Dyeing the hair black is allowed or not

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This is again a disputed issue among the scholars, Some say it is allowed, others say it is Makruh, another opinion is that it is not allowed for men but for women it is allowed, and the fourth group is on the opinion of prohibition. But the best opinion goes with the understandings of Salaf us-Saliheen. This article is an extract (with some addition) of two urdu articles.

One of the article is by Shaykh Ghulam Mustafa Zaheer who said It is allowed and the most we can say it is disliked, whereas the other article by shaykh Nadeem Zaheer states it is Prohibited.

Read details in Majalla as-Sunnah no: 48 page 133 to 152. Here is the link.

http://www.ircpk.net/al-sunnah/Risala/Assunnah%2046,47,48.pdf

and Majalla al Hadith no 126 pages 24-39


https://ia801500.us.archive.org/26/items/ALHADITH126/AL%20HADITH%20126.pdf

The ahadith which negates dyeing the hair black.

Hadith no: 1

It is mentioned in the hadeeth of Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that Abu Quhaafah, the father of Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq, was brought to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to give his oath of allegiance, and his hair was completely white. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Change this, but avoid black.” Narrated by Muslim. 

Comment: From this hadith some great scholars did ijtihaad that dyeing the hair black is Makrooh (Disliked)

a) Khateeb Baghdadi mentioned this hadith under the chapter:
كَرَاهَةُ الْخِضَابِ بِالسَّوَادِ
Dyeing the hair black is disliked. [al Jame li Ikhlaaq al Rawi wa Adaab as-Saamei1/380]

Some scholars did Ijtihaad and said it is prohibited to dye the hair black according to this hadith.

a) Imam an-Nawawi made a chapter:
 "It Is Recommended To Dye White Hair With Yellow Or Red Dye, But Black Dye Is Haram" [Sharah Sahih Muslim above this hadith]

b) Imam an-Nasaee made a chapter:
"Prohibition of Dyeing Hair Black" [Sunan an-Nasa'i 5076]

c) Imam Abu Awanah mentioned under the chapter
بَيَانُ النَّهْيِ عن التزعفر، والأمر بخضاب اللحية وصبغها، وحظر الخضاب بالسواد
.. Prohibition of black dye [Mustakhraj Abi Awanah 4/309]

Some of the scholars did Ijtihaad that It is not allowed for men like

a) Imam Ibn Hibban mentioned this hadith under the chapter:
ذِكْرُ الزَّجْرِ عَنِ اخْتِضَابِ الْمَرْءِ السَّوَادَ
Prohibition of using black dye for man. [Ibn Hibban 12/285]

Some scholars just quoted this hadith under the chapter "Using Black dye" and did not say it is prohibited like:

a) Imam Ibn Maja mentioned under:
باب الخضاب بالسواد
"Chapter regarding black dye"

and he mentioned two ahadith first he mentioned the hadith of Abu Quhaafah and then he mentioned another hadith which states

حدثنا أبو هريرة الصيرفي محمد بن فراس حدثنا عمر بن الخطاب بن زكريا الراسبي حدثنا دفاع بن دغفل السدوسي عن عبد الحميد بن صيفي عن أبيه عن جده صهيب الخير قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن أحسن ما اختضبتم به لهذا السواد أرغب لنسائكم فيكم وأهيب لكم في صدور عدوكم
Prophet peace be upon him said: the best of dye is black colour because it will make the heart of your women attracted towards you and it will put fear in the hearts of your enemies.[Sunan Ibn Maja. Sindhee said the chain is Hasan but shaykh Zubair Ali zai said in his tehqeeq of Ibn Maja that Dafa bin daghfal Sadosi is weak]
 
b) Abu Dawud mentioned this hadith under
باب فِي الْخِضَابِ
"Chapter: Dyeing Hair"


The hadith of Abu Quhaafaah also states dye the white hair. But Majority of the scholars did not say it is obligation to dye the white hair as many of the salaf did not change their white hair into other colours , like

Abu Ishaq said regarding Ali ra that "I saw him on minmbar and his hair of head and beard were white" [Musannif Abdul Razzaq 3/188-189 no. 5267]

If changing white into other colours is not an obligation than how can it be possible that it is proibited to use black dye?

Sahaba used to dye their hair black.

a) The amal of Hasan ra
حدثنا الحضرمي ثنا أبو كريب ثنا معاوية بن هشام عن محمد بن إسماعيل عن جعفر عن أبيه أن الحسين بن علي كان يخضب بالسواد 
Imam Abu Jafar Baqir said: Hasan bin Ali used to dye hair black.[al-Moajam alKabeer Tabrani 3/22 hadith no: 2535, Muarifat al-Sahaba of Abi Naeem asbahani no: 1750]
 
b) The amal of Husain ra
Narrated Muhammad: anas bin Malik said, "The head of Al-Husain was brought to 'Ubaidullah bin ziyad and was put in a tray, and then Ibn ziyad started playing with a stick at the nose and mouth of Al-Husain's head and saying something about his handsome features." anas then said (to him), "Al-Husain resembled the Prophet more than the others did." anas added, "His (i.e. Al-Husain's) hair was dyed with Wasma (i.e. a kind of plant used as a dye)."  (Bukhari Book #57, Hadith #91) wasma (woad leaves) which make the hair black as coal. 
 
Note: Muhammad bin Hasan Shaybani said:
لا نَرَى بِالْخِضَابِ بِالْوَسَمَةِ ، وَالْحِنَّاءِ ، وَالصُّفْرَةِ بَأْسًا ، وَإِنْ تَرَكَهُ أَبْيَضَ ، فَلا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ ، كُلُّ ذَلِكَ حَسَنٌ 
There is nothing wrong in using wasma (woad leaves which make the hair black as coal) henna and yellow dye, and there is nothing wrong in leaving the hair white.[Mawatta Muhammad bin hasan chapter of dyeing]
 
c) The amal of Uqba bin amir juhni ra
Abu Ushana said 
رايت عقبة بن عامر الجهنى يصبغ بالسواد
I saw Uqba bin Amir alJuhni: He dyed his hair black.[Musannif Ibn abi Shayba 8/437, Thiqqat Ibn Hibban 3/280].
 
 
There are many Tabiyeen who used to dye the hair black
a) حدثنا وكيع وابن مهدي، عن سفيان، عن سعد بن إبراهيم، عن أبي سلمة أنه كان يخضب بالسواد.
Abu Salma bin Abdul Rahman bin awf (d 94 h) used to dye hair black [Tabkaat ul Kubrah by Ibn Saad 5/119]
b) Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasaar (d 150 h) [alMuarifat wal Tareekh by Yaqoob bin Sufiyan faswi 1/137]
c) Ali bin Abdullah bin abbas bin Abdul Mutlib ( d 118 h) [Tabkaat tul Kubra 5/240]
d) Abu Qilaba jarmi basree (d 104 h) used black dye. [Tabqaat ul Kubra 7/138]

Abu Qilaba left using black dye. [Tahdeeb al athaar juzz al mafqud page 479] 
 
e) Abu Abdullah bakr bin Abdullah Muzni (d 106 h)  [Tabqaat ul kubra 7/158]

He also used yellow dye [Tahdeeb al athaar, juzz al mafqud page 384-385]

 
f) Ibn Shihab zuhri (d 125 h) [Jam`e Momar bin rashid 11/155 with an`anah of Imam Abdul Razzaq]
g) حدثنا وكيع، عن عمرو بن عثمان، قال: رأيت موسى بن طلحة يختضب بالوسمة.
 Amr bin uthman said i saw Moosa bin Talha bin Obaidullah (d 103 h)dyeing hair black [Musannif Ibn Abi Shayba 8/436]
h)حدثنا وكيع، عن عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن بن موهب، قال: رأيت نافع بن جبير يختضب بالسواد.
Abdul Rahman bin Mohib said i saw:Naf`e bin Jubair (d 93 h) dyeing hair black[Musannif Ibn Abi Shayba 8/430]
i)حدثنا ابن علية، عن ابن عون، كانوا يسألون محمدًا - يعني ابن سيرين - عن الخضاب بالسواد، فقال: لا أعلم به بأسًا.
Muhammad bin Sireen (d 110 h) was asked regarding dyeing the hair black, He used to say i don't find any harm in it[Musannif Ibn abi Shayba 8/436]
j) Qadhi Muhaarib bin Dethaar (d 116 h) [Musnad Ali bin Ja`ad no: 725]
k) Teacher of Imam Sho`ba bin Hajjaj and his name is Amr bin Salma [Tahdeeb alAthaar atTabree no: 895 Juzz al Mafqood]
l) Imam Qatada bin Da`ma (d 110 h) said it is allowed for women to dye the hair black [Jam`e Momar bin Rashid:20182]
 
Those Tabiyeen who were against black dye

a) Imam Ata bin abi Ribah used to say:
هو مما أحدث الناس قد رأيت نفراً من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فما رأيت أحداً منهم يختضب بالوسمة ما كانوا يخضبون إلا بالحناء والكتم وهذه الصفرة
dyeing the hair black is a new thing and i have seen a jamah of sahaba. They did not use black dye, they used to mix henna with katam and that is yellowish dye. [Musannif Ibn abi Shayba 8/438]

Note: The meaning of katam is explained by Ibn Hajar
والكتم نبات باليمن يخرج الصبغ أسود يميل إلى الحمرة وصبغ الحناء أحمر فالصبغ بهما معا يخرج بين السواد والحمرة 
Katam is a plant from Yemen which produces a reddish-black dye. Henna produces a red dye, so when they are used together as a dye, they produce a colour that is between black and red. Fath al-Baari, 10/355 [translation from islamqa]
 
Response is that Imam Ata bin Abi Ribah based his fatwa according to his knowledge regarding the sahaba. Because some of the sahaba used to dye hair black while others did not. That does not mean other sahaba used to think it is prohibited, as it is mentioned in Mawatta Imam Malik
 
"Yahya said that he heard Malik say about dyeing the hair black, 'I have not heard anything certain on that, and other colours than that are preferable to me." Yahya said, "Not to dye at all is permitted, Allah willing, and there is no constraint on people concerning it."(Mawatta Maalik Book #51, Hadith #51.3.8)

b) Saeed bin Jubayr said:
يكسو الله عز وجل في وجهه نورا ثم يطفئه بالسواد 
Allah lighten the face of his slave then the slave makes it black with black dye. [Musannif Ibn abi shayba 8/439]

c) Bard narrated from Makhul:
 أنه كره الخضاب بالوسمة وقال خضب أبو بكر بالحناء والكتم
He disliked the dye with wasma and said: Abu bakr used the dye by mixing henna and katam . [Musannif Ibn abi shayba 8/438]
 
Hadith no: 2
 
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: At the end of time there will be people who will use this black dye like the crops of doves who will not experience the fragrance of Paradise.  (Abu Dawood Book #33, Hadith #4200)
 
From this hadith some of the respected scholars said it is disliked to use black dye, like

a) Imam Ibn Sad mentioned this hadith under the chapter
ذِكْرُ مَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَأَصْحَابُهُ فِي تَغْيِيرِ الشَّيْبِ وَكَرَاهَةِ الْخِضَابِ
What Prophet peace be upon him and his companions said regarding changing the gray hair, and it is disliked to use black dye. [Tabqaat Ibn Saad 1/378]

b) Ibn Abi Khaythama said after narrating this hadith:
انه كره الخصاب بالسواد
He (Ibn abi Rawa) disliked the black dye. [al Tareekh al Kabeer li Ibn abi Khaythama 1/263]

Some of the scholars said it is prohibited and used the above mentioned hadith, like

a) Imam an-Nasaee mentioned this hadith under the chapter:
"Prohibition of black dye" [Sunan an-Nasaee before the hadith no. 5078]

But some of the scholars responded back to these claims.
 
a) Imam Abu bkr bin abi Asim (206h-287h) said:
لا دلالة فيه على كراهة الخضاب بالسواد بل فيه الإخبار عن قوم هذه صفتهم 
"There is no evidence in it that dyeing hair black is disliked. Rather in this hadith there is a news of a nation and they would be described by dyeing hair black"[Kitab al-Khidaab, awn alMabood hadith no:4212]
 
b) Imam Ibn Jawzi said:
واعلم أَنَّهُ قَدْ خضب جَمَاعَة من الصَّحَابَة بالسواد ، مِنْهُم : الْحَسَن ، والحسين ، وسعد بْن أَبِي وقاص ، وخلق كثير من التابعين ، وإنما كرهه قوم لما فِيهِ من التدليس فأما أَن يرتقى إِلَى درجة التحريم ، إذ لَمْ يدلس فيجب فِيهِ هَذَا الوعيد ، فلم يقل بِذَلِكَ أحد ، ثُمَّ نقول عَلَى تقدير الصحة : يحتمل أَن يَكُون المعنى لا يريحون رائحة الْجَنَّة لفعل يصدر مِنْهُم أَوِ اعتقاد ، لا لعلة الخضاب ، ويكون الخضاب سيماهم ، فعرفهم بالسيما كَمَا قَالَ فِي الخوارج : سيماهم التحليق ، وإن كَانَ تحليق الشعر لَيْسَ بحرام .
It should be known that a jamah of sahaba used to dye their hair black. Which includes Hasan, Husain, Sad bin abi waqas, and many of the tabiyeen. Some said it is disliked because there is cheat in it. Regarding the saying: If there is no intention of cheating even then it is prohibited and whoever used black dye theywill not experience the fragrance of Paradise. This saying is never used by any of the salaf. If this hadith is authentic then meaning is that they will be punished due to their flase creed or practice, not because of black dye. This black dye would be their symbol which Prophet peace be upon him told in the hadith. Like He peace be upon him told regarding Kharjities that their symbols would be shaving the hair of head. But that does not mean shaving the hair of head is prohibited[alModhuaat 3/55]
 
c) Imam Muhammad Abdul Rahman Mubarakfoori said 
 فالاستدلال بهذا الحديث على كراهة الخضب بالسواد ليس بصحيح . 
والثالث : أن المراد بالخضب بالسواد في هذا الحديث الخضب به لغرض التلبيس والخداع لا مطلقا ، جمعا بين الأحاديث المختلفة وهو حرام بالاتفاق .
It is not correct to do Istadlaal from this hadith that Black color is disliked.
Thirdly: The meaning of dyeing the hair black in this hadith is dyeing with the intention of Tilbees and deception, not in general. This is prohibited with the consensus by collecting different ahadeeth [Tohfa tul Hawdi 3/55]
 
d) Imam at-Tahawi said almost same and commented that Sahaba of Prophet peace be upon him used to dye the hair black. Among them are Uqba bin Amir [Sharah Mushkil alAthaar 9/313 hadeeth no: 3699]
 
The Opinion of 4 Imams

1. Imam Abu Hanifa and his students

Muhammad bin Hasan Shaybani said:
لا نَرَى بِالْخِضَابِ بِالْوَسَمَةِ ، وَالْحِنَّاءِ ، وَالصُّفْرَةِ بَأْسًا ، وَإِنْ تَرَكَهُ أَبْيَضَ ، فَلا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ ، كُلُّ ذَلِكَ حَسَنٌ 
There is nothing wrong in using wasma (woad leaves which make the hair black as coal) henna and yellow dye, and there is nothing wrong in leaving the hair white.[Mawatta Muhammad bin hasan chapter of dyeing]
 
2. Imam Maalik
"Yahya said that he heard Malik say about dyeing the hair black, 'I have not heard anything certain on that, and other colours than that are preferable to me." Yahya said, "Not to dye at all is permitted, Allah willing, and there is no constraint on people concerning it."(Mawatta Maalik Book #51, Hadith #51.3.8)

3. Imam ash-Shafiee

Ahmad bin Sanaan al Waasitee said: I saw Imam ash-Shafiee, his beard and Hair were red. Ibn Abi Hatim al Razi said: Indeed he followed sunnah by using Khasaab. [Adaab as-Shafiee page 59]  

4. Imam Ahmad

He said regarding the black dye that By Allah it is Makrooh. [al Waquf al Tarajjul min Masail Imam Ahmad page 138]
 

Conclusion:
So, Dyeing the hair black is not prohibited. When Sahaba and Tabiyeen would enter paradise by dyeing their hair black then inshaAllah those who are dyeing their hair black will not enter hell inshaAllah. Because the meaning of ahadith is different. But we should respect the opinion of those scholars who are on the opinion of prohibition because they have done the ijtihaad based on their understanding. The most can be said that it is makrooh e tanzeehi.This is extract of the article of two respected shuyukh, no one should argue or fight on these fiqhi issues. 

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