruler are our Muslim brothers, Majority of them or some of them among many do not agree with him (the ruler). 
 
So why don't these youngsters do jihad with Jews rather than fighting against some Muslim rulers? I think their answer would be not having "Istita`at" to do so as mentioned before. Same is our answer (of not fighting against the Muslim rulers who stop from fasting etc.)... Their khurooj against the Muslim rulers will be the cause of useless bloodshed. The case of "Al Jazair" should be in front of our eyes as an example. [موسوعة الألباني في العقيدة 4/297]
 
see also: https://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2014/08/intentional-killing-of-non-combatants.html

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