Imam Malik & Maaliki Scholars on Mawlid un Nabi Celebration

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In this article we will examine the quotes of Maaliki scholars regarding Mawlid un Nabi. There is no Proof from Imam Maalik on Celebration of Mawlid rather, Ibn Hazam narrated with his chain
حدثنا أحمد بن عمر بن أنس نا الحسين بن يعقوب نا سعيد بن فحلون نا يوسف بن يحيى المغامي نا عبد الملك بن حبيب أخبرني بن الماجشون أنه قال قال مالك بن أنس من أحدث في هذه الأمة اليوم شيئا لم يكن عليه سلفها فقد زعم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم خان الرسالة لأن الله تعالى يقول {حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلَّا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالْأَزْلَامِ ذَلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ الْيَوْمَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ دِينِكُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِ الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِإِثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ} فما لم يكن يومئذ دينا لا يكون اليوم دينا
That Imam Maalik said
"Whoever among this ummah innovates something today which was not practiced by the Salaf, has accused the Prophetصلى الله عليه و سلم of treachery because Allah said "...This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion....." So what was not religion then, is not religion today" (Ibn Hazam quoted it with his chain in al Ahkam fe Asool al Ahkam vol 6 page 791)

see the authenticity of this narration here:

http://www.systemoflife.com/articles/milaad/2000122-authenticity-of-the-saying-of-imam-malik-on-innovations#axzz3y6MctZ1k


For Maalikis the Amal of Ahlul Madeenah is evidence as alQurtubi said:
 وفيه تنبيه على صحة مذهبهم وسلامتهم من البدع وأن عملهم حجة كما رواه مالك رحمه الله 
In it there is tanbeeh that the Madhab of Ahlul Madeenah is evidence which is free from innovations, as it is narrated from Imam Maalik. [Ibn Hajar quoted in Fath al bari, al Ayni in Umdah tul Qari 16/194]

Ibn Hajar asqalani said this is regarding the practice of Khulafa al-Rashideen.

al Ayni said  
قلت هذا إنما كان في زمن النبي والخلفاء الراشدين إلى انقضاء القرون الثلاثة وهي تسعون سنة وأما بعد ذلك فقد تغيرت الأحوال وكثرت البدع خصوصا في زماننا هذا على ما لا يخفى
I say: This was only regarding the era of Prophet peace be upon him and Khulafa ar-Rashideen until three  quroon passed which is 90 years. After that the things changed and innovations started. Especially in our era as this is not hidden [Umdatul Qari 16/194]

It is known that Mawlid celebrations were not in the era of Prophet peace be upon him and Sahaba.

 

Now see the quotes of Maaliki scholars on Mawlid.

a) Abul Abbas Ahmad bin Yahya al Tilmasani (d 914 h) said

بدعة اتخاذ طعام معلوم فى بعض المواسم
ومنها اتّخاذُ طعامٍ معلوم لميلاد النّبيِّ صلّى الله عليه وسلّم وفي بعضِ المواسِم.
Innovations which are known to make food on some events
 "Among those (i.e. bid'a) which are known to make food for the birthday of the prophet peace be upon him or in specific events" [Al-Mi’yar al-Mu’rib 2/489 by Imam Ahmad bin Yahya al Tilmasani (d 914 h)]
 
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b) Muhammad ibn Marzooq (d 781 h) al Maaliki
 
 Abul Abbas Ahmad bin Yahya al Tilmasani (d 914 h) said
ومنها إيقاد الشّمع ليلةَ مولِد النّبيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم وسابِعِهِ وما في ذلكَ من أنواع المفاسِد
وقد تصدَّى لتغييرِ ذلكَ وشدّة النّكيرِ فيهِ شيخ شيوخِنا  الشيخ المحصّل العالم  أبو عبد الله سيدي محمّد بن مرزوق برّد الله ضجعتهُ وأسكنه جنّته، فانقطعت تلك المفاسْد من تلمسان  طولَ حياتِهِ رحمه الله، ثمّ عادت بموتهِ  رحمه الله بل زادت
"And of them is the lighting of candles on the night of the Prophet's birth, peace be upon him, and during the 7th night (after the first mawlid celebration), and what that contains of infamies (Mafaasid). The Shaykh of our Shuyookh (teacher of our teachers), the scholar Abu `Abdillaah, Sidi Muhammad ibn Marzooq (d 781 h)--may Allah cool his resting place and make him a resident of His Paradise---has striven throughout his entire life to change that (or, to ban/combat those 'infamies') and to sternly disapprove of them. So eventually those infamies (mafaasid) were cut off and discontinued in Tilmisaan (the Shaykh's land; he's known as at-Tilmisaani) for the rest of his life, God have mercy upon him. But then, after his death, they resumed, nay! They increased." [Al-Mi’yar al-Mu’rib 2/471-472]
 
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c) Abul Abbas Ahmad bin al Qasim al Qubaab (d 778 h)

 Abul Abbas Ahmad bin Yahya al Tilmasani (d 914 h) said
وسُئل سيدي أحمد القباب عمّا يفعله المعلّمون من وَقْدِ الشّمع في مولد النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم
واجتماع الأولاد للصّلاة على النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم، ويقرأ بعض الأولاد ممّن هو حسن الصّوت عشرًا من القرآن وينشد قصيدة في مدح النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم، ويجتمع الرجال والنّساء بهذا السّبب فهل ما يأخذه المعلّم من الشّمع جائز أم لا؟....فأجاب بأن قال:
جميع ما وَصَفت من محدثات البدع الّتي يجبُ قطعها، ومن قام بها أو أعان عليها أو سعى في دوامها فهو ساعٍ في بدعة وضلالة، ويظنّ بجهله أنّه بذلك معظّمٌ لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قائمٌ بمولده، وهو مخالفٌ سنّته مرتكب لمنهيّات نهى عنها صلى الله عليه وسلم، متظاهر بذلك محدث في الدّين ما ليس منه، ولو كان معظِّمًا له حقّ التّعظيم لأطاعَ أوامره فلم يُحدث في دينه ما ليس منه، ولم يتعرّض لما حذّر الله تعالى منه حيث قال: ﴿فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ﴾[النور:63 ]. وأمّا ما يأخذه المعلم من ذلك فإن كان إنّما يُعطاه على القيام بهذه البدع والقيام بتلك الأمور فلا خفاء بقُبح المأخوذ على هذا الوجه، وإن كانوا يعطونه ذلك في هذا الوقت وإن لم يفعل شيئًا من هذه البدع، فقد قال ابن حبيب إنّه لا يقضى للمعلم بشيء في أعياد المسلمين وإن كان ذلك ممّا يستحبّ فعله.... وإذا كان ابن حبيب يقول ألا يُقضى له بالأعياد والمواسم الشرعية، فكيف بما ليس بشرعيّ؟.
 
My teacher Ahmad al-Qubaab was asked about those acts that teachers do, including lighting candles on the birthday of the Prophet peace be upon him  and children gathering to send prayers on the Prophet peace be upon him  with some children, who have beautiful voices, reading one tenth of the Quran and reciting religious songs. Men and women gather for this reason. Are the candles that the teacher takes lawful or not?

He replied that All that you have described are innovations that must be terminated. Whoever takes part in it, assists in it or works hard to keep it going is working hard for deviancy and misguidance. He imagines through his ignorance that by that he is esteeming the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him by establishing his mawlid, whereas he is contravening his Sunna  and performing a prohibited act that the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him  forbade. He is open about it whilst introducing into religion that which is not part of it. Had he been truly esteeming him, he would have obeyed his orders and not introduced into religion that which is not part of it. He would not have exposed himself to that which Allah, Most High, warned about when He said: ‘Let those who oppose his command beware that a tribulation befalls them or a painful punishment strikes them.’[Surah an-Nur verse 63].

As for what the teacher takes, if he is only given it for performing these innovation and carrying out these tasks, then there is no doubt that what he takes is foul. If, however, they give it to him in that time even if he does nothing of these innovations,

Ibn Habib has mentioned that the teacher should not be given anything during Muslim festivals, even though that is a recommended act. If Ibn Habib is saying that he should not be given anything during Muslim festivals and religious occasions, then what about those that are not legal?
 [Al-Mi’yar al-Mu’rib 12/48-49 the Passage is taken from the article by Abdul Samad Ali in his pro Milaad article]
 
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d) Abu Abdullah al-Haffaar Gharnati (811H)
وليلة المولد لم يكن السلف الصالح وهم أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم والتابعون لهم يجتمعون فيها للعبادة، ولا يفعلون فيها زيادة على سائر ليالي السنة، لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يعظم إلا بالوجه الذي شرع فيه تعظيمه، وتعظيمه من أعظم القرب إلى الله، لكن يتقرب إلى الله جل جلاله بما شرع، والدليل على أن السلف الصالح لم يكونوا يزيدون فيها زيادة على سائر الليالي أنهم اختلفوا فيها، فقيل إنه صلى الله عليه وسلم ولد في رمضان وقيل في ربيع، واختلف في أي يوم ولد فيه على أربعة أقوال، فلو كانت تلك الليلة التي ولد في صبيحتها تحدث فيها عبادة بولادة خير الخلق صلى الله عليه وسلم، لكانت معلومة مشهورة لا يقع فيها اختلاف ولكن لم تشرع زيادة تعظيم…ولو فتح هذا الباب لجاء قوم فقالوا يوم هجرته إلى المدينة يوم أعز الله فيه الإسلام فيجتمع فيه ويتعبد، ويقول آخرون الليلة التي أسري به فيها حصل له من الشرف ما لا يقدر قدره، فتحدث فيها عبادة، فلا يقف ذلك عند حد، والخير كله في إتباع السلف الصالح الذين اختارهم الله له، فما فعلوا فعلناه وما تركوا تركناه، فإذا تقرر هذا ظهر أن الاجتماع في تلك الليلة ليس بمطلوب شرعا، بل يؤمر بتركه
“The pious predocessors, that is the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and the Successors, did not congregate for worship on the night of the mawlid, and they would not increase therein over the rest of the nights of the year, because the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is not glorified except in the manner in which his glorification has been established in the Shari’ah; and his glorification is from the greatest acts of nearness to Allah, but one should seek proximity to Allah with what has been legislated in the Shari’ah. The proof that the Salaf did not increase on that [night] more than the rest of the nights is that they differed over it; so it has been said he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was born in Ramadan and it has been said in Rabi, and the day on which he was born has been disputed according to four different views. So if it was the case that on the night in the morning of which he was born acts of worship were invented in it due to the birth of the best of creation (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), it would have been specified and well-known containing no controversy. But increased glorification has not been legislated…If this door is opened, some people will say the day of Hijra is a day in which Allah honoured Islam so they would gather therein and increase in worship, and others will say in the night of Isra he attained immeasurable honour so they invent worship therein, and this will have no boundary. And all good is in following the Pious Salaf for which Allah has selected them; so whatever they do, we do and whatever they left we leave. When this is realised, it becomes clear gathering on this night is not legally required, rather one is ordered to leave it.” (Al-Mi’yar al-Mu’rib  Vol 7 pages 99-100)
 
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e) al-'Allaamah Taajud-Deen al-Maaliki famously known as al-Iskandaree (d.734H) - rahimahullaah -said  
لا أعلم لهذا المولد أصلاً في كتاب ولا سنة، ولا ينقل عمله عن أحد من علماء الأمة، الذين هم القدوة في الدين، المتمسكون بآثار المتقدمين، بل هو بدعة أحدثها البطالون، وشهوة نفس اعتنى بها الأكالون
"Celebrating his birthday has no basis in the Book nor the Sunnah, nor is this action recorded from any one of the Scholars of this Ummah; those who are taken as examples to be followed and who cling to the narrations. Rather it is a bid'ah (innovotion), which was introduced by the (deviated) Battaaloon sect and those who follow their desires
( Al-Mawrid fi 'Amalil-Mawlid: page 21-22)
 
f) Ibn Al-Haaj Al-Maaliki states in his "Al-Madkhal" regarding the Mawlid,specifically in regards to when it is devoid of any evil actions which contradict the Shari'ah (for those who claim it is permissible if nothing haram or evil is carried out as part of the celebrations)
 
وهذه المفاسد مركبة على فعل المولد إذا عمل بالسماع. فإن خلا منه وعمل طعاماً فقط ونوى به المولد، ودعا إليه الإخوان، وسَلِم من كل ما تقدم ذكره فهو بدعة بنفس نيته فقط؛ إذ إن ذلك زيادة في الدين، وليس من عمل السلف الماضين واتباع السلف اولى
 "Even if none of the aforementioned evil or haram actions take place, it is still in and of itself a bid'ah (innovation) because of the same intention only. This is because that is making an increase in the religion and also it is was not from the conduct of the pious predecessors (As-Salaf). It has not reached us that a single one of them ever celebrated it nor intended to do so. Thus following in the footsteps of the Salaf is paramount, rather it is obligatory."[Al-Madkhal 2/312]

He responded to those who claim we only do good deeds in Mawlid:

 
وبعضهم- أي المشتغلين بعمل المولد- يتورع عن هذا- أي سماع الغناء وتوابعه- بقراءة البخاري وغيره عوضاً عن ذلك، هذا وإن كانت قراءة الحديث في نفسها من أكبر القرب والعبادات وفيها البركة العظيمة والخير الكثير، لكن إذا فعل ذلك بشرطه اللائق به على الوجه الشرعي لا بنية المولد، ألا ترى أن الصلاة من أعظم القرب إلى الله تعالى، ومع ذلك فلو فعلها
إنسان في غير الوقت المشروع لها لكان مذموماً مخالفاً، فإذا كانت الصلاة بهذه المثابة فما بالك بغيره

"And some of them are cautious to avoid that – i.e., listening to haraam things – and they do the Mawlid by reading al-Bukhaari and so on instead of that. Even though reading hadeeth in and of itself is one of the greatest acts of worship that bring one closer to Allah, and there is great blessing and much good in it, that only applies on condition that it be done in an appropriate, Islamically acceptable manner, not with the intention of the Mawlid. Do you not see that prayer is one of the greatest means of drawing closer to Allah, may He be exalted, but nevertheless if a person does it at a time other than the time prescribed for it, it is blameworthy and contrary to Islam. If this applies to the prayer, then what you think about other deeds?" [Ibid]
 
g) Abu Ishaq Shatibi (720 h) said regarding Innovators:
بل كل مبتدع من هذه الأمة : إما أن يدعي أنه هو صاحب السنة دون من خالفه من الفرق
All the Innovators claim only they are follower of sunnah (sunni) and others who are against him are not (Ahlus sunnah). [Al-Aitesaam 1/220]
 
Now a days those who celebrate Mawlid claim the same, all others are Wahabis according to them only they are sunnis.

He said regarding Mawlid:
" فالبدعة إذن عبارة عن طريقة في الدين مخترعة ، تضاهي الشرعية ، يقصد بالسلوك عليها المبالغة في التعبد لله سبحانه ... ومنها التزام الكيفيات والهيآت المعينة ، كالذكر بهيئة الاجتماع على صوت واحد ، واتخاذ يوم ولادة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عيدا ، وما أشبه ذلك .
ومنها التزام العبادات المعينة ، في أوقات معينة ، لم يوجد لها ذلك التعيين في الشريعة ، كالتزام صيام يوم النصف من شعبان ، وقيام ليلته "

Bid'ah (innovation) refers to something that is newly invented in matters of religion that appears similar to that which is prescribed, by which people intend to go to extremes in worshipping Allaah, may He be glorified. That includes adhering to certain forms of worship, such as reciting dhikr in a group, in unison, or taking the day of the Prophet's birth as Eid, and so on.
That also includes adhering to certain acts of worship at certain times, for which there is no evidence in sharee'ah, such as always fasting on the fifteenth of Sha'baan (al-nusf min Sha'baan) and spending that night in prayer. [al-I'tisaam (1/37-39)]

He also said:
اقامة المولد على الوصف المعهود بين الناس بدعة محدثة و كل بدعة ضلالة و الانفاق على اقامة البدعة لا يجوز

Decorating and spending on the day of Mawlid which has started among the people is an innovation and every innovation is misguidance and one should not spend in innovation.
[Al-Mi’yar al-Mu’rib  Vol 9 page 252]

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h) 'Illish al-Maliki said
It is Makruh to fast on the day of Mawlid by analogy to the day of Eid in general, and he said in his fatawa while answering the question that
: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لَا يَلْزَمُهُ شَيْءٌ ; لِأَنَّ عَمَلَ مَوْلِدٍ لِلرَّسُولِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَيْسَ مَنْدُوبًا خُصُوصًا إنْ اشْتَمَلَ عَلَى مَكْرُوهٍ كَقِرَاءَةٍ بِتَلْحِينٍ أَوْ غِنَاءٍ , وَلَا يَسْلَمُ فِي هَذِهِ الْأَزْمَانِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَمَا هُوَ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُ , وَالنَّذْرُ إنَّمَا يَلْزَمُ بِهِ مَا نُدِبَ وَاَللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ . قَالَ الْعَدَوِيُّ فِي مَبْحَثِ الْوَصِيَّةِ وَأَمَّا الْوَصِيَّةُ عَلَى الْمَوْلِدِ الشَّرِيفِ فَذَكَرَ الْفَاكِهَانِيُّ أَنَّ عَمَلَ الْمَوْلِدِ مَكْرُوهٌ وَالْمَكْرُوهُ يَلْزَمُ الْوَارِثَ أَوْ مَنْ يَقُومُ مَقَامَهُ إنْفَاذُ الْوَصِيَّةِ بِهِ وَقَدْ ذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ الشَّامِيُّ ا هـ
Here He is saying that if someone makes a vow to do Mawlid, then his vow is not compulsory because Mawlid is not recommended, especially like in his days when it is done with songs and others, and vows are to be fulfilled only for recommended matters, He then quoted the fatwa of Fakihani who wrote against Mawlid un Nabi. Al-Adawi said under the Chapter of the Will (of the deceased), that if the deceased had included in his Will a will for the Mawlid, then al-Fakahani mentions thats the Mawlid is Makruh, and if the deceased had stated a request in his will for something that is Makruh then it is obligatory upon the inheritor or who is taking his place to fullfill that Will, and al-Shami also mentions that
[فَتْحِ الْعَلِيِّ الْمَالِكِ فِي الْفَتْوَى عَلَى مَذْهَبِ الْإِمَامِ مَالِكٍ]
 
I) Qaadi Iyaad said

Ibn Muflih says:
قال القاضي في الجامع الكبير إنما توقف عن ذلك وإن كان فيه رفعة وإكرام لأن ما طريقه القرب إذا لم يكن للقياس فيه مدخل لا يستحب فعله وإن كان فيه تعظيم إلا بتوقيف ألا ترى أن عمر لما رأى الحجر قال لا تضر ولا تنفع ولولا أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قبلك ما قبلتك .
Al-Qaadi said in al-Jaami’ al-Kabeer: “He did not give an opinion on that (kissing the Quran), although it contains an element of respect and honour, because in the case of deeds intended to draw closer to Allaah, if there is no comparable precedent in the Sunnah,
then it is better not to do it. Do you not remember when ‘Umar saw the Black Stone, he said: ‘You cannot do any harm or any good. If it were not for the fact that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) kissed you, I would not kiss you.’”[Al-Aadaab al-Shar’iyyah (2/273, Al-Risaalah edition)]

This can also be a response to those who celebrate Mawlid and say " it contains an element of respect and honour"


j) 
Hafidh Abul Hasan Ali bin Fadhal Maqdisi al-Maliki (d 611h) 

Noman Muhammad Ameen deobandi Hanafi in his book of Mawlid page 72 quotes from Hafidh Abul Hasan Ali bin Fadhal Maqdisi al-Maliki (d 611h) who according to Ibn Najjar was among scholars of Islam and  he met Ibn Dhaiya who wrote first book ever on mawlid. He said in his book "Jamei al-Masaail" 
"The practice of Mawlid was not present at the time of Salaf and it was innovated in bad times after three best generations (Sahaba, Tabiyeen and Itteba Tabiyeen). And we will not follow later people when it was not practiced by Salaf because following salaf is enough for us, what is the need of innovation then?"
 
Conclusion.
 
It is proven that Mawlid is an Innovation. It is not proven from Imam Maalik and great Maaliki scholars.
 

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