Najd in the eyes of classical scholars

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InshaAllah I am going to quote a narration which proves that east refers to the Najd of Iraq, after that I will quote classical scholars for my claim.

“The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) addressed us and said: ‘The Talbiyah of the people of Al-Madinah begins at Dhul-Hulaifah. The Talbiyah of the people of Sham begins at Juhfah. The Talbiyah of the people of Yemen begins at Yalamlam. The Talbiyah of the people of Najd begins at Qarn. "وَمُهَلُّ أَهْلِ الْمَشْرِقِ مِنْ ذَاتِ عِرْقٍ"The Talbiyah of the people of the east begins at Dhat ‘Irq.’ Then he turned to face the (eastern) horizon and said: ‘O Allah, make their hearts steadfast.’[Sunan Ibn Maja Vol. 1, Book 25, Hadith 2915]

Hafidh al Iraqi said regarding this hadeeth
وَفِيهِ إبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ الْخُوزِيُّ مَتْرُوكٌ وَلإِبِي دَاوُد وَالنَّسَائِيُّ بِإِسْنَادٍ جَيِّدٍ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَائِشَةَ {وَقَّتَ لإِهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ ذَاتَ عِرْقٍ}
In the chain Ibraheem bin yazeed al hawzi is rejected, and abi dawud and nisai narrated it with powerful chain from the hadeeth of aisha that (Prophet peace be upon him ) appointed Dhat Irq as the place for putting on ihram for the people of Iraq. [تقريب الأسانيد وترتيب المسانيد (1/81)]
 
Ibn Umar ra said regarding meeqaat of ahlul mashriq
وقال الناس : لاهل المشرق ذات عرق
People say for thepeople of east it is dhat irq

Imam at-Tahawi commented:
( فهذا ابن عمر يخبر أن الناس قد قالوا ذلك ، ولا يريد ابن عمر من الناس إلا أهل الحجة والعلم بالسنة
Ibn Umar narrated from people that they said this.Ibn Umar did not meant from the people any other than people of Hujjah and people of knowledge and sunnah [sharah mani al athaar ( 1 / 360)]
Scan: 
https://ia600307.us.archive.org/BookReader/BookReaderImages.php?zip=/32/items/shmaathar/02_jp2.zip&file=02_jp2/02_0118.jp2&scale=2&rotate=0

Ibn Qudama said:
 فأما ذات عرق فميقات أهل المشرق ، في قول أكثر أهل العلم وهو مذهب مالك ، وأبي ثور ، وأصحاب الرأي . 
Dhat Irq is Meeqat of people of East, This is the saying of many of the people of knowledge, this is the Madhab of Maalik, Abi Thawr and Ashaab al Raai [al Mughni (3/213)]

 
Now here the hadith and scholars clearly says "The Talbiyah of the people of the east begins at Dhat ‘Irq.’" and we know one hadith is a commentary of another hadith. See the hadith below
 
Abu Zubair heard jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) as saying as he was asked about (the place for entering upon the) state of Ihram: I heard (and I think he carried it directly to the Apostle of Allah) him saying: For the people of Medina Dhu'l-Hulaifa is the place for entering upon the state of Ihram, and for (the people coming through the other way, i. e. Syria) it is Juhfa;"وَمُهَلُّ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ مِنْ ذَاتِ عِرْقٍ" for the people of iraq it is Dhat al-'Irq; for the people uf Najd it is Qarn (al-Manazil) and for the people of Yemen it is Yalamlam.  (Sahih Muslim Book #007, Hadith #2666)
 
Above ahadith are commentary of each other and a proof that here east refers to Iraq in the ahadith.
 
Following article is an extract of the article of Shaykh Ghulam Mustafa Zaheer amanpoori with some addition, see his article in Risalah al-Sunnah no: 46 pages 2 to19. Everybody knows the tension within Muslims regarding Najd so i am not going to mention introduction and ahadith regarding that. This article is regarding the meaning of najd according to scholars.

 

Article Contents
8. Imam Ibn Tamiya
9
. Dr Abdullah Faqeeh
 
1. Allama Ibn Manzoor Afriki(630 h-711 h) said
وما ارتفع عن تهامة إلى أرض العراق ، فهو نجد 
The high place from tahama to Iraq is najd[Lisaan al-Arab 3/413]
 
2. Allama Ibn Atheer (544h-606h) said
والنجد ما ارتفع من الأرض وهو اسم خاص لما دون الحجاز مما يلي العراق 
Najd is high (elevated) place, This is a specific name of a place which lies outside the Hijaz related to Iraq [alNihaya fe gharib al hadeeth wal athar 5/19]
 
3. Imam Ibn Abdul Bar (368h-463h) said
 إشارة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، والله أعلم ، إلى ناحية المشرق بالفتنة ، لأن الفتنة الكبرى التي كانت مفتاح فساد ذات البين هي قتل عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه ، وهي كانت سبب وقعة الجمل ، وحروب صفين كانت في ناحية المشرق ، ثم ظهور الخوارج في أرض نجد والعراق وما وراءها .
Allah knows best that the reason behind pointing of Prophet peace be upon him towards east regarding fitna is that the biggest fitna which was the key of troubles was the martyrdom of uthman bin affan radhiAllahanho, and that was the reason behind  the war of Jamal and Siffeen, these troubles started from the east. Then Kharjities emerged from the land of najd,Iraq and it's regions[alIstadhkaar 8/519]
 
4. Same is said by Ibn Battaal (449h) in sharah saheeh Bukhari [10/44]
 
5. Imam Kirmani said
ومن كان بالمدينة الطيبة صلى الله على ساكنها وسلم كان نجده بادية العراق وهي مشرق أهلها
The najd of the people of Madina Tayyiba (صلى الله على ساكنها وسلم) is Iraq and it is situated in east.[Sharah Kirmani 24/168]
 
6. Imam Khattabi (319h-388h) said
 ومن كان بالمدينة كان نجده بادية العراق ونواحيها ، وهي مشرق أهلها واصل النجد ما ارتفع من الارض
 'and for the one who is in Madeenah then his Najd would be the desert of Iraaq and it's regions for this is to the east of the People of Madeenah. The basic meaning of Najd is that which is raised/elevated from the earth[Ailaam al hadith of Imam Khattabi 2/1274 alMagharabiya]
 
7. Imam Ibn Hajr asqalani said regarding problems and troubles
 وأول ما نشأ ذلك من العراق وهي من جهة المشرق
 This was started from Iraq which is on the side of east[Fath ul Bari 13/13]
 
8. Imam Ibn Tamiya said
ومعلوم أنه كان بالكوفة من الفتنة والتفرق ما دل عليه النص والإجماع 
It is known that Koofa was (land of) fitna and division as there is nus and consnsus.[Majmoo Fatawa 20/316] 

9. According to some scholars this refers to the east of that time because most of the kuffar were living in the east. So this does not refer to any specific place rather it was regarding most of the kuffar living in the east.  This is like now a days west refers to the place where most of the kuffar are living. Now if someone says west is the land of fitna this is not wrong as it is true that west is doing war against Islam, It does not mean whoever is living in west is a fitna. If scholars say things against the culture of west that does not mean they are speaking against all the people in the west.

Dr Abdullah Faqeeh writes:
قال الحافظ في الفتح نقلا عن الخطابي: نجد من جهة المشرق، ومن كان بالمدينة كان نجده بادية العراق ونواحيها، وهي شرق أهل المدينة.
ونقل الحافظ عن غير الخطابي من أهل العلم قوله: كان أهل المشرق يومئذٍ أهل كفر، فأخبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن الفتنة تكون من تلك الناحية، فكان كما أخبر، وأول الفتن كان من قبل المشرق، فكان ذلك سبباً للفرفة بين المسلمين، وذلك مما يحبه الشيطان، ويفرح به، وكذلك البدع نشأت من تلك الجهة.
ومما يدل على صحة رجحان ما رجحناه: هو أن من اطلع على ألفاظ روايات هذا الحديث وغيره من الأحاديث في هذا الباب يكاد يجزم بأن المقصود هو جهة المشرق التي هي بادية العراق وما حولها بالنسبة لمن هو في المدينة، من ذلك ما في صحيح مسلم أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال وهو مستقبل المشرق: "ألا إن الفتنة هاهنا، ألا أن الفتنة هاهنا، من حيث يطلع قرن الشيطان".
بل هنالك رواية لهذا الحديث المسؤول عنه أخرجها الطبراني في الكبير فيها التصريح بالعراق بدل نجد.
ومن ذلك أيضاً الحديث المتقدم الذي ذكرناه في فضل الشام واليمن، فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أرشد إلى اللحوق بجند الشام أو جند اليمن، ولم يرشد إلى اللحوق بجند العراق، مما يوحي بأن تلك الجهة فيها ما ليس مرغوباً فيه شرعاً.
هذا بالإضافة إلى أن الواقع يشهد بأن تلك الجهة لم تزل على مر تاريخ الأمة مصدر فتن عظمى.
وعلى كل، فالخلاصة - والله تعالى أعلم - هي أن المراد بنجد: هو جهة العراق، وهذا لا يعني ذماً لتلك الجهة مطلقاً، ولا ذما لكل من سكنها، بل إن من كان من أهلها وصبر على ما يحصل فيها من ابتلاء، ونجاه الله تعالى من الفتن التي تحصل فيها، فهو من خير الناس، إن شاء الله تعالى.
وإن أعلام الأمة من مقرئين ومحدثين وفقهاء وزهاد وأئمة في كل فن وكل باب من البر من تلك البلاد لا يحصون كثرة، ولله الحمد.
والله أعلم.
 
9. Conclusion: Finally, we conclude that Najd means part of Iraq. Anyway it does not mean at all that this place is disparaged totally and that those who live there are dispraised. But whoever lives there should be patient during hardships and keep himself away from afflictions. No doubt, such persons will be considered amongst the best people of this Ummah. There are numerous eminent scholars of Qur'an, Hadith, Fiqh and other fields of Shariah who belong to that place thanks to Allah. Allah knows best. [Islamweb]
 
Note: Prophet peace be upon him also prayed for Iraq by facing it
حدثنا إسحاق بن خالويه الواسطي حدثنا علي بن بحر بن بري حدثنا هشام بن يوسف الصنعاني أخبرنا معمر حدثنا ثابت البناني وسليمان التيمي عن أنس بن مالك أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نظر قبل العراق والشام واليمن فقال اللهم أقبل بقلوبهم على طاعتك وحط من وراءهم لم يروه عن التيمي الا معمر ولا عنه إلا هشام بن يوسف القاضي تفرد به عنه علي بن بحر
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Prophet(peace be upon him) saw towards "IRAQ" "Shaam" and "Yemen" and said (supplicated) : " O Allah ,accept their hearts for your obedience and place firmly your mercy around them "[Al Mu'jam al Sagheer: Volume #01, Hadees # 273]
 
In Musnad Ahmad it states
عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ يَوْمًا، وَنَظَرَ إِلَى الشَّامِ، فَقَالَ: " اللَّهُمَّ أَقْبِلْ بِقُلُوبِهِمْ "، وَنَظَرَ إِلَى الْعِرَاقِ، فَقَالَ نَحْوَ ذَلِكَ، وَنَظَرَ قِبَلَ كُلِّ أُفُقٍ فَفَعَلَ ذَلِكَ، وَقَالَ: " اللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقْنَا مِنْ ثَمَرَاتِ الْأَرْضِ، وَبَارِكْ لَنَا فِي مُدِّنَا وَصَاعِنَا "
Narrated by Jabir that He heard Prophet peace be upon him one day, He saw towards alShaam and said "O Allah ,accept their hearts for your obedience" He saw towards Iraq and said same and he saw towards all the ways and did same and said "O Allah grant us the fruits of the earth and bestow your blessings in  مُدِّنَا وَصَاعِنَا "
 
Another hadith states
Ibn Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allaah(sallallaahu alayhiwa sallam) prayed Fajr and then faced the people and said, "O Allaah bestow your blessings on our Madeenah, O Allaah bestow your blessings in our measuring, O Allaah bestow your blessings in our Shaam and our Yemen." A person said, "And Iraq O Messenger of Allah?" He said, "from there arises Earth Quakes,trials and tribulations would come the Horn of Satan."[Al-Mujjam Awasaat Tibraani, Hadith-4230]
 
Comment: There is no contradiction in these ahadith because in one narration Prophet peace be upon him is informing us that the fitna is in Iraq but in another narration He peace be upon him is praying for them in fact he prayed by facing all the ways including Iraq and Saudi Najd.
 
 
11. Related links:
 
 

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