COMPARISON OF COMPILATION OF QURAN TO BIDA`H OF MAWLID UN NABI

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم والصلاة والسلام على النبي وآله وصحبه الأطهار أما بعد
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السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
 
Article Contents

Introduction

.The opponents of Ahlus Sunnah, when asked to produce a proof from the Salaf  in the subject of Mawlid un Nabi, They come up with various lame reasons to excuse and promote the celebration of Prophet (SAW) by giving something out of subject and one of the excuses the come up is
.✪ Was Qurán compiled at the time of the Prophet? If then wouldn’t be it a Bid’ah in religion?
✪ To understand that we need to understand actually what is Bid’ah and what did Rasool (SAW) meant all Bid’ah are Misguidance?.
✪ Does this mean innovation in Technology is Forbidden?.
✪ Does it mean printing press, aircraft, innovation in design is forbidden?
 First let us come up with the first ploy the people of innovation (Ahlul bidah) do to promote their innovated beliefs and practices that is Compilation of Qurán which is our discussion of our subject.
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What is Bid’ah both linguistically and in Shariah?

.Imaam ash-Shaatibee (rahima-ullah) mentions:
.Linguistically Bid’ah (innovation) means 'a newly invented matter'. And in Shariah he defines as follows and in the case of Shariah is as given below:
طريقة في الدين مخترعة تضاهي الشرعية، يقصَد بالسلوك عليها المبالغة في التعبد لله سبحانه
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Thus  "A newly invented way [beliefs or action] in the religion, in imitation of the Shariah (prescribed Law), by which nearness to Allah is sought, [but] not being supported by any authentic proof - neither in its foundations, nor in the manner in which it is performed)).
 Ref: al-I'tisaam of ash-Shaatibee (1/37)
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In the same work he also provides the subject in discussion of a specific need   as follows
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An act of ibadah may be performed due to a number of reasons:
If the act is considered a need due to the natural circumstances of the people and there was no need during the time of the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, then it is considered as maslahah mursalah. For example, the compilation of the Qur'an, the use of the mihrab, the existing schooling system, the use of loudspeakers during the adhan, etc.
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Words of Umar ra pertaining to the compilation of Qurán

.The opponents normally used the wording of Umar (RA) from the hadith( which I will put it in full insha Allah ) :
.. قلت كيف تفعلون شيئا لم يفعله رسول الله ؟ قال هو والله خير
.Translation:
.I said to 'Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" 'Umar said, "By Allah, that is a good work.(end)
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To understand this issue better we need to know the following things:
.☑ The hadith in complete needs to be understood  (not a portion as opponents used to take things out of context to support their views)
Are there Quranic and Prophetic narrations to support this action of Abee Bakr?
The situation at the time of the Prophet and at the time of the Khulafau Rashideen, whether there was a need at the time of the Prophet?  whether the Prophet was capable of doing such act and its comparison to the time of the Prophet?
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Certain statements when taken out from context will not give the entire situation and background and misguides the people in interpreting the issues.
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Step 1: Narration of the complete Hadith & Interpretation

حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل عن إبراهيم بن سعد حدثنا ابن شهاب عن عبيد بن السباق أن زيد بن ثابت رضي الله عنه قال
Y أرسل إلي أبو بكر مقتل أهل اليمامة فإذا عمر بن الخطاب عنده قال أبو بكر رضي الله عنه إن عمر أتاني فقال إن القتل قد استحر يوم اليمامة بقراء القرآن وإني أخشى أن يستحر القتل بالقراء بالمواطن فيذهب كثير من القرآن وإني أرى أن تأمر بجمع القرآن . قلت لعمر كيف تفعل شيئا لم يفعله رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟ قال عمر هذا والله خير فلم يزل عمر يراجعني حتى شرح الله صدري لذلك ورأيت في ذلك الذي رأى عمر . قال زيد قال أبو بكر إنك رجل شاب عاقل لا نتهمك وقد كنت تكتب الوحي لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فتتبع القرآن فاجمعه . فوالله لو كلفوني نقل جبل من الجبال ما كان أثقل علي مما أمرني به من جمع القرآن . قلت كيف تفعلون شيئا لم يفعله رسول الله ؟ قال هو والله خير فلم يزل أبو بكر يراجعني حتى شرح الله صدري للذي شرح له صدر أبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما فتتبعت القرآن أجمعه من العسب واللخاف وصدور الرجال حتى وجدت آخر سورة التوبة مع أبي خزيمة الأنصاري لم أجدها مع أحد غيره { لقد جاءكم رسول من أنفسكم عزيز عليه ما عنتم }
حتى خاتمة براءة فكانت الصحف عند أبي بكر حتى توفاه الله ثم عند عمر حياته ثم عند حفصة بنت عمر رضي الله عنه
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Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:
.Abu Bakr As-Siddiq sent for me when the people! of Yamama had been killed (i.e., a number of the Prophet's Companions who fought against Musailama). (I went to him) and found 'Umar bin Al-Khattab sitting with him. Abu Bakr then said (to me), "Umar has come to me and said: "Casualties were heavy among the Qurra' of the! Qur'an (i.e. those who knew the Quran by heart) on the day of the Battle of Yalmama, and I am afraid that more heavy casualties may take place among the Qurra' on other battlefields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost. Therefore I suggest, you (Abu Bakr) order that the Qur'an be collected." I said to 'Umar, "How can you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" 'Umar said, "By Allah, that is a good project. "Umar kept on urging me to accept his proposal till Allah opened my chest for it and I began to realize the good in the idea which 'Umar had realized." Then Abu Bakr said (to me). 'You are a wise young man and we do not have any suspicion about you, and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle. So you should search for (the fragmentary scripts of) the Qur'an and collect it in one book)." By Allah If they had ordered me to shift one of the mountains, it would not have been heavier for me than this ordering me to collect the Qur'an. Then I said to Abu Bakr, "How will you do something which Allah's Apostle did not do?" Abu Bakr replied, "By Allah, it is a good project." Abu Bakr kept on urging me to accept his idea until Allah opened my chest for what He had opened the chests of Abu Bakr and 'Umar. So I started looking for the Qur'an and collecting it from (what was written on) palmed stalks, thin white stones and also from the men who knew it by heart, till I found the last Verse of Surat At-Tauba (Repentance) with Abi Khuzaima Al-Ansari, and I did not find it with anybody other than him. The Verse is: 'Verily there has come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty..(till the end of Surat-Baraa' (At-Tauba) (9.128-129) Then the complete manuscripts (copy) of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr till he died, then with 'Umar till the end of his life, and then with Hafsa, the daughter of 'Umar(end)
 
.Now from the full hadith narration we can understand the background properly:
.☛ Fear of Abu Baqr of people memorizing Quran being killed.
☛ From the command of Abu Baqr who ordered Zayd bin Thaabit to collect the whole Quran we understand that Quran was already recorded but not in one complete order which can  be found in authentic narrations also it was recorded in their hearts.
☛ Qurán was compiled in a different format to be saved and this was the objective. It was already collected in the hearts of the believers
 
 

Step 2: Quran and Sunnah for the reference of this act:

 
This command is enough for the people who blindly oppose us to state do you have a proof from Sunnah
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Proof 1:
عليكم بسنتي وسنة الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين من بعدي
.“I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly-Guided Khalifas after me (The complete Matn  and translation is given in the end)
.Sunan Thirmizhi 26762. Sunan Abi Dawood: 46073, Sunan Ibn Majah : 42
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Proof 2:
.Allah says in the Quran, .Surah : 75 Verse : 17 ; Surah : Hijr Verse 9 Surah Bayyinat: Verse: 2-3
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إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا جَمْعَهُ وَقُرْءَانَهُ
17.It is for Us to collect it and that it be recited
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إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَـفِظُونَ
9.Verily, We, it is We Who revealed the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur'an) and surely We will guard it (from corruption).)
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يتلوا صحفا مطهرة فيها كتب قيمة
2. A Messenger from Allah reciting purified pages.) (3. Wherein are upright Books.)
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So indeed Allah had told he would protect the Quran and his Messenger has told to obey the Khulafa Rashidoon. And indeed the saying and action of Umar and Abee Bakr was fulfilling the prophecy of Allah (SWT).The whole of the Quran was already recorded but not in one complete order as from the commands from Abee Bakr:
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Proof 3:
.‏حدثنا ‏ ‏يحيى بن قزعة ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏إبراهيم بن سعد ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏الزهري ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏عبيد الله بن عبد الله ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏ابن عباس ‏ ‏رضي الله عنهما ‏ ‏قال ‏
‏كان النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏أجود الناس بالخير وأجود ما يكون في شهر رمضان لأن ‏ ‏جبريل ‏ ‏كان يلقاه في كل ليلة في شهر رمضان حتى ينسلخ يعرض عليه رسول الله ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏القرآن فإذا لقيه ‏ ‏جبريل ‏ ‏كان أجود بالخير من الريح المرسلة
‏حدثنا ‏ ‏خالد بن يزيد ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏أبو بكر ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي حصين ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي صالح ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي هريرة ‏ ‏قال ‏
‏كان ‏ ‏يعرض على النبي ‏ ‏صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏القرآن كل عام مرة فعرض عليه مرتين في العام الذي قبض فيه وكان يعتكف كل عام عشرا فاعتكف عشرين في العام الذي قبض فيه
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Qurán was memorized by the Prophet himself to Jibreel and in the last Ramadan he heard it to Jibreel (pbuh) twice and so there was an order to be recited.
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Step 3A:Situation at the time of the Prophet:

.Why the Quran could not be compiled at the Prophets time . We can understand the same in 3 points
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Point 1: Qurán came in portions and not in a complete fashion
.Qurán came to the Prophet, not one go, but in portions, sometimes some verses were revealed and sometimes a full Surah.
وَقُرْءانًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَى مُكْثٍ وَنَزَّلْنَـهُ تَنْزِيلاً
106. And a Qur'an which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages.)
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Point 2: The issue of Verses being Mansookh
.There were verses in Quran where verses were abrogated and some abrogated verses were removed from the Quran itself after the coming of replaced new laws.
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'A'isha (Allah be pleased with, her) reported that it had been revealed in the Holy Qur'an that ten clear sucklings make the marriage unlawful, then it was abrogated (and substituted) by five sucklings and Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) died and it was before that time (found) in the Holy Qur'an (and recited by the Muslims).
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Therefore to record the Qurán did not make any sense since the laws of removal is upon the commandment from Allah.
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Point 3: Revelations till the last period of Rasoolullah (SAW)
.Qurán kept revealing to the Prophet till his last days of life
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STEP 3B:Situation at the time of Abee Bakr :

.♛ From the narration itself its obvious there was a need since many of them who memorized Quran was killed.
Abee Bakr feared about the Quran’s existence and some sort of remedy was required
Revelation of Qurán was complete
By fulfilling this, he was just fulfilling the prophecy of Allah and the commandment of the Prophet (SAW)
The commandment of Rasoolullah holds valid as Abee Bakr is among the Pious Khalifas and Sunnah of Rasoolullah it’s not just what Prophet did,
But most importantly his commands, his doings and his approval also  is Sunnah
 
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Conclusion 

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To those who oppose us, who say the Compilation of Quran is not the Sunnah of the Prophet according to you (Ahlus sunnah) we reply, it indeed is a Sunnah, simply from his commandment to obey Abee Bakr and it was fulfilling the commands of Rasoolullah
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And analogy of this incident to take proof and Qiyaas it to Mawlid un Nabi is not supported. We do agree that Mujtahid Scholars consider the act as Bid’ah Hasanah according to their understanding and as how Shaykhul Islam Ibne Tamiyah interpreted it we do the same in this regard. His extract from Iqtidaau Siraathul Mustaqeem..
 
وكذلك ما يحدثه بعض الناس ، إما مضاهاة للنصارى في ميلاد عيسى عليه السلام ، وإما محبة للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وتعظيمًا . والله قد يثيبهم على هذه المحبة والاجتهاد ، لا على البدع- من اتخاذ مولد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عيدًا . مع اختلاف الناس في مولده . فإن هذا لم يفعله السلف ، مع قيام المقتضي له وعدم المانع منه لو كان خيرًا . ولو كان هذا خيرًا محضا ، أو راجحًا لكان السلف رضي الله عنهم أحق به منا ، فإنهم كانوا أشد محبة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وتعظيمًا له منا ، وهم على الخير أحرص
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Translation :
.And so is the case with what some people have innovated, either in imitation of the Christians who celebrate the birthday of Jesus (as) or out of love for the Prophet (saas) and in order to exalt him. And it may be that Allah may reward them for this love and for the ijtihaad they made, but not for the innovation of taking the birthday of the Prophet (saas) as a festival; despite the differences regarding his actual birthday. For indeed, this was an act never performed by the earlier generations, had it been good in essence or correct Islamically, then those earlier generations (may Allah be pleased with them) would have more right to such a deed than us, for they had greater love for the Messenger (saas) and exalted him more than we do, and they were more concerned and ardent with performing good deeds than us.(end)
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Thus we hold onto what has come from the Salaf without abusing or mocking the difference of opinion what the Imams of the Khalaf gave their verdict and understanding upon their perspective on an issue. Finally from the advice of Rasoolullah (SAW) is to hold onto the Sunnah in the diff of opinion:.
 
حدثنا أحمد بن حنبل ثنا الوليد بن مسلم ثنا ثور بن يزيد قال حدثني خالد بن معدان قال حدثني عبد الرحمن بن عمرو السلمي وحجر بن حجر قالا
Y أتينا العرباض بن سارية وهو ممن نزل فيه { ولا على الذين إذا ما أتوك لتحملهم قلت لا أجد ما أحملكم عليه } فسلمنا وقلنا أتيناك زائرين وعائدين ومقتبسين فقال العرباض صلى بنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذات يوم ثم أقبل علينا فوعظنا موعظة بليغة ذرفت منها العيون ووجلت منها القلوب فقال قائل يارسول الله كأن هذه موعظة مودع فماذا تعهد إلينا ؟ فقال " أوصيكم بتقوى الله والسمع والطاعة وإن عبدا حبشيا فإنه من يعش منكم بعدي فسيرى اختلافا كثيرا فعليكم بسنتي وسنة الخلفاء المهديين الراشدين تمسكوا بها وعضوا عليها بالنواجذ وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور فإن كل محدثة بدعة وكل بدعة ضلالة
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"I enjoin you to have Taqwa of Allah and that you listen and obey, even if a slave is made a ruler over you. He among you who lives long enough will see many differences. So for you is to observe my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly-principled and rightly-guided successors, holding on to them with your molar teeth. Beware of newly-introduced matters, for every innovation (bid'ah) is an error(end)
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The rightly-guided khilafas ruled for 30 years. They include Abu Bakr (ra), Umar (ra), Umar (ra) and Ali (ra). The following 2 hadeeth prove this:
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[Please note the conversation between Safeenah and Saeed at the end. I did not put that in my initial post.]
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حدثنا سَوَّارُ بنُ عَبْدِ الله أخبرنا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ بنُ سَعِيدٍ عن سَعِيدِ بنِ جُمْهَانَ عن سَفِينَةَ ، قال قال رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم: «خِلاَفَةُ النُّبُوَّةِ ثَلاَثُونَ سَنَةً ثُمَّ يُؤْتِي الله المُلْكَ أوْ مُلْكَهَ مَنْ يَشَاءُ». قال سَعِيدٌ قال لي سَفِينَةُ: أمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ أبَا بَكْرٍ سَنَتَيْنِ، وَعُمَرَ عَشْراً، وَعُثْمانَ اثْنَيْ عَشَر، وَعَلَى كَذَا قال سَعِيدٌ. قُلْتُ لِسَفِينَةَ: إنَّ هؤُلاَءِ يَزْعُمُونَ أنَّ عَلِيًّا لَمْ يَكُنْ بخَلِيفَةٍ، قال: كَذَبَتْ أسَتَاهُ بَنِي الزَّرْقَاء ـ يَعْنِي بَنِي مَرْوَانَ.
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Safeenah said: Allah’s Messenger (saw) said: “The Prophetic Caliphate will be for 30 years. Then Allah will give dominion to whomever he pleases.”
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Saeed (a sub-narrator) said: Safeenah (the narrator) said to me: Hold two years for Abu Bakr, ten for Umar, 12 for Uthman and like that for Ali. Saeed said: I told Safeenah that those people claim that Ali, peace be upon him, was not a Khalifa. He (Safeenah) replied: “Lie the tribe of Zarqaa i.e. the tribe of Marwan.”(end)
.(Sunan Abee Dawood no. 4646 and authenticated by Shaikh Al-Albaani)
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حَدَّثنا أَحمدُ بنُ مَنيعٍ ، أخبرنا سُرَيْجُ بنُ النُّعْمَانِ ، حدثنا حَشْرَجُ بنُ نُبَاتَةَ ، عن سَعِيدِ بنِ جُمْهَانَ ، قَالَ حدثني سَفِينَةُ قَالَ ،: قَالَ رَسُولُ الله: «الْخِلاَفَةُ فِي أُمَّتِي ثَلاَثُونَ سَنَةً ، ثُمَّ مُلْكٌ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ» ثُمَّ قَالَ لِي سَفِينَةُ: امْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ خِلاَفَةَ أَبي بَكْرٍ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: وَخِلاَفةَ عُمَرَ وَخِلاَفَةَ عُثْمانَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ لي: امسِكْ خِلاَفَةَ عَلِيٍّ قال: فَوَجَدْنَاهَا ثَلاَثِينَ سَنَةً. قَالَ سَعِيدٌ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: إِنَّ بَنِي أُمَيَّةَ يَزْعَمُونَ أَنَّ الْخِلاَفَةَ فِيهِمْ، قَالَ: كَذَبَ بنو الذَّرقَا بَلْ هُمْ مُلُوكٌ مَنْ شَرِّ المُلُوكِ
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Safeenah said: Allah’s Messenger (saw) said: “The Caliphate will remain in my nation for 30 years and then kingship after that”.
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[Saeed, the sub-narrator said]: Then Safeenah said to me: Hold the khilafa of Abu Bakr, that of Umar, Uthman and the Khilafa of Ali. Saeed said: “We found it to be 30 years! I said to him. The Umayyad tribe claim that there is Khilafa among them.” He replied: The tribe of Zarqaa lie. They are kings from among the worst of kings.”
(Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmidhee no. 2226)
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According to Dr. Bilal, Ibn Qudamaa does not count the reign of Hasan (ra) perhaps because he considered it part of Ali’s (ra) reign or maybe he does not consider it a khilafa as Hasan (ra) abdicated. Thereafter, Dr. Bilal uses the attached chart as proof that Hasan’s (ra) should be counted.
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He also uses the following hadeeth as a proof of the khilafa of Hasan (ra):
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حدّثنا صدقَةُ حدَّثَنا ابن عُيَينةَ حدَّثَنا أبو موسى عن الحسنِ سمعَ أبا بكرةَ «سمعتُ النبيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم على المنبرِ والحسنُ إلى جنبهِ، يَنظر إلى الناسِ مرةً وإليهِ مرةَ ويقول: ابني هذا سَيِّد، ولعل اللَّهَ أن يُصلِحَ بهِ بينَ فِئتينِ منَ المسلمين».
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Narrated Abu Bakra: I heard the Prophet talking at the pulpit while Al-Hasan was sitting beside him, and he (i.e. the Prophet ) was once looking at the people and at another time Al-Hasan, and saying, "This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. chief) and perhaps Allah will bring about an agreement between two sects of the Muslims through him." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 57, Number 89)
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