Pearls from the life of Umar ibn al Khattab

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Contents

1. Umar ibn al Khattab, the great Caliph.
2. What Umar ibn al Khattab did to help the people in the year of Drought.
3. Umar ibn al Khattab on Women.
4. Umar ibn al Khattab on Widows.
5. Umar ibn al Khattab would listen and help everyone, even when a young widow stopped him on his way.
6. The Mahr of Umm Kulthum.
7. Umar ibn al Khattab and his justice for the Jew woman.
8. A Woman complaining about her husband in the court of Umar ibn al Khattab.
9. The story of Umar and a Christian old woman.
10. Marrying the daughters with religious good looking men.
11. The story of Umar ra and a woman whose children were hungry.
12. Umar ibn al Khattab and Women who did zina forcefully.
13. There is no diyah for would be rapist if a woman kills him.
14. Umar ibn al Khattab and his punishment for the one who gives three divorces in one sitting.
15. Umar ibn al Khattab and Pre-planned Halala
16. To those who can't accept difference of opinion on fiqh at all.
17. Umar ibn al Khattab and his attitude towards jews living under his rule.
18. When Salah ud din followed the example of Umar ibn al Khattab.
19. Umar ibn al Khattab and Fitness.
20. Umar said, If Allah wills, HE can enter all of HIS creation in jannah by his one handful.
21. Staying away from wife for more than six months?
22. Marrying the virgins. 
23. Umar ibn al Khattab and the Man who did not know about punishment of Zina.
24. The wish of Umar ibn al Khattab.
25. No other thing to wear for jummah rather than a single thawb.
26. Umar ibn al Khattab and Cutting the hands in case of theft when people are facing famine or they are in hardship.
27. Umar ibn al Khattab and children.
28. Umar ibn al Khattab openly said if my governers do injustice, do let me know.
29. How were his governors?
30. When the companions complaint to Umar that people can't mention their problems against you due to your fear.
31. Verdicts of Umar ibn al Khattab against those who kill the innocent people.
32. How Umar ibn al Khattab treated and adviced a drunkard.
33. When Umar saw a person mixing water into the Milk and selling it.
34. Umar ibn al Khattab's advice to the fatawa machines.
35. The struggle of Umar ibn al Khattab against innovations.

36. Best and worst women.
37. The martyrdoom of Umar ibn al Khattab ra.
38. Beautiful advice of Umar ibn al Khattab to his would be successor regarding protection of non Muslims.
39. Umar ibn al Khattab in the eyes of Non Muslims.

 
1. Umar ibn al Khattab, the great Caliph.
 
When Umar ibn al Khattab radhiAllah anho became a Caliph, He didn't take anything from bayt al Maal and by doing works of people his business was effected, So he asked the Sahaba: 
 
(قد شغلت نفسي في هذا الأمر فما يصلح لي فيه؟ فقال عثمان بن عفان: كل وأطعم، قال: وقال ذلك سعيد بن زيد بن عمرو بن نفيل. وقال عمر لعلي: ما تقول أنت في ذلك؟ قال: غداء وعشاء، فأخذ عمر بذلك) 
I am busy in the works of caliphate. Could you please advice me on this matter (i.e. whether I should take from bayt al Maal or no). Uthman ibn Affan and Saeed bin Zaid bin Umar bin Nufail said: Eat from it and give from it. Then Umar asked from Ali, And he replied: You can take as much which is sufficient for your lunch and dinner. Umar agreed to this advice.
 
[Tabqaat al Kubra 3/307. It is mentioned in the footnotes of the book "Seerah Ameer ul Momineen Umar ibn al Khattab" page 108 by Dr. Ali Muhammad as-Salabi that "the chain is authentic"]
 
2. What Umar ibn al Khattab did to help the people in the year of Drought.
 
Ibn Kathir mentioned
فلجأوا إلى أمير المؤمنين فأنفق فيهم من حواصل بيت المال مما فيه مِن الأطعمة والأموال حتى أنفذه،
Whatever food and treasury Ameer ul Momineen had in Bayt al Maal, He spent on them until it was finished. [al Bidaya wal Nihaya 7/103]
 
3. Umar ibn al Khattab on Women.
 
Umar May Allah be pleased with him said:
وَاللَّهِ إِنْ كُنَّا فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ مَا نَعُدُّ لِلنِّسَاءِ أَمْرًا، حَتَّى أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِنَّ مَا أَنْزَلَ وَقَسَمَ لَهُنَّ مَا قَسَمَ ـ
"By Allah, in the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance we did not pay attention to women until Allah revealed regarding them what He revealed regarding them and assigned for them what He has assigned." [Sahih al Bukhari Book 65, Hadith 4913]
 
4. Umar ibn al Khattab on Widows.
 
Umar ibn al Khattab said:
"If Allah should keep me alive I will let the widows of Iraq need no men to support them after me." [Sahih al Bukhari no. 3700]
 
Meaning they will not ask any man to support them in any way, whether financially or in any other thing.
 
5. Umar ibn al Khattab would listen and help everyone, even when a young widow stopped him on his way.
 
Narrated Aslam:
Once I went with `Umar bin Al-Khattab to the market. A young woman followed `Umar and said, "O chief of the believers! My husband has died, leaving little children. By Allah, they have not even a sheep's trotter to cook; they have no farms or animals. I am afraid that they may die because of hunger, and I am the daughter of Khufaf bin Ima Al-Ghafari, and my father witnessed the Pledge of allegiance) of Al-Hudaibiya with the Prophet.' `Umar stopped and did not proceed, and said, "I welcome my near relative." Then he went towards a strong camel which was tied in the house, and carried on to it, two sacks he had loaded with food grains and put between them money and clothes and gave her its rope to hold and said, "Lead it, and this provision will not finish till Allah gives you a good supply." A man said, "O chief of the believers! You have given her too much." "`Umar said disapprovingly. "May your mother be bereaved of you! By Allah, I have seen her father and brother besieging a fort for a long time and conquering it, and then we were discussing what their shares they would have from that war booty."
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 4160, 4161
 
6. The Mahr of Umm Kulthum.
 
Ata al Khurasani said:
أن عمربن الخطاب أمهر أم كلثوم أربعين الفا.
40,000 was given to Umm Kulthum by Umar bin al Khattab as a Mahr.
 
[Tabqaat Ibn Saad 8/463-465, Declared Hasan by sh Zubair Ali Zai in Fatawa Ilmiyah 2/548, Ibn Kathir said its munqata and quoted another rout and said, its making the previous one powerful, Musnad al Farooq 1/392 ]
 
7. Umar ibn al Khattab and his justice for the Jew woman.
 
Ibn Hazam said in al Muhalla 8/341
رُوِّينَا مِنْ طَرِيقِ ابْنِ وَهْبٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْحَارِثِ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي هِلَالٍ: أَنَّ زَيْدَ بْنَ أَسْلَمَ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ يَهُودِيَّةً جَاءَتْ إلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَتْ: إنَّ ابْنِي هَلَكَ، فَزَعَمَتْ الْيَهُودُ أَنَّهُ لَا حَقَّ لِي فِي مِيرَاثِهِ؟ فَدَعَاهُمْ عُمَرُ فَقَالَ: "أَلَا تُعْطُونَ هَذِهِ حَقَّهَا؟" فَقَالُوا: لَا نَجِدُ لَهَا حَقًّا فِي كِتَابِنَا؟ فَقَالَ: "أَفِي التَّوْرَاةِ؟" قَالُوا: بَلَى، فِي الْمُثَنَّاةِ قَالَ: "وَمَا الْمُثَنَّاةُ؟" قَالُوا: كِتَابٌ كَتَبَهُ أَقْوَامٌ عُلَمَاءُ حُكَمَاءُ؟ فَسَبَّهُمْ عُمَرُ وَقَالَ: "اذْهَبُوا فَأَعْطُوهَا حَقَّهَا"
 
It is narrated from Zaid bin Aslam that a Jew Woman came to Umar ibn al Khattab complaining that, My son is no more and these Jews claim I have no right of Inheritance.
 
Umar asked the jews about the issue and they replied: We do not find her right in our book. Umar said: Is it in Torah? They said: no, rather in الْمُثَنَّاةِ, Umar said: what is الْمُثَنَّاةِ ?
 
They said: Our scholars and wise people wrote it. Umar censured them and said: Go and give her, her right.
 
[Its mentioned in the footnotes of Dr Salabi's book on Umar ibn al Khattab page 277 that its in Mosuaat al Fiqh Umar ibn al Khattab page 725, Sunan al Bayhaqi 10/112]
 
8. A Woman complaining about her husband in the court of Umar ibn al Khattab.
 
Ibn Hajr al Asqalani said about K`ab:
وبعثه عمر قاضيا على البصرة لخبر عجيب مشهور جرى له معه في امرأة شكت زوجها الى عمر فقالت ان زوجي يقوم الليل ويصوم النهار وانا أكره ان اشكوه إليك وهو يعمل بطاعة الله فكأن عمر لم يفهم عنها وكعب بن سور جالس معه فأخبره انها تشكو انها ليس لها من زوجها نصيب فأمره عمر بن الخطاب ان يقضي بينهما فقضى للمرأة بيوم من أربعة أيام أو ليلة من أربع ليال فسأله عمر عن ذلك فنزع بان الله تعالى أحل له أربع نسوة لا زيادة فلها ليلة من أربع ليال فأعجب ذلك عمر فاستقضاه
Umar made him the judge of Basra due to the strange incident. Once a woman came to Umar, complaining about her husband saying: My Husband do not sleep at night and fast in the day, I don't like to complain about him as he is doing it in the worship of Allah. Umar did not get her question (i.e. what she is trying to say). He (Ka`b) was sitting with him and said: She is complaining that she is not getting her share (of spending night) from her husband. Umar ordered him to be a judge between them, So he decided that a Man should spend a day from four days and a night from four nights (for intercourse). Umar asked for the reason? He replied that A Man can marry four women, and (if he had four wives) she would get a night. Umar made him a judge as he was astonished by his answer. [al Isaba by Ibn Hajr, al Albani said: Authentic in al Irwa no. 2016]
 
9. The story of Umar and a Christian old woman.
 
al Qurtubi said:
والحجة لهذا القول ما رواه زيد بن أسلم عن أبيه قال : سمعت عمر بن الخطاب يقول لعجوز نصرانية : أسلمي أيتها العجوز تسلمي ، إن الله بعث محمدا بالحق . قالت : أنا عجوز كبيرة والموت إلي قريب! فقال عمر : اللهم اشهد ، وتلا لا إكراه في الدين . 
 
The evidence of this saying is the narration of Zaid bin Asalm from his father who said: I heard Umar bin al Khattab said to an old christian woman: Accept Islam old one, For Allah sent Muhammad (peace be upon him) with truth. She said:
 
"I am an old woman and death is near at hand." 'Umar said, "O God, bear witness!" and recited, "There is no compulsion in religion." [Tafsir al Qurtubi under al Baqarah verse 256]
 
10. Marrying the daughters with religious good looking men.
 
As-Saffaareeni attributed to Umar ibn al Khattab said:
" لَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمَرْأَةَ الْقَبِيحَ الدَّمِيمَ فَإِنَّهُنَّ يُحْبِبْنَ لِأَنْفُسِهِنَّ مَا تُحِبُّونَ لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ" 
“Do not make your women marry the ugly, unsightly man, for they love for themselves what you love for yourselves.” [Ibid]
 
It is mentioned in al Musannaf Abdul Razzaq, Umar ra said:
" يعمد أحدكم إلى بنته فيزوجها القبيح ، إنهن يحببن ما تحبون "
When anyone of you knowingly marry your daughter with an ugly man, (even though) she likes what you like for yourself. [ مصنف عبدالرزاق: كتاب النكاح 6/158.]
 
11. The story of Umar ra and a woman whose children were hungry.
 
Imam Ahmad narrated:
 
Once, In a cold night Umar ra saw a woman who was trying to cook something and her little children were weeping, He said "Assalamu alikum O people of light. As he disliked to say O people of fire,
 
She replied (not knowing that he is ameer ul momineen): Wa alikum as-salam.
 
Umar asked: What happened to you? And why the children are weeping?
 
She said: Its a cold night and the children are hungry.
 
He asked what are you cooking?
 
she said: I am deceiving the children so that they may sleep. (i.e. she was just showing that food is going to be ready), ALLAH is in between us and UMAR.
 
He said: May Allah bless you, How could Umar know your situation?
 
She said: Umar is our Haakim and still do not know about us?
 
Umar said to his servant: Come with me, and they ran towards the store and took a sack of flour and other food, and said to his servant put this on me.
 
His servant said: I can take it, Umar replied, would you bear my weight on the day of judgment? Umar ran and took the food for that woman.
 
He helped the woman in cooking and feeding the children.
 
The woman said: You should be our leader apart from AMEER UL MONINEEN.
 
Umar said: when you meet Ameer ul momineen than you should say something good and talk to me there. Then he sat down and saw the children eating and playing, then the children slept.
 
Umar said: Hunger made them cry and they could not sleep because of that, I wanted to see this (i.e. playing and sleep of children) and I saw that.
 
[Fadail as-Sahaba of Imam Ahmad 1/290-292, Shaykh Wasi ullah Abbas said chain is Hasan, Sh Zubair Ali Zai said The narration is Hasan Lidhatihi Maqalaat 6/253]
 
12. Umar ibn al Khattab and Women who did zina forcefully.
 
a. A woman was brought to Umar, who was accused for zina, She said:
إني كنت نائمة فلم أستيقظ إلا برجل قد جثم علي فخلى سبيلها ولم يضربها
I was sleeping and woke up when he became dominant over me. So he (Umar) did not punish her. [al Albani said: Authentic in al Irwa al Ghaleel no. 2312]
 
b. It is narrated by al Bayhaqi
أتى عمر بن الخطاب رضى الله عنه بامرأة جهدها العطش فمرت على راع فاستسقت فأبى أن يسقيها إلا أن تمكنه من نفسها ففعلت فشاور الناس في رجمها فقال علي رضى الله عنه : هذه مضطرة أرى أن تخلي سبيلها ففعل
“‘A woman was brought to ‘Umar bin al Khattab May Allah be pleased with him who had been extremely thirsty, and had passed by a shepherd and asked him to give her something to drink; he had refused to give her something to drink unless she let him have his way with her. [‘Umar] consulted with the people as to whether he should have her stoned. ‘Ali May Allah be pleased with him said, ‘She was forced to do it, you should let her go.’ So he did so." [Sunah al Bayhaqi ( 8 / 236 ). Shaykh al Albani said: "Authentic" in Irwa al Ghaleel 7/341 no. 2313, Islamqa]
 
c. Imam Bukhari said:
وقال الليث حدثني نافع أن صفية بنت أبي عبيد أخبرته أن عبدا من رقيق الإمارة وقع على وليدة من الخمس فاستكرهها حتى اقتضها فجلده عمر الحد ونفاه ولم يجلد الوليدة من أجل أنه استكرهها
"A governmental male-slave tried to seduce a slave-girl from the Khumus of the war booty till he deflowered her by force against her will; therefore 'Umar flogged him according to the law, and exiled him, but he did not flog the female slave because the male-slave had committed illegal sexual intercourse by force, against her will." [Sahih al-Bukhari 6949]
 
Ibn Hajr commented:
قوله : ( وقال الليث ) هو ابن سعد ( حدثني نافع ) هو مولى ابن عمر . 
 
قوله : ( أن صفية بنت أبي عبيد أخبرته ) يعني الثقفية امرأة عبد الله بن عمر . 
 
قوله : ( أن عبدا من رقيق الإمارة ) بكسر الألف أي من مال الخليفة وهو عمر . 
 
قوله : ( وقع على وليدة من الخمس ) أي من مال خمس الغنيمة الذي يتعلق التصرف فيه بالإمام ، والمراد زنى بها . 
 
قوله : ( فاستكرهها حتى اقتضها ) بقاف وضاد معجمة مأخوذ من القضة وهي عذرة البكر ، وهذا يدل على أنها كانت بكرا . 
 
قوله : ( فجلده عمر الحد ونفاه ) أي جلده خمسين جلدة ونفاه نصف سنة ، لأن حده نصف حد الحر ، ويستفاد منه أن عمر كان يرى أن الرقيق ينفى كالحر ، وقد تقدم البحث فيه في الحدود . 
 
وقوله : " لم يجلد الوليدة لأنه استكرهها " لم أقف على اسم واحد منهما . وهذا الأثر وصله أبو القاسم البغوي عن العلاء بن موسى عن الليث بمثله سواء ، ووقع لي عاليا جدا بيني وبين صاحب الليث فيه سبعة أنفس بالسماع المتصل في أزيد من ستمائة سنة ، قرأته على محمد بن الحسن بن عبد الرحيم الدقاق عن أحمد بن نعمة سماعا أنبأنا أبو المنجا بن عمر أنبأنا أبو الوقت أنبأنا محمد بن عبد العزيز أنبأنا عبد الرحمن بن أبي شريح أنبأنا البغوي فذكره 
(Layth) is Ibn Sa`d, (Naaf`e) is the freed slave of Ibn Umar.
 
(Safiyya bint 'Ubaid) was wife of Abdullah bin Umar...
 
(Safiyya said the slave man deflowered the female slave by force) with Qaaf and Duaad, meaning broke her hymen, this is a proof that she was a virgin.
 
('Umar flogged him according to the law, and exiled him) He flogged him 50 times, and exiled him for 6 months because the punishment of slave is half of the free man. This is a proof that according to Umar ra, slave man will also be exiled like a free man, as it is mentioned already in Kitab al Hudood.
 
(he did not flog the female slave) I could not find their names,This athar is mentioned by Abul Qasim al Baghwi from al Ala bin Musa from Layth. This athar has reached me through very Aali chain that also with clear hearing and only eight people are between me and al Baghwi, even though he died more than 600 years before me. (Then he narrated this story through his chain). [Fath al Bari under the hadith 6949]
 
13. There is no diyah for would be rapist if a woman kills him.
 
It says in al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah al-Hanbali: “Concerning a woman who was pursued by a man, and she killed him to protect herself, Ahmad said: ‘If she knew that he wanted [to rape] her, and she killed him to protect herself, then she is not at fault.’ Ahmad mentioned the hadeeth which al-Zuhri reported from al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, from ‘Ubayd ibn ‘Umayr, in which it said that a man had visitors from [the tribe of] Hudhayl, and he wanted [to rape] a woman, so she threw a rock at him and killed him. ‘Umar said, ‘By Allaah, there is no diyah for him ever’ i.e., she did not have to pay the ‘blood money’ for him. If it is permissible to defend one's money, which one can give away, then a woman defending and protecting herself and her honour which cannot be given away, is clearly more permissible than a man defending his money. If this is clear, then she is obliged to defend herself if she can, because letting someone overpower her [rape her] is haraam, and by not defending herself, she lets him overpower her.” [al-Mughni, 8/331]
 
14. Umar ibn al Khattab and his punishment for the one who gives three divorces in one sitting.
 
Ibn 'Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and that of Abu Bakr and two years of the caliphate of Umar (Allah be pleased with him) (was treated) as one.But Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) said: Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite.So if we had imposed this upon them, and he imposed it upon them. (Sahih Muslim Book 9, Number 3491)
 
Ibn Hajar asqalani said:
وأخرج سعيد بن منصور عن أنس " أن عمر كان إذا أتي برجل طلق امرأته ثلاثا أوجع ظهره " وسنده صحيح
Saeed bin Mansoor mentioned from Anas that when someone was presented to Umar ra who gave three divorces to his wife, Umar would lash him on his back. Its chain is saheeh [Fath al Bari, Kitab at-Talaq chapter 3]
 
15. Umar ibn al Khattab and Pre-planned Halala

He said:
لا أوتى بمُحلِّل ولا مُحلَّل له إلا رجمتهما 

"If the participants to Tahlil are brought to me, I will have them stoned.'' [al Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, Kitab Radd al Abi Hanifa]

16. To those who can't accept difference of opinion on fiqh at all.
 
Ibn Abdul Barr said:
وعن عمر أنه لقي رجلا فقال : ما صنعت ؟ قال : قضى علي وزيد بكذا ، قال : لو كنت أنا لقضيت بكذا ، قال : فما منعك والأمر إليك ؟ قال : لو كنت أردك إلى كتاب الله أو إلى سنة نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم لفعلت ، ولكني أردك إلى رأي ، والرأي مشترك ، فلم ينقض ما قال علي وزيد . 
It is narrated from Umar that he met a man and asked: What happened to your affair? 
 
He said: Ali and Zaid gave me this verdict (on that issue).
 
Umar said: If I would give a verdict it would be different. 
 
He said: Caliphate is yours what is the issue then?
 
Umar said: If I had clear evidence from Quran and sunnah of Prophet peace be upon him, I would do that but I haven't, I only have my opinion and all the opinions are same.
 
(Ibn Abdul Barr said) He did not Invalidate
the opinion of Ali and Zaid. [Jam`e Byan wal Ilm page 854]
 
17. Umar ibn al Khattab and his attitude towards jews living under his rule.
 
It is mentioned in كتاب الخراج page 150 by Imam Abu Yusaf Sahib Abi Hanifa 
 
وَحَدَّثَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ نَافِعٍ , عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرٍ , قَالَ : " مَرَّ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ بِبَابِ قَوْمٍ وَعَلَيْهِ سَائِلٌ يَسْأَلُ : شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ ضَرِيرُ الْبَصَرِ ، فَضَرَبَ عَضُدَهُ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ , وَقَالَ : مِنْ أَيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَنْتَ ؟ فَقَالَ : يَهُودِيٌّ , قَالَ : فَمَا أَلْجَأَكَ إِلَى مَا أَرَى ؟ قَالَ : أَسْأَلُ الْجِزْيَةَ وَالْحَاجَةَ وَالسِّنَّ , قَالَ : فَأَخَذَ عُمَرُ بِيَدِهِ وَذَهَبَ بِهِ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ فَرَضَخَ لَهُ بِشَيْئٍ مِنَ الْمَنْزِلِ.
 
ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ إِلَى خَازِنِ بَيْتِ الْمَالِ , فَقَالَ : انْظُرْ هَذَا وَضُرَبَاءَهُ ، فَوَاللَّهِ مَا أَنْصَفْنَاهُ أَنْ أَكَلْنَا شَبِيبَتَهُ ثُمَّ نَخُذُلُهُ عِنْدَ الْهَرَمِ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ سورة التوبة آية 60 وَالْفُقَرَاءُ هُمُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ , وَهَذَا مِنَ الْمَسَاكِينِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ، وَوَضَعَ عَنْهُ الْجِزْيَةَ وَعَنْ ضُرَبَائِهِ , قَالَ : قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ : أَنَا شَهِدْتُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عُمَرَ وَرَأَيْتُ ذَلِكَ الشَّيْخَ " .
 
Abu Bakra said: Once Umar was passing through the door of a house, where a begger was saying: " I am old, blind, can not see" he tapped him from Behind and asked,
 
Are you a Jew or a Christian? 
 
He said: A Jew. Umar said: What made you to do this i.e. begging and made you weak.
 
He said: I have to pay jizya, I am needy and due to my age”
 
Umar took his hand and brought him to his home, gave him few things, and directed the supervisor of Bait al-Mal (state treasury) and ordered, Take care of him and the likes of him. By Allah this is not justice that we enjoy the fruits of their labor when they are young, and should be neglectful when they are old. "Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy " [at-Tauba verse 60], Fuqara are from Muslimeen, this man is among the Masakeen from people of the book,
 
Then the man and the likes of him were exempted from paying jizya.
 
Abu Bakra said: I am witness of this from Umar and i saw that old Man. [also see al Amwaal by Abu Ubaid (d 224 h)page 57, Ahkam al Dhimma by Ibn al Qayyim 1/38]
 
18. When Salah ud din followed the example of Umar ibn al Khattab.
 
Ibn Kathir said, He wanted to destroy a very old and sacred church according to the Christians but He was told that:
وقد فتح هذه البلد قبلك أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ وَتَرَكَ هَذِهِ الكنيسة بأيديهم، ولك فِي ذَلِكَ أُسْوَةٌ. فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا وَتَرَكَهَا عَلَى حالتها تأسيا بعمر رضى الله عنه، ولم يترك من النصارى فيها سِوَى أَرْبَعَةٍ يَخْدُمُونَهَا، وَحَالَ بَيْنَ النَّصَارَى وَبَيْنَهَا، وَهَدَمَ الْمَقَابِرَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ لَهُمْ عِنْدَ بَابِ الرحمة، وعفا آثَارَهَا، وَهَدَمَ مَا كَانَ هُنَاكَ مِنَ الْقِبَابِ.
Previously Umar bin al Khattab took control of this city, but He left this church on their (Christians) hands, He has set an example for you. So He left the church and followed Umar May Allah be pleased with him... And he destructed the shrines and the left overs near the baab al Rahmah and also destroyed the domes over them. [al Bidaya wal Nihaya 12/327]
 
19. Umar ibn al Khattab and Fitness.
 
Abdur-Razzaaq may Allaah have mercy upon him reported that 'Umar may Allaah be pleased with him raced with people at Al-Mukhammas, in 'Usfaan, and 'Umar may Allaah be pleased with him won the race. 
 
Then, the companions raced for the second time, and Ibn Az-Zubayr may Allaah be pleased with him defeated 'Umar may Allaah be pleased with him. 
 
Moreover, 'Umar may Allaah be pleased with him allowed Salamah Ibn Al-Akwa' may Allaah be pleased with him to race with a man from the Ansaar on their way back to Madeenah from one of the battles, and Al-Akwa' may Allaah be pleased with him won the race. [Islamweb]
 
20. Umar said, If Allah wills, HE can enter all of HIS creation in jannah by his one handful.
 
Abu Umamah Al-Bahili said:
“I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say: ‘My Lord has promised me that seventy thousand of my nation will enter Paradise without being brought to account or punished. With every thousand will be (another) seventy thousand, and three handfuls of my Lord, the Glorified.’”
[Ibn Maja Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4286, Hasan]
 
Umar ra said:
حسبك إن الله إن شاء أدخل خلقه الجنة بكف واحد، فقال رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم -: " صدق عمر
Indeed If Allah wills, HE can enter all of HIS creation in jannah by his one handful. Prophet peace be upon him said: Umar said the truth. [Fath al Bari, Kitab al Riqaaq, Chapter 50, Ibn Hajr said regarding the saying of Umar ra "It has a powerful chain, there is a great difference of opinion on qatada]
 
21. Staying away from wife for more than six months?
 
The meaning of a narration is the following
 
Once Umar ibn al Khattab ra heard a woman at night saying: The night is long and its one part is black now. This made my heart cry that My Habeeb is not here with whom I play.
 
Umar ra asked his daughter Hafsa ra, How long can a woman do sabr with regards to her husband? she replied: six or four months, He said I will not stop my army more than this. [Sunan al Kubra al Bayhaqi 9/29, Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai ra said its chain is Hasan]
 
22. Marrying the virgins. 
 
Umar May Allah be pleased with him said:
حدثنا أبو بكر قال : نا أبو أسامة عن حماد بن زيد قال : نا عاصم قال عمر بن الخطاب : عليكم بالأبكار من النساء فإنهن أعذب أفواها وأصح أرحاما وأرضى باليسير . 
'Marry the (pious) virgins among the women, for their mouths are sweeter, their wombs are more prolific and they are satisfied with less. [al Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba ( 7 / 72 / 1 ), Chain Authentic according to Shaykh al Albani in Silsilah as-Saheeha 2 / 192]
 
23. Umar ibn al Khattab and the Man who did not know about punishment of Zina.
 
It is mentioned in AL Musannaf Abdul Razzaq
 
باب لا حد إلا على من علمه 
 
13642 - عبد الرزاق عن معمر عن عمرو بن دينار عن ابن المسيب أن عاملا لعمر - قال معمر: وسمعت غير عمرو يزعم أن أبا عبيدة ابن الجراح - كتب إلى عمر أن رجلا اعترف عبده بالزنا، فكتب إليه أن يسأله: هل كان يعلم أنه حرام؟ فإن قال: نعم، فأقم عليه حد الله، وإن قال: لا، فأعلمه أنه حرام، فإن عاد فاحدده.
 
13643 - عبد الرزاق عن ابن عيينة عن عمرو بن دينار عن ابن المسيب قال: ذكروا الزنا بالشام، فقال رجل: زنيت، قيل:
ما تقول؟ قال: أو حرمه الله، قال : ما علمت أن الله حرمه، فكتب إلى عمر بن الخطاب، فكتب: إن كان علم أن الله حرمه فحدوه ، وإن كان لم يعلم، فعلموه ، وإن عاد فحدوه 
 
Saeed Ibn al Musayyab narrated that One of the officers of Umar wrote to Umar that A Man confessed that He did zina, Umar replied by saying: Ask him if he knew about its prohibition? If he say yes then make Hadd of Allah on him. If he says no. Then inform him about its prohibition, and if he repeats then punish him.
[al Musannaf Abdul Razzaq 7/403-404, al Muhalla Ibn Hazam 12/107, Umar ibn al Khattab by Dr Ali Muhammad as-Salabi 286]
 
24. The wish of Umar ibn al Khattab.
 
The great sunni scholar Ata ullah Hanif Bhojiani said:
"As we have mentioned above after reaching Madinah al Munawwarah which Muslim do not want to visit the Rawdha al aqdas?... Every Muslim should pray like Umar ra i.e. " "O Allah! I ask you for martyrdom in Your way and death in the city of Your Messenger!" (Mawatta Imam Maalik 174) My (Ata ullah Hanif Bhojiani`s) prayer in the court of Allah is same [footnotes of Hiyat Shaykh al Islam by Abu Zahrah page 511]
 
25. No other thing to wear for jummah rather than a single thawb.
 
It is mentioned in az-Zuhad of Imam Ahmad
أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَبْطَأَ عَلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فَاعْتَذَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ فِي احْتِبَاسِهِ وَقَالَ: «إِنَّمَا حَبَسَنِي غَسْلُ ثَوْبِي هَذَا كَانَ يُغْسَلُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِي ثَوْبٌ غَيْرُهُ»
Umar ibn al Khattab May Allah be pleased with him became late on Friday, He came out and said: washing of this thawb of mine stopped me, as it was being washed and I have no other thawb other than this.
[أحمد/ الزهد ص154, ابن سعد/ الطبقات 3/329، ابن أبي شيبة/ المصنف 7/297، البلاذري/ أنساب الأشراف ص331]
 
It is mentioned in the footnotes of دراسة نقدية في المرويات الواردة في شخصية عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه 1/291 after quoting three chains of this athar that "this narration has a base"
 
26. Umar ibn al Khattab and Cutting the hands in case of theft when people are facing famine or they are in hardship.
 
Ibn al Qayyim said:
قال السعدي : حدثنا هارون بن إسماعيل الخزاز ثنا علي بن المبارك ثنا يحيى بن أبي كثير حدثني حسان بن زاهر أن ابن حدير حدثه عن عمر قال : لا تقطع اليد في عذق ولا عام سنة . 
 
قال السعدي : سألت أحمد بن حنبل عن هذا الحديث فقال : العذق النخلة ، وعام سنة : المجاعة ، فقلت لأحمد : تقول به ؟ فقال : إي لعمري ، قلت : إن سرق في مجاعة لا تقطعه ؟ فقال : لا ، إذا حملته الحاجة على ذلك والناس في مجاعة وشدة . 
 
قال السعدي : وهذا على نحو قضية عمر في غلمان حاطب ثنا أبو النعمان عارم ثنا حماد بن سلمة عن هشام بن عروة عن أبيه عن ابن حاطب أن غلمة لحاطب بن أبي بلتعة سرقوا ناقة لرجل من مزينة ، فأتى بهم عمر ، فأقروا ، فأرسل إلى عبد الرحمن بن حاطب فجاء فقال له : إن غلمان حاطب سرقوا ناقة رجل من مزينة وأقروا على أنفسهم ، فقال عمر : يا كثير بن الصلت اذهب فاقطع أيديهم ، فلما ولى بهم ردهم عمر ثم قال : أما والله لولا أني أعلم أنكم تستعملونهم وتجيعونهم حتى إن أحدهم لو أكل ما حرم الله عليه حل له لقطعت أيديهم ، وايم الله إذا لم أفعل لأغرمنك غرامة توجعك ، ثم قال : يا مزني بكم أريدت منك ناقتك ؟ قال : بأربع مائة ، قال عمر : اذهب فأعطه ثماني مائة . 
 
As-Sa’di said: (the Chain) Umar ibn al Khattab said:
“Do not cut the hand of the thief who steals dates and in the year of famine.”
 
As-Sa’di said: I asked Ahmad bn Hanbal about this narration and he said, “No, the hand is not cut for theft when there is a need for that and the people are in famine and hardship.”
 
as-Sa`di said: Umar took this decision with the slaves of Hatib (as it is narrated by Imam Maalik that)
 
"Some slaves of Hatib stole a she-camel belonging to a man from the Muzayna tribe and they slaughtered it. The case was brought before Umar ibn al-Khattab, and Umar ordered Kathir ibn as-Salt to cut off their hands. 
 
Then Umar said to Hatib (who were the owner of slaves), "I think you must be starving them (the slaves thats why they stole the camel)," and he added, "By Allah! I will make you pay such a fine that it will be heavy for you." He enquired of the man from the Muzayna tribe (the owner of camel), "What was the price of your camel?" The Muzayni said, "By Allah, I refused to sell her for 400 dirhams.'' Umar said, ''Give him 800 dirhams." [I’lām al-Muwaqqi’īn 3/17]
 
Ibn Hazam said about the narration in Muwatta:
فهذا أثر عن عمر كالشمس 
This narration from Umar is like a sun. [al Muhalla 11/325]
 
Imam ash-Shafiee said:
فهذا حديث ثابت عن عمر
This narration is proven from Umar. [al Umm 7/231]
 
27. Umar ibn al Khattab and children.
 
Sinan bin Salma said
كنت في أغيلمة نلتقط البلح ففجأنا عمر فتبعني الغلمان ، فقمت فقلت : يا أمير المؤمنين ، إنه مما ألقت الريح ، فقال : أرنيه ، فلما أريته قال : انطلق ، قلت : يا أمير المؤمنين ، فبين هؤلاء الغلمان الساعة ، فإنك إذا انصرفت عني انتزعوا ما معي ، قال : فمشى معي حتى بلغت مأمني
 
I was with other children collecting the green dates. Umar happened to come there. The children went away within no time, So I said: O Ameer ul Momineen these (dates) are scattered by the wind.Umar inquired of him and said: Go, He responded, O Ameer ul Momineen There are others who will take the dates from me. Umar said: walk with me until I reached home safe and sound. 
 
رواه ابن سعد / الطبقات 7/124، ابن أبي شيبة / المصنف 4/294، ابن أبي الدنيا / العيال 1/418، الطبري / تهذيب الآثار / مسند علي بن أبي طالب ص: 250
 
It is mentioned in دراسة نقدية في المرويات الواردة في شخصية عمر بن الخطاب وسياسته الإدارية رضي الله عنه 2/592 that This is Authentic from the rout of Ibn Abi Shayba
 
28. Umar ibn al Khattab openly said if my governers do injustice, do let me know.
 
Rabi bin Ziad al Harathi said that Umar ibn al Khattab said regarding his governors:
 
ولكني استعملتهم ليعلموكم كتاب ربكم وسنة نبيكم فمن ظلمه عامله بمظلمة فلا إذن له علي ليرفعها إلي حتى أقصه منه فقال عمرو بن العاص يا أمير المؤمنين أرأيت إن أدب أمير رجلا من رعيته أتقصه منه فقال عمر وما لي لا أقصه منه وقد رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقص من نفسه
 
I have made them governors over you, so that they may teach you The book of Allah and Sunnah of your Prophet (peace be upon him), If one of them do injustice, you don't need to take their permission to let me know about them so that I shall give you your retaliation on him. 
 
Amr ibn al-'As said: Oh ameerul mumineen if any of the governers inflict (harsh or personal) disciplinary punishment would you take retaliation on him too?
 
Umar replied:
 
Why shouldnt i take retaliation from him too when i saw that (the basis of this concept is proven as) the messenger offered retaliation upon himself too
 
رواه الفزاري/ السير ص 291، أبو داود الطيالسي/ المسند ص 11، مسدد/ المسند/ إتحاف الخيرة المهرة للبوصيري 4/47/أ، ابن سعد/ الطبقات 3/280، 281، ابن أبي شيبة/ المصنف 6/ 461، أحمد/المسند 1/41، أبو داود/ السنن 4/183، البلاذري/ أنساب الأشراف ص 168،169، ابن الجارود/ المنتقى ص 214
 
It is mentioned in دراسة نقدية في المرويات الواردة في شخصية عمر بن الخطاب وسياسته الإدارية رضي الله عنه 2/651 that This athar is authentic from the rout of Ibn Sa`d.
 
29. How were his governors?
 
It was narrated that Nafi' bin 'Abdul-Harith met 'Umar bin Khattab in 'Usfan, when 'Umar had appointed him as his governer in Makkah.:
 
فَقَالَ عُمَرُ مَنِ اسْتَخْلَفْتَ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْوَادِي قَالَ اسْتَخْلَفْتُ عَلَيْهِمُ ابْنَ أَبْزَى ‏.‏ قَالَ وَمَنِ ابْنُ أَبْزَى قَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ مَوَالِينَا ‏.‏ قَالَ عُمَرُ فَاسْتَخْلَفْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ مَوْلًى قَالَ إِنَّهُ قَارِئٌ لِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى عَالِمٌ بِالْفَرَائِضِ قَاضٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ عُمَرُ أَمَا إِنَّ نَبِيَّكُمْ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَرْفَعُ بِهَذَا الْكِتَابِ أَقْوَامًا وَيَضَعُ بِهِ آخَرِينَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
 
'Umar asked: "Whom have you appointed as your deputy over the people of the valley?" He said: "I have appointed Ibn Abza over them." 'Umar said: "Who is Ibn Abza?" Nafi' said: "One of our freed slaves." 'Umar said: "Have you appointed a freed slave over them?" Nafi' said: "He has great knowledge of the Book of Allah, is well versed in the rules of inheritance (Fara'id) and is a (good) judge." 'Umar said: "Did not your prophet say (truth i.e.): 'Allah raises some people (in status) because of this book and brings others low because of it?'"
Grade : Sahih (Darussalam) 
Ibn Maja Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 218
 
30. When the companions complaint to Umar that people can't mention their problems against you due to your fear.
 
at-Tabri narrated
 
كان بعض الرعية لا يستطيع أن يعرض حاجته على عمر رضي الله عنه هيبة منه فاجتمع عدد من الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم لإعلامه بذلك، وهم: علي بن أبي طالب، وعثمان بن والزبير بن العوام، وعبد الرحمن بن عوف، وسعد بن أبي وقاص، وكان أجرأهم عليه عبد الرحمن بن عوف، فقالوا له: لو كلمت أمير المؤمنين للناس، فإنه يأتي الرجل طالب الحاجة، فتمنعه هيبتك أن يكلمك في حاجته حتى يرجع ولم يقض حاجته، فدخل على عمر رضي الله عنه، فكلمه فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين، لن للناس، فإنه يقدم القادم فتمنعه هيبتك أن يكلمك في حاجته حتى يرجع ولم يكلمك، فقال عمر رضي الله عنه: يا عبد الرحمن أنشدك الله أعلي وعثمان وطلحة والزبير وسعد أمروك بهذا؟ فقال: اللهم نعم، قال: يا عبد الرحمن، والله لقد لنت للناس حتى خشيت الله في اللين ثم اشتددت عليهم حتى خشيت الله في الشدة، فأين المخرج؟ فقام عبد الرحمن يبكي يجر رداءه، يقول بيده أف لهم بعدك، أف لهم بعدك
 
Some people came to Umar but they were unable to mention their problems due to his fear. So Ali, Uthman, Zubayr ibn al Awaam, Abdul Rahman ibn Awf and Saad ibn abi Waqas gathered together and asked Abdul Rahman ibn Awf that you should talk to Ameer ul Momineen about this issue. 
 
When Abdul Rahman talked about it. Umar said: Did Ali, Uthman, Talha, Zubayr and Saad asked you to come? He replied in affirmation. Umar said: O Abdul Rahman, By Allah i was lenient towards people until I started to fear Allah about my leniency (i.e. they can use my leniency in a wrong way), then I started tightening them until I started to fear Allah about it (i.e. people would not be able to mention their problems). Now you tell me what should I do? After listening this Abdul Rahman stood up with tears in his eyes and his cloak was trailing, He said by pointing his hand, Uff on them (people) what would happen (to them) after him (Umar).
 
رواه ابن سعد / الطبقات 3/287، ابن شبة / تاريخ المدينة 2/246، البلاذري / أنساب الأشراف ص: 200، الطبري / التاريخ 2/568.
 
It is mentioned in دراسة نقدية في المرويات الواردة في شخصية عمر بن الخطاب وسياسته الإدارية رضي الله عنه 2/585 that this athar is Hasan.
 
31. Verdicts of Umar ibn al Khattab against those who kill the innocent people.
 
Ibn 'Umar said:
A boy was assassinated. 'Umar said, "If all the people of San'a took part in the assassination I would kill them all."
Al-Mughira bin Hakim said that his father said, "Four persons killed a boy, and 'Umar said (as above)."
Sahih al-Bukhari 6896
 
32. How Umar ibn al Khattab treated and adviced a drunkard.
 
Ibn Kathir said:
 
وقال ابن أبي حاتم حدثنا أبي، حدثنا موسى بن مروان الرقي، حدثنا عمر، يعني ابن أيوب، حدثنا جعفر بن برقان عن يزيد بن الأصم قال كان رجل من أهل الشام ذو بأس، وكان يفد إلى عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه، ففقده عمر، فقال ما فعل فلان بن فلان؟ فقالوا يا أمير المؤمنين تتابع في هذا الشراب
قال فدعا عمر كاتبه فقال اكتب من عمر بن الخطاب إلى فلان بن فلان، سلام عليك، فإني أحمد إليك الله الذي لا إله إلا هو، غافر الذنب وقابل التوب شديد العقاب، ذي الطول لا إله إلا هو إليه المصير. ثم قال لأصحابه ادعوا الله لأخيكم أن يقبل بقلبه، ويتوب الله عليه، فلما بلغ الرجل كتاب عمر رضي الله عنه، جعل يقرؤه ويردده ويقول غافر الذنب وقابل التوب شديد العقاب، قد حذرني عقوبته ووعدني أن يغفر لي. ورواه الحافظ أبو نعيم من حديث جعفر بن برقان، وزاد فلم يزل يرددها على نفسه، ثم بكى، ثم نزع فأحسن النزع، فلما بلغ عمر خبره قال هكذا فاصنعوا، إذا رأيتم أخاً لكم زل زلة، فسددوه ووثقوه وادعوا الله له أن يتوب عليه، ولا تكونوا أعواناً للشيطان عليه.
 
Ibn Abi Hatim narrated from the rout of Yazeed bin al Asam (nephew of Umm ul Momineen Maymoona), that he said:
 
A Man from ash-Sham used to visit Umar sometimes, then he didn't come for a long time. So, Umar asked how is Fulaan ibn Fulaan? They said: Oh! Ameer ul Momineen He has started to drink a lot.
 
Umar asked his Kaatib to write a letter to him, which stated:
 
"This letter is from Umar ibn al Khattab to Fulaan ibn Fulaan. After saying Salam on you, I Praise Allah that there is no Ilah but only He,The forgiver of sin, acceptor of repentance, severe in punishment, owner of abundance. There is no deity except Him; to Him is the destination. [al Ghafir verse 3]
 
Then he asked the companions to supplicate to Allah for your brother, that May Allah make his heart to pay heed and accept his repentance.
 
When the person received the letter, He recited (the verse) again and again: "The forgiver of sin, acceptor of repentance, severe in punishment". [al Ghafir verse 3] (and said) Allah has warned me of his punishment and also promised me to forgive me. 
 
Hafiz Abu Nuyeem also narrated it through Jafar bin Burqaan which states: He wept and asked for a true forgiveness. When Umar came to know about his forgiveness, He became happy and said: If you see your brother shaking (i.e. from religion) then try to help him to be on true path, make him strong and supplicate to Allah that May he repent, do not assist the satan in this regard. [Tafsir Ibn Kathhir, Tafsir al Qurtubi under Surah al Ghafir verse 3, Abu Nuyeem in Hilya tul Awliyah 4/97, Ibn Abi atim in his tafsir]
 
33. When Umar saw a person mixing water into the Milk and selling it.
 
Ibn Taymiyah said:
ومما يشبه ذلك ما فعله عمر بن الخطاب ، حيث رأى رجلاً قد شاب اللبن بالماء للبيع فأراقه عليه . هذا ثابت عن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه .
Once Umar ibn al Khattab saw a Man mixing water into the milk and selling it, He poured it. This is proven from Umar ibn al Khattab ra.
Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah ( 28 /114 )
 
The actual narration is in Tareekh Madeenah Damishq 70/252, it has other routs as well.
 
34. Umar ibn al Khattab's advice to the fatawa machines.
 
Umar May Allah be pleased with him said:
 
ولا تظنن بكلمة خرجت من مسلم شرا وأنت تجد لها في الخير محملا
'Never think ill of the word that comes out of your believing brother's mouth while you can find a good interpretation for it.'”
المتفق والمفترق ) ( 1 / 305 )
 
35. The struggle of Umar ibn al Khattab against innovations.
 
a. Mutarrif ibn Maalik said:
شَهِدْتُ فَتْحَ تُسْتَرَ مَعَ الْأَشْعَرِيِّ , قَالَ : فَأَصَبْنَا دَانْيَالَ بِالسُّوسِ , قَالَ : فَكَانَ أَهْلُ السُّوسِ إِذَا أَسْنَتُوا أَخْرَجُوهُ فَاسْتَسْقَوْا بِهِ , وَأَصَبْنَا مَعَهُ سِتِّينَ جَرَّةً مُخَتَّمَةً , قَالَ : فَفَتَحْنَا جَرَّةً مِنْ أَدْنَاهَا وَجَرَّةً مِنْ أَوْسَطِهَا وَجَرَّةً مِنْ أَقْصَاهَا , فَوَجَدْنَا فِي كُلِّ جَرَّةٍ عَشَرَةَ آلَافٍ , قَالَ هَمَّامٌ : مَا أَرَاهُ إِلَّا قَالَ : " عَشَرَةُ آلَافٍ " وَأَصَبْنَا مَعَهُ رَيْطَتَيْنِ مِنْ كَتَّانٍ , وَأَصَبْنَا مَعَهُ رَبَعَةً فِيهَا كِتَابٌ , وَكَانَ أَوَّلُ رَجُلٍ وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ بَلْعَنْبَرَ يُقَالُ لَهُ حُرْقُوسٌ , قَالَ : أَعْطَاهُ الْأَشْعَرِيُّ الرَّبْطَتَيْنِ وَأَعْطَاهُ مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ , قَالَ : ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ طَلَبَ إِلَيْهِ الرَّبْطَتَيْنِ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ , فَأَبَى أَنْ يَرُدَّهُمَا وَشَقَّهُمَا عَمَائِمَ بَيْنَ أَصْحَابِهِ , قَالَ : وَكَانَ مَعَنَا أَجِيرٌ نَصْرَانِيٌّ يُسَمَّى نُعَيْمًا , قَالَ : بِيعُونِي هَذِهِ الرِّبْعَةَ بِمَا فِيهَا , قَالُوا : إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهَا ذَهَبٌ أَوْ فِضَّةٌ أَوْ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ , قَالَ فَإِنَّ الَّذِي فِيهَا كِتَابَ اللَّهِ , فَكَرِهُوا أَنْ يَبِيعُوا الْكِتَابَ , فَبِعْنَاهُ الرِّبْعَةَ بِدِرْهَمَيْنِ , وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ الْكِتَابَ , قَالَ قَتَادَةُ : فَمِنْ ثَمَّ كُرِهَ بَيْعُ الْمَصَاحِفِ لِأَنَّ الْأَشْعَرِيَّ وَأَصْحَابَهُ كَرِهُوا بَيْعَ ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابِ , قَالَ هَمَّامٌ : فَزَعَمَ فَرْقَدُ السَّبَخِيُّ , قَالَ : حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو تَمِيمَةَ أَنَّ عُمَرَ كَتَبَ إِلَى الْأَشْعَرِيِّ أَنْ تَغْسِلُوا دَانْيَالَ بِالسِّدْرِ وَمَاءِ الرَّيْحَانِ , وَأَنْ يُصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّهُ نَبِيٌّ دَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنْ لَا يَرِثَهُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ " .
I was present at the conquest of Tastar with al-Ash‘ari. We came across (the body of) Daniyal in as-Soos. When the people of as-Soos were faced with drought, they would bring him out and pray for rain by virtue of him. We found with him sixty sealed jars…[Ibn Abi Shaybah (7/4) Islamqa]
 
b. Abu al-Aaliyah (rahimahullah) said
حدثنا أحمد قال : نا يونس بن بكير عن أبي خلدة بن دينار قال : نا أبو العالية قال لما فتخنا تستر وجدنا في بيت مال الهرمزان سريراً عليه رجل ميت عند رأسه مصحف له فأخذنا المصحف فحملنا إلى عمر بن الخطاب فدعا له كعباً فنسخه بالعربية فأنا أول رل من العرب قرأته مثلما أقرأ القرآن هذا فقلت لأبي العالية: ما كان فيه ؟ فقال سيرتكم وأموركن ولحون كلامكم وما هو كائن بعد قلت : فما صنعتم بالرجل ؟. قال حفرنا بالنهار ثلاثة عشر قبراً متفرقة فلما كان الليل دفناه وسوينا القبور كلها لتعمية على الناس لا ينبشونه ، قلت وما يرجون منه ؟قال: كانت السماء إذا جست عليهم برزوا بسريره فيمطرون قلت من كنتم تظنون الرجل ؟ قال رجل يقال له دنيال فقلت ، منذ كم وجدتموه مات ؟ قال : منذ ثلاثمائة سنة قلت : ما كان تغير بشيء ؟ قال : لا إلا شعيرات من قفاه ، إن لحوم الأنبياء لاتبليها الأرض ولا تأكلها السباع
Abul Aalia said: "When Tastar was invaded, we found, in the treasure house of Al-Harmazan, a bed on which lay a dead man, with a holy script at his bedside. We took the scripture to Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. He called Ka'b and he translated it into Arabic, and I was the first Arab to read it. I read it as I read the Quran." Here, I (i.e. Khalid Ibn Dinar) said to Abul Aalia: "What was in it?" He said: "Life history, annals, songs, speech, and what is to come." I asked: "And what did you do with the man?" He said: "We dug in the river bank thirteen separate graves. At nightfall we buried him and leveled all the graves in order to mislead people for they would tamper with him." I asked: "And what did they want from him?" He said: "When the sky was cloudless for them, they went out with his bed, and it rained." I asked: "Who did you think the man was?" He said: "A man called Daniel." I asked: "And for how long had he been dead when you found him?" He said: 'Three hundred years." I asked: "Did not anything change on him?" He said: "No, except for the hairs of his face (beard and mustache); the skin of the prophets is not harmed by the earth, nor devoured by hyenas."
[Narrated by Ibne Abi Duniya,  Muhammad bin Ishaq in Maghazi, Al-Bayhaqi in Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwah (1/381), This is mentioned in Hadiya tul Mustafeed page 226 english translation, Mentioned by Ibne Kathir in his book Stories of the Prophets and Authenticated, Mentioned by Shaykh al Albani in Fadail as Sham and Damishq page 18 and Authenticated, Ibn Abdul Hadi mentioned in as-Sarim al Munki and the Muhaqqiq of a-Sarim al Munki Aqeel Al Maqtaree said "The chain of this story is Hasan"as-Sarim al Munki page no: 170] 
 
c. Ibn al Qayyam Rahimullah said
ففي هذه القصة ما فعله المهاجرون والأنصار رضي الله عنهم من تعمية قبره لئلا يفتتن به ، ولم يبرزوه للدعاء عنده والتبرك به ، ولو ظفر به المتأخرون لجالدوا عليه بالسيف ولعبدوه من دون الله
In this story the Muhajiroun and Ansaar RadhiAllah anhum, they hide his (Daniel's Peace be upon him) grave in order to prevent the people from getting more fascinated by him; to prevent them from supplicating near it or seeking his blessings. But if the body of that man was found by those who came after those early pious Muslims, they would fight one another and they would even worship him besides Allah. 
[إغاثة اللهفان من مصايد الشيطان 1/203-204, Hadiya tul Mustafeed Commentary of Kitab At Tawheed page 226 of English Translation]
 
d. Shaykh ul Islam Ibne Taymiyah Rahimullah said
The Companions denied and rejected the act of these people (i.e seeking the dead person's blessings and intercession and glorifying him after his death). Thereupon, whosoever goes to a certain Place seeking its blessings, This is Rejected in Islam and is prohibited as well....[Hadiya tul Mustafeed Commentary of Kitab At Tawheed Page 227 of English Translation] 
 
e. Umar ibn Al Khattab once saw a group of people taking turns praying in a place in which the Prophet peace be upon him used to pray. He asked the people "What is this?". They said, "The place in which the Prophet peace be upon him used to pray". Umar replied back, "Do you want to take the relics of your Prophets as places of worship? Those before you were destroyed for this. [Ibn Waddaah Al Qurtubi narrated this in his book Al Bida' wal Nahi A'anha, page 41, and ibn abi Shaybah in Al Musannaf, 376/2 and Al Albani said "it is narrated by Sa'eed ibn Mansur in his Sunnah and Ibn Waddaah with an authentic chain of transmission on the condition of the two Shaykhs (Bukhari and Muslim).
 
f. Imam Abu Ishaq Al-Shaatibi (720 h) said:
 وقال ابن وضاح : سمعت عيسى بن يونس مفتي أهل طرسوس يقول : أمر عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه بقطع الشجرة التي بويع تحتها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فقطعها ؛ لأن الناس كانوا يذهبون فيصلون تحتها ، فخاف عليهم الفتنة 
"Ibn Waddaah said: I heard 'Eesa ibn Yoonus, the mufti of the people of Tarsoos, saying: 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) ordered that the tree beneath which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had received the oath of allegiance (bay'ah) be cut down, because the people were going and praying beneath it, and he feared that they might fall into fitnah. [al-I'tisaam, 1/237]
 
36. Best and worst women.

Ibn Abi Shayba narrated from Umar.
حدثنا ابن علية عن يونس عن معاوية بن قرة عن أبيه قال : قال عمر : ما استفاد رجل أو قال عبد بعد إيمان بالله خيرا من امرأة حسنة الخلق ودود ولود وما استفاد رجل بعد الكفر بالله شرا من امرأة سيئة الخلق حديدة اللسان ثم قال : إن منهن غنما لا يحذى منه وإن منهن غلا لا يفدى منه
After having Iman on Allah there is nothing better for a Man to have a woman of good morals, Loving, bore children. After disbelief in Allah There is nothing worse than having a woman of bad morals having a tongue like iron. [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, Durr Manthur under an-Nisa verse 34] 


37. The martyrdoom of Umar ibn al Khattab ra.
 
Amr bin Maimun narrated:
 
At the time he (i.e. the murderer) stabbed him (Umar). A non-Arab infidel proceeded on carrying a double-edged knife and stabbing all the persons he passed by on the right and left (till) he stabbed thirteen persons out of whom seven died. 
 
Then the narration states
 
`Umar said, "O Ibn `Abbas! Find out who attacked me." Ibn `Abbas kept on looking here and there for a short time and came to say. "The slave of Al Mughira." On that `Umar said, "The craftsman?" Ibn `Abbas said, "Yes." `Umar said, "May Allah curse him. I did not treat him unjustly. All the Praises are for Allah Who has not caused me to die at the hand of a man who claims himself to be a Muslim. [Sahih al-Bukhari 3700]
 
38. Beautiful advice of Umar ibn al Khattab to his would be successor regarding protection of non Muslims
 
Sahih al-Bukhari Kitab al Jihad Chapter: One should fight for the protection of the Dhimmi hadith no. 3052
 
Narrated `Amr bin Maimun:
Umar instructed (his would-be-successor) saying, "I urge him (i.e. the new Caliph) to take care of those non-Muslims who are under the protection of Allah and His Apostle in that he should observe the convention agreed upon with them, and fight on their behalf (to secure their safety) and he should not over-tax them beyond their capability."
 
39. Umar ibn al Khattab in the eyes of Non Muslims
 
1. The authors of The Columbia History of the World (Harper & Brown) said the following:
 
“Umar’s organizational abilities also contributed greatly to the Arabs’ success. He regularized the legal position of the millions of non-Muslim subjects in his domain and set up an efficient administrative system for the empire. Muhammad established the precedent of “tolerance” for the “People of the Book,” the Jewish and Christian communities in the northern Hijaz. ‘Umar left these communities undistributed except for the payment of an annual tribute in the form of poll tax (jizya); indeed, he extended the principle of toleration to cover not only all Christians and Jews in the empire, but also the Zoroastrians of Persia. Non-Muslim groups formed their own self-administered communities, lived under their own civil codes, and were governed by their own religious leaders.” (The Columbia History of the World, Harper & Brown 1972, 1st Ed., pp. 264).
 
2. Michael Hart counted Umar ra as one of the 100 most influential figures in The History of Mankind, who said, 
 
“After Muhammad himself, he [‘Omar] was the principal figure in the spread of Islam…some expansion was bound to occur, but not to the enormous extent that it did under ‘Umar’s brilliant leadership.” (The 100, by Michael Hart, Citadel Press, NY, 1992, pp. 261-265).  [Taken from the Answer by Dr. Hatem al-Haj]

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