Prompting (talqeen) the dead in the grave

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الحمد لله وحدہ الصلاۃ والسلام علی من لا نبی بعدہ ۔
اما بعد

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Introduction:
Now a days some people are prompting the dead after the burial by saying "O so and so read There is no god but Allah" O so and so Say "my Deen is Islam". The stand of Ahlus sunnah is that this practice is Bid'ah because it is not proven from Prophet peace be upon him and companions, below is the narration these people quote.

The hadith

7906 - حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَقِيلٍ أَنَسُ بن سَلْمٍ الْخَوْلانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بن إِبْرَاهِيمَ بن الْعَلاءِ الْحِمْصِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بن عَيَّاشٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُاللَّهِ بن مُحَمَّدٍ الْقُرَشِيُّ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بن أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بن عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الأَوْدِيِّ، قَالَ: شَهِدْتُ أَبَا أُمَامَةَ وَهُوَ فِي النَّزْعِ، فَقَالَ: إِذَا أَنَا مُتُّ، فَاصْنَعُوا بِي كَمَا أَمَرَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ نصْنَعَ بِمَوْتَانَا، أَمَرَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقَالَ:"إِذَا مَاتَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ إِخْوَانِكُمْ، فَسَوَّيْتُمِ التُّرَابَ عَلَى قَبْرِهِ، فَلْيَقُمْ أَحَدُكُمْ عَلَى رَأْسِ قَبْرِهِ، ثُمَّ لِيَقُلْ: يَا فُلانَ بن فُلانَةَ، فَإِنَّهُ يَسْمَعُهُ وَلا يُجِيبُ، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: يَا فُلانَ بن فُلانَةَ، فَإِنَّهُ يَسْتَوِي قَاعِدًا، ثُمَّ يَقُولُ: يَا فُلانَ بن فُلانَةَ، فَإِنَّهُ يَقُولُ: أَرْشِدْنَا رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ، وَلَكِنْ لا تَشْعُرُونَ، فَلْيَقُلْ: اذْكُرْ مَا خَرَجْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا شَهَادَةَ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، وَأَنَّكَ رَضِيتَ بِاللَّهِ رَبًّا، وَبِالإِسْلامِ دِينًا، وَبِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيًّا، وَبِالْقُرْآنِ إِمَامًا، فَإِنَّ مُنْكَرًا وَنَكِيرًا يَأْخُذُ وَاحِدٌ مِنْهُمْا بِيَدِ صَاحِبِهِ، وَيَقُولُ: انْطَلِقْ بنا مَا نَقْعُدُ عِنْدَ مَنْ قَدْ لُقِّنَ حُجَّتَهُ، فَيَكُونُ اللَّهُ حَجِيجَهُ دُونَهُمَا"، فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ أُمَّهُ؟ قَالَ:"فَيَنْسُبُهُ إِلَى حَوَّاءَ، يَا فُلانَ بن حَوَّاءَ".
Abu Umama said,"When I die, do with me as the Prophet salallahu alayhi wasalam) ordered us, saying, 'When one of your brothers dies and you have smoothed over the earth upon his grave, let one of you stand at the head of the grave and say, "O So and so Son of So and so" for he will hear, though he cannot reply - and then say, "O So and So, son of So and so," and he will say, "Direct me, Allah have mercy upon you mercy on you," though you will not hear it, but should say, "Remember the creed upon which you departed from this world, the testification that there is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is His slave and messenger, and that you accepted Allah as your Lord, Islam as your religion, Muhammad peace be upon him as your prophet, and the Quran as your exemplar." For then the two angels Munkar and Nakir will take each other's hand and say, "Let us go, what is there to keep us beside someone who has been instructed how to make his plea?"A Man said, "O Messenger of Alllah, what if one does not know the name of his mother?" and he answered, 'Then one should mention his descent from his mother Eve, saying, "O so and so son of Eve"

(Muajam al Kabir Tabrani 7/287)

Response:

a) Hafiz al-Iraqi weakened this in Takhreej al Ahya 4/420
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b) Haythamee said
" في إسنادهِ جماعةٌ لم أعرفهم "
' In the isnaad (chain of narration of the hadeeth) , there are people who are unknown to me '[Majma az-Zawaid 3/45]
 
c) Hafiz Ibn Hajar said "The chain is good and Diya in his book of Ahkam made it qawi"[Talkhees al Hubayr no: 796]
 
Here he is talking about the chain, but regarding hadith he said it is ghareeb. He even weakened the chain as he said
هذا حديث غريب و سند الحديث من الطريقين ضعيف جدا.
This hadeeth is ghareeb and the chain of this hadeeth is very weak with its routs[الفتوحات الربانية 4/196]

Note that Ibn Hajr al asqalani also said:

قال ابن حبان في صحيحه عقب حديث معقل : قوله : { اقرءوا على موتاكم يس }. أراد به من حضرته المنية ، لا أن الميت يقرأ عليه ، قال : وكذلك { لقنوا موتاكم لا إله إلا الله }. 
Ibn Hibban said in his Saheeh before the hadeeth of Mu`aqil which states "Recite YA SEEN to your dead [the hadeeth is weak as Ibn Hajr mentioned in Talkhees]" means to the one who is dying not that It should be recited near the dead person. He said: Likewise  the saying of the Prophet peace be upon him "Exhort to recite" there is no god but Allah" i.e. It is also for the one who is dying not for the one who is dead. [Talkhees al Hubeer 2/213, Saheeh Ibn Hibban no. 3002]

Here Ibn Hajr al asqalani did not oppose what Ibn Hibban said. 
 
d)Jalal ud din as-Suyuti said
: لا ، أما أولا : فلأن التلقين لم يثبت فيه حديث صحيح ولا حسن ، بل حديثه ضعيف باتفاق المحدثين ؛ ولهذا ذهب جمهور الأمة إلى أن التلقين بدعة
 وآخر من أفتى بذلك الشيخ عز الدين بن عبد السلام ، وإنما استحبه ابن الصلاح  وتبعه النووي نظرا إلى أن الحديث الضعيف يتسامح به في فضائل الأعمال .
Talqeen is not proven from sahih or hasan hadith in fact the hadeeth is weak with the consensus of muhadditheen that is why majority of the scholars say Talqeen is an Innovation .. The fatwa of Shaykh Izz al-Din bin Abdus salam is same. But it is mustahab according to Ibn al Salaah followed by an-Nawawi..[Hawi lil Fatawi] 
 
http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=130&;ID=232&idfrom=471&idto=563&bookid=130&startno=70
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e) Ibn al Qayyim said
وهذا الحديث متفق على ضعفه
 This hadeeth is agreed upon weak [Tehzeeb Sunan Abi Dawood 13/293]
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f) Shaykh al-Albani said This is rejected [see Silsilah Daeefa no:599]
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g) Shaykh Salih bin Fawzan rejected those scholars who say that it is recommended to make talqeen after the death of person and he said it is not proven from the sunnah [see Al-Muntaqa Fatawa Shaykh Saalih Fawzan fatwa no: 131]
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h) Imam Sanani writes regarding a hadeeth of Talqeen
وَيَتَحَصَّلُ مِنْ كَلَامِ أَئِمَّةِ التَّحْقِيقِ أَنَّهُ حَدِيثٌ ضَعِيفٌ وَالْعَمَلُ بِهِ بِدْعَةٌ وَلَا يُغْتَرُّ بِكَثْرَةِ مَنْ يَفْعَلُهُ
The Saying of Imams Researchers is that this narration is weak and to practice over it is an innovation. One should not have to be deceived by the number of people who have adopted this Innovation(Bid`ah).(Sabl Al Islam 3/156)
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I) Imam Abu Dawud made whole chapter on "Talqeen al Mayyat" (Prompting the dead) in his Sunan and he narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Exhort to recite" there is no god but Allah" to those of you who are dying.(Abu Dawood Kitab al-Janaiz, Chapter of Talqeen)
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Comment: Above hadeeth and chapter made by Imam Abu Dawud is a proof that talqeen does not mean teaching the dead in his grave That is why
j) Imam Muslim Narrated Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Exhort to recite" there is no god but Allah" to those of you who are dying.(Sahih Muslim Book no: 004 Chapter 174: EXHORTATION TO RECITE LA ILAHA ILL-ALLAH (there is no god but Allah) TO THE DYING PERSON Hadith #1998)
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k) It is mentioned in Awn al-Mabood that Allama Sindhi Hanafi writes :
الْمُرَاد مَنْ حَضَرَهُ الْمَوْتُ لَا مَنْ مَاتَ وَالتَّلْقِينُ أَنْ يَذْكُرَ عِنْدَهُ لَا أَنْ يَأْمُرَهُ بِهِ وَالتَّلْقِينُ بَعْد الْمَوْتِ قَدْ جَزَمَ كَثِيرٌ أَنَّهُ حَادِثٌ وَالْمَقْصُود مِنْ هَذَا التَّلْقِين أَنْ يَكُونَ آخِرَ كَلَامِهِ لَا إِلَه إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَلِذَلِكَ إِذَا قَالَ مَرَّةً فَلَا يُعَاد عَلَيْهِ إِلَّا إِنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِكَلَامٍ آخَرَ .
Meaning who is nearer to death, not that person who is already died, The Commandment of Prompting(talqeen) is that it should be recited in front of him (the person who is dying) to remind him, it should not be ordered to him, Prompting after the death has been criticised by Many Scholars.(Hashiya Al Sindhi Al Nasai 3/146, Awn al Mabood Kitab al Janaiz Chapter of Talqeen hadeeth no: 3117) Source: http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=55&ID=5390
l) Shaykh Ata ullah Sajid said in his commentary of Sunan Ibn Maja hadeeth no: 1444
1. This hadeeth is for the one who is nearer to the death.
2. Normally scholars understood from the talqeen is to recite "LA ILAHA ILL ALLAH" in front of the one who is dying so that he may recite after listening. Allamh Muhammad Fawad Abdul Baqiee said same in the commentary of Sahih Muslim (see Sahih Muslim Kitab al Janaiz Chapter Talqeen al Motaa LA ILA HA ILL ALLAH]... Shaykh Nasir ud sin Al-Albani said The meaning of talqeen is not only reciting LA ILAHA ILL ALLAH in front of the dying, but also tell him to recite this and He provided the hadeeth in his evidence and the wordings of the hadeeth are "Prophet peace be upon him visited his ANSAREE COMPANION (who was sick) and said: Recite LA ILAHA ILL ALLAH O UNCLE (Brother of mother). He said am i your father's brother or Mother's Brother? Prophet peace be upon him said Mother's brother. He said: is the Recitation of LA ILAHA ILL ALLAH is better for me? Prophet peace be upon him said Yes."[Musnad Ahmad 3152]
3. To prove talqeen after death is wrong from this hadeeth because Prophet peace be upon him did not do this, neither it is proven from any of His Companion with the authentic chain, we should refrain from this practice. But it is Sunnah to pray for the dead after the Burial[see Sunan Abu Dawood Kitab al Janaiz.. hadeeth no: 3221](end quote)

Comment: So it is proven from authentic sunnah that the meaning of Talqeen is "EXHORTATION TO RECITE LA ILAHA ILL-ALLAH (there is no god but Allah) TO THE DYING PERSON" It (talqeen) does not mean teaching kalima and the name of Prophet peace be upon him after his death.
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m) Imam Ibn al-Qayyim

Imam San`ani mentioned that Ibn al-Qayyim in Kitab-ar-Ruh only mentioned talqeen that was practised by people as a proof that dead hear the living and in Zaad-al-Maad, Ibn al-Qayyim refuted those who perform talqeen [Subul-us-Salaam [3/157]

1) This is what Ibn al-Qayyim said in al-Ruh
فصل ويدل على هذا أيضا ما جرى عليه عمل الناس قديما وإلى الآن من تلقين الميت في قبره 
Another proof of this [the dead hearing the living] is also the practice of people ('amal al-nas) formerly and to the present time of instructing the dead in his grave (talqin al mayyit fi qabrihi). [Kitab al-Ruh]
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2) From Zaad al-Maad 
وكان من هديه - صلى الله عليه وسلم - تعزية أهل الميت ، ولم يكن من هديه أن يجتمع للعزاء ، ويقرأ له القرآن ، لا عند قبره ولا غيره ، وكل هذا بدعة حادثة مكروهة .
"One of the things that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught was to offer condolences to the family of the bereaved, but it is not part of his teachings to gather together to mourn and read Qur'aan for him (the deceased), whether that is at the grave or elsewhere. All of that is bid'ah and a reprehensible innovation." (Zaad al-Maad, 1/509)

He also said

وكان إذا فرغ من دفن الميت قام على قبره هو وأصحابه ، وسأل له التثبيت ، وأمرهم أن يسألوا له التثبيت .

ولم يكن يجلس يقرأ عند القبر ، ولا يلقن الميت كما يفعله الناس اليوم ،

"When the Messenger of Allaah (Sallalahu Alayhee Was-Sallam) would finish burying a person, he and his companions would stand by the grave and would supplicate for the deceased to be steadfast and he would also command the companions with this. He would not recite (the Qur'aan) whilst sitting next to the grave nor would he instruct the deceased to do so, as the people do nowadays."[Zad al`Mad 1/504]

and then he narrated very same hadith (in discussion) of Abu Amama and said

. فهذا حديث لا يصح رفعه ، ولكن قال الأثرم : قلت لأبي عبد الله : فهذا الذي يصنعونه إذا دفن الميت يقف الرجل ، ويقول : يا فلان بن فلانة ، اذكر ما فارقت عليه الدنيا : شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله . فقال ما رأيت أحدا فعل هذا إلا أهل الشام ، حين مات أبو المغيرة ، جاء إنسان فقال ذلك ، وكان أبو المغيرة يروي فيه عن أبي بكر بن أبي مريم ، عن أشياخهم ، أنهم كانوا يفعلونه ،
This hadeeth is not authentic.. al-Athram asked from Imam Ahmad that this thing the people do after the burial of dead and the person says "O so and so son of so and so" say the thing which you left in the world i.e There is no god but Allah". He(Ahmad) said i have not seen anyone doing this except the people of shaam when Abu Mughira died and a person came he said that Abu Mughira narrates from Abu Bakar bin Maryam in this issue that our elders did this(end quote)

n) Imam Al-Izz bin Abdus Salam (660 h) was asked regarding Talqeen after the death he replied 

لم يصح في التلقين شيء ، وهو بدعة ، وقوله عليه السلام (( لقنوا موتاكم لا إله إلا الله )) محمول على من دنا موته ويئس من حياته .
Nothing is proven regarding Talqeen. This is Bidah (Innovation) and the saying of Prophet peace be upon him (Exhort to recite" there is no god but Allah) is for the person who is dying and given up the hope for life [Fatawa al Izz bin Abdus Salam page 96]

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Imam Al-Izz bin Abdus salam also said 
وَلَيْسَ الْعَمَلُ عِنْدَ مَالِكٍ عَلَى التَّلْقِينِ بَعْدَ الدَّفْنِ
This was not the practice of (Imam) Malik to make talqeen after the burial [الفواكه الدواني على رسالة ابن أبي زيد القيرواني 1/284]
 

o) The opinion of Imam Maalik and (p) Ibn Abi Zaid Qairwani Malaki (310 h to 386 h), he said:
 وَيُلَقَّنُ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ عِنْدَ الْمَوْتِ وَإِنْ قُدِرَ عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ طَاهِرًا وَمَا عَلَيْهِ طَاهِرٌ فَهُوَ أَحْسَنُ وَيُسْتَحَبُّ أَنْ لَا يَقْرَبَهُ حَائِضٌ وَلَا جُنُبٌ وَأَرْخَصَ بَعْضُ الْعُلَمَاءِ فِي الْقِرَاءَةِ عِنْدَ رَأْسِهِ بِسُورَةِ يَس ~ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ عِنْدَ مَالِكٍ أَمْرًا مَعْمُولًا بِهِ

وَلَا بَأْسَ بِالْبُكَاءِ بِالدُّمُوعِ حِينَئِذٍ وَحَسُنَ التَّعَزِّي

(الفواكه الدواني على رسالة ابن أبي زيد القيرواني (1/ 283)

Shaykh Ali al Maaliki (857 h to 939 h) said in its commentary:
(عِنْدَ مَالِكٍ) - رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ - (أَمْرًا مَعْمُولًا بِهِ) وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ مَكْرُوهٌ عِنْدَهُ، وَكَذَا يُكْرَهُ عِنْدَهُ تَلْقِينُهُ بَعْدَ وَضْعِهِ فِي قَبْرِهِ.
(According to Maalik) Rahimullah... This is Makrooh for him, as it is disliked for him the Talqin after placing the dead into the grave. [Haashiya al Adwi al Kifayat Taalib ar-Rabbano 1/409]

q) Ibn Tamiyah said

فمن الأئمة من رخص فيه كالإمام أحمد وقد استحبه طائفة من أصحابه وأصحاب الشافعي . ومن العلماء من يكرهه لاعتقاده أنه بدعة . فالأقوال فيه ثلاثة : الاستحباب والكراهة والإباحة وهذا أعدل الأقوال
فأما المستحب الذي أمر به وحض عليه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فهو الدعاء للميت .
From the Imams who excused it were the likes of Imam Ahmad and a group of his companions considered it recommended and the companions of al-Shafi'i. From the scholars are those who dislike it due to believing it is Bid'ah. The sayings in it are three: Recommended, dislike and permissibility - and these are the fairest of sayings.As for the desirable act , which is urged by the Prophet peace be upon him is a prayer for the dead.[Majmoo Fatawa Kitab al Janaiz Masla Talqeen al Mayyat]

Note Shaykh Ibn Tamiyah agreed that Desirable act which is urged by Prophet peace be upon him is prayer for the dead.

r) Ibn Qudamah said
فأما التلقين بعد الدفن فلم أجد فيه عن أحمد شيئا ولا أعلم فيه للأئمة قولا سوى ما رواه الأثرم قال : قلت لـ أبي عبد الله فهذا الذي يصنعون إذا دفن الميت يقف الرجل ويقول : يا فلان بن فلان اذكر ما فارقت عليه شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله فقال : ما رأيت أحدا فعل هذا إلا أهل الشام حين مات أبو مغيرة جاء إنسان فقال ذاك قال : وكان أبو المغيرة يروي فيه عن أبي بكر بن أبي مريم عن أشياخهم أنهم كانوا يفعلونه وكان ابن عياش يرويه

Regarding Promting the dead after the burial: I did not find anything regarding this issue from Imam Ahmad, nor i have statement from other scholars, except the saying where Athram asked from Imam Ahmad that this thing the people do after the burial of dead and the person says "O so and so son of so and so" say the thing which you left in the world i.e There is no god but Allah". He(Ahmad) said i have not seen anyone doing this except the people of shaam when Abu Mughira died and a person came he said that Abu Mughira narrates from Abu Bakar bin Maryam in this issue that our elders did this.[Al-Mughni 2/381]
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Comment: So it is clear from the statement of Ibn Qudamah and Imam Ahmad that it is not sunnah to do talqeen after death only few people of ash-Shaam did this, same statements from Imam Ahmad is quoted by Imam Ibn al Qayyim in Za`ad al Ma`ad [1/504]  and Ahlus sunnah take evidence from Qur`an and Sunnah not from the people of cities.  
s) Ibn Hazam said

ويجب تلقين الميت الذي يموت في ذهنه ولسانه منطلق - أو غير منطلق - شهادة الإسلام ، وهي " لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله " .

لما روينا من طريق مسلم نا عمرو الناقد نا أبو خالد الأحمر عن يزيد بن كيسان عن أبي حازم عن أبي هريرة قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : { لقنوا موتاكم لا إله إلا الله } .

وصح هذا أيضا عن أم المؤمنين ، وروي عن عمر بن الخطاب.  وعن إبراهيم عن علقمة قال : لقنوني لا إله إلا الله وأسرعوا بي إلى حفرتي وأما من ليس في ذهنه فلا يمكن تلقينه ، لأنه لا يتلقن ؟ وأما من منع الكلام فيقولها في نفسه ، نسأل الله خير ذلك المقام

And it is Obligatory to make talqeen to the one who is dying (when) his mind is still working whether he is (still) speaking or not ,(the words of talqeen are) the shahadah of Islam i.e "There is no God but Allah Muhammad Peace be upon him is his messenger.

It is narrated from Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Exhort to recite" there is no god but Allah" to those of you who are dying

And same is authentically proven from Mother of believers and it is also narrated from Umar bin al-Khattab. Ibraheem narrated from Alqamah(tabiyee) thet he (Alqamah) said: "Instruct me to recite La ilaha ILAllah when i am in the state of dying and take me to my grave in hurry." Talqeen is not allowed for the person who has lost his mind(meaning the dead person who has lost his mind), Because he can not accept the instruction given to him.  

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t) Ibn al Sa`ati Hanafi (694 h) said
ونلقنه الآن
لا بعد التلحيد
Talqeen will be done now, not after burying [Majma al Bahrayn wa Multaqa an-Nay-yirayn a book in hanafi jurisprudence page 172 by Ibn al sa`ati hanafi dar al kutub Ilmiyaah]

u) Narrated Anas: A young jewish boy used to serve the Prophet and he became sick. So the Prophet went to visit him. He sat near his head and asked him to embrace Islam. The boy looked at his father, who was sitting there; the latter told him to obey Abu-l-Qasim and the boy embraced Islam. The Prophet came out saying: "Praises be to Allah Who saved the boy from the Hell-fire." (Bukhari Book #23, Hadith #438)

And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was present when his paternal uncle Abu Taalib was dying, and he called him to Islam but he refused. Agreed upon.

Comment: If the Talqeen after the death was perscribed in Islam, Prophet peace be upon him would be the first one who could save the Non Muslims after their death, When it is not prescribed for Non Muslims who are really in danger then how can it be allowed for the Muslims?
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Note: There is a hadeth in Sunan Ibn Maja no: 1446 which states 

Exhort to recite" LA ILAHA ILL ALLAH AL HALEEM AL KAREEM SUBHAANALLAH RABBUL ARSH IL ADHEEM ALHUMDULILLAHI RABB AL-ALAMEEN" to those of you who are dying.Sahaba asked: What about (exhorting) the living? Prophet SAW said: It is very good, very good" (Declared weak by Shaykh Zubair Ali Zai in the notes of Ibn Maja)

Comment: Some people try to prove talqeen after the death from above hadeeth but the chain of the hadeeth is weak as it is mentioned in Hashia al-Sindhee of Ibn Majah

( كيف للأحياء ) أي كيف هذا التلقين - للمريض بالشهادة  للأحياء وفي الزوائد في إسناده إسحاق لم أر من وثقه ولا من جرحه وكثير بن يزيد قال فيه أحمد ما أرى به بأسا وقال ابن معين ليس بشيء وقال مرة ليس به بأس وقال مرة صالح وقال أبو حاتم صالح ليس بالقوي وقال النسائي ضعيف وقيل ثقة وباقي رجاله ثقات والله أعلم .

What about (exhorting) the living) Means How to do talqeen to the Patient who is watching the living. And in Zawaid the chain contains Ishaq: I did not see any trustworthiness or criticism on him. And regarding Katheer bin Zaid: Imam Ahmad said "I do not see anything harm with him". Ibn Maeen said "He is Nothing". another time he said "There is nothing wrong with him". anothertime he said "Good". Abu Hatim said "Good but he is not strong". Nisaee said "(He is) weak and it is said he was trustworthy and other narrators are reliable. and Allah knows best(end quote)

Source: http://hadith.al-islam.com/Page.aspx?pageid=192&;TOCID=441&BookID=35&PID=2652

The weak Hadith (of the topic) is against the authentic hadith

The hadith clearly states :A Man said, "O Messenger of Alllah, what if one does not know the name of his mother?" and he answered, 'Then one should mention his descent from his mother Eve, saying, "O so and so son of Eve"

Above statement is contradicting the authentic hadith of Bukhari which states: Narrated Ibn 'Umar: Allah's Apostle said, "A flag will be fixed on the Day of Resurrection for every betrayer, and it will be announced (publicly in front of everybody), 'This is the betrayal (perfidy) so-and-so, the son of so-and-so."[Bukhari Volume 8, Book 73, Number 197]

Imam Bukhari brougth this hadeeth undet the chapter "باب ما يُدعى الناسُ بآبائهم" (Chapter 'calling people by the name of theior father)

Ibn Battal said in the commentary of above hadith:
في هذا الحديث رد لقول من زعم أنهم لا يدعون يوم القيامة إلا بأمهاتهم سترا على آبائهم
This hadeeth is refutation for the one who claim that on the day of judgment people will be called by the name of their mothers to conceal their fathers.[Fath ul Bari]

Ibn Battal also said
والدعاء بالآباء أشد في التعريف وأبلغ في التمييز  
(rough translation)Calling by the names of the Fathers is  the best in Praise...(Fath ul Bari)

Comment: People will be Called with the names of their Fathers not with the names of their mothers, this is the madhab of salaf as-saliheen. 

What is recommended according to the sunnah after the death? 

Narrated uthman ibn Affan: Whenever the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) became free from burying the dead, he used to stay at him (i.e. his grave) and say: Seek forgiveness for your brother, and beg steadfastness for him, for he will be questioned now. (Abu Dawud Book #20, Hadith #3215)

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Comment: Above hadith is a proof that the Sunnah is not to make talqeen after the death but to make dua for the dead. 

It is mentioned in Hashia al-Roz by Ibn al Qasim 3/124

وقال ابن المنذر رحمه الله : "قال بمشروعيته ـ الدعاء ـ الجمهور ، وقال الآجري وغيره : يستحب الوقوف بعد الدفن قليلاً ، والدعاء للميت .... قال الترمذي : الوقوف على القبر ، والسؤال للميت في وقت الدفن ، مدد للميت بعد الصلاة عليه ؛ لأن الصلاة بجماعة المسلمين كالعسكر له ، قد اجتمعوا بباب الملك ، يشفعون له ، والوقوف على القبر ، وسؤال التثبيت ، مدد للعسكر ، وتلك ساعة شغل الميت ، لأنه استقبله هول المطلع ، وسؤال الفتانين" 
Ibn al Munzar (died 270 h) Rahimullah said Majority are on the opinion to pray, Ajuri (360 h) and others said It is desirable to wait and then to pray for the dead after the burial. Tirmidhee said Staying at the grave and at the time of burial asking (Allah) is the help for the dead after the salaah (of janazah). The prayer from the group of Muslims is like Army who is gathered at the gate of the King and intercede for him (dead). And staying at the grave and asking (Allah) for the establishment (of the dead) is the help of the Army (for the dead) because This is the time where the dead is facing hard times.(end quote)

Note: Some later scholars erred in this case and said it is recomended to make talqeen, among them are Abu Omar ibn Al-Sallah ra and Nawawi Ra, we reject their sayings or any other scholar because they are not with authentic Sunnah in this case. So, no need to quote scholars against authentic sunnah and practice of Companions and Majority of Muhadditheen.

What should we do when there is Difference of Opinion. 
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a) Allah says:(59. O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.)

b) Ibne Katheer Commented (And those of you who are in authority) in the obedience to Allah which they command you, not what constitutes disobedience of Allah, for there is no obedience to anyone in disobedience to Allah, as we mentioned in the authentic Hadith,«إِنَّمَا الطَّاعَةُ فِي الْمَعْرُوف»(Obedience is only in righteousness.)(end)

c) Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said ,"There is no obedience to a created being if it involves disobedience of the Creator" (reported by Ahmad, 1041)
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d) The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said::"None of you truly believes until I am more beloved to him than his son, his father, and all the people." (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 63)

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e) Abu dawood Book 40, Chapter Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah)Number 4590
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.....for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.
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See authenticity of above hadeeth here: http://gift2shias.com/2009/11/01/hadith-my-sunnah-and-that-of-the-rightly-guided-caliphs-part-1/


Conclusion
1. The athar is weak according to Muhadditheen
2. According to authentic sunnah Talqeen of reciting Kalima is for those who are dying.
3. After the death there is only prayer for the dead talqeen is Bidah, those scholars who said it is allowed they simply erred and went against Authentic Sunnah. 
4. According to Jalal ud din Suyuti this is Bid`ah according to Majority of the scholars, Imam Ahmad said i don't know anyone doing this accept people of Sham, other three Imams are silent on this issue. In Fact Imam Izz bin Abdus Salam declared it Bidah and said it was not the practice of Imam Malik. In Short this practice was unknown to salaf as Saliheen
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Related Links:
a) The ruling on talqeen of the dead
The Permanent Committee of Scholarly Research and Verdicts
http://www.almuflihoon.com/index.php?option=com_content&;view=article&id=232:the-ruling-on-talqeen-of-the-dead-&catid=73:innovationsfataawa&Itemid=178 

b) http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vb/showthread.php?t=78620

Detailed reply from above link in Arabic

: أن حديث التلقين هذا حديثٌ باطلٌ منكرٌ ، وقد أخرجه الطبرانيُّ في (( الكبير )) - كما في (( مجمع الزوائد )) (3/45) - من طريق سعيد بن عبد اللَّه الأودي قال : شهدتُ أبا أمامة وهو في النزع فقال : إذا أنا متُّ فاصنعوا بي كما أمر رسولُ اللَّه صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فقال : (( إذا مات أحدٌ من إخوانكم فسويتم التراب على قبره ، فليقم أحدُكم على رأس قبره ، ثم ليقل : يا فلان بن فلانة ، فإنه يسمعه ولا يجيب ، ثم يقولُ : يا فلان بن فلانة ، فإنه يستوي قاعدًا ، ثم يقول : يا فلان بن فلانة ، فإنه يقول : أرشد يرحمك اللَّه ، ولكن لا تشعرون ، فليقل : اذكر ما خرجت عليه من الدنيا : شهادة أن لا إله إلا اللَّه ، وأن محمدًا عبده ورسوله ، وأنك رضيت باللَّه ربًّا ، وبالإسلام دينًا ، وبمحمـدٍ نبيًّا ، وبالقرآن إمامًا ، فإن منكرًا ونكيرًا ، يـأخذ كـــــــــلُّ واحـدٍ منهما بيد صاحبه ويقول : انطلق ، ما نقعد عند مـن قد لُقِّن حجته ، فيكون اللَّه عز وجـــل حجيجُــهُ دونهمــــا )) . فقال رجلٌ : يا رسول اللَّه ، فـــــإن لم يعرف أمَّــه ؟ قال : (( ينسبُهُ إلى حواء عليها السلامُ : يا فلان ابن حـواء )) . قال الهيثميُّ في (( المجمع )) : ( في إسناده جماعةٌ لم أعرفهم ) . وأخرجه الخلعيُّ في (( الفوائد )) ( ق 55/2) - كما في (( الضعيفة )) (599) - وفي إسناده عتبة بن السكن ، وقد تركه الدارقطني . وقال البيهقيُّ : ( واه منسوبٌ إلى الوضع ) هذا مع جهالة جماعة في الإسناد ، وقد تتابعت عبارات أهل العلم في تضعيفه . فقال ابنُ عدي : ( منكر ) . وقال ابنُ الصلاح - كما في (( الأذكار )) ( ص 174) للنووي : ( ليس إسنادُهُ بالقائم ) ، وضعّفه النووي في (( المجموع )) (5/304) ، وفي (( الفتاوى )) ( ص54) . وقال ابن تيمية في (( مجموع الفتاوى )) (24/296) : ( وهو مما لا يحكم بصحته ) . وقال ابنُ القيم في (( زاد المعاد )) (1/523) : ( لا يصح رفعه ). وقال في (( تهذيب سنن أبي داود )) (13/293) : ( وهذا الحديث متفق على ضعفه ) . وضعّفه العراقي في (( تخريج أحاديث الإحياء )) (4/420) ، والحافظ في (( الفتح )) (10/563) ، وفي (( نتائج الأفكار )) . وقال : ( ضعيف جدًّا ) ، والزركشي في (( اللآلئ المنثورة )) ( ص59) ، والسيوطي في (( الدرر المنتثرة )) ( ص25) ، والصنعاني في (( سبل السلام )) (2/114) ، وقال : ( ويتحصل من كلام أئمة التحقيق أنه حديث ضعيفٌ والعمل به بدعة ، ولا يغتر بكثرة من يفعله ) . انتهى .

وهذا هو الصواب الذي لا محيد عنه ، وإنما تمسَّك من ذهب إلى العمل به بكلام ابن الصلاح واغتر به النووي ، حيث قال الأول : ( ولكن اعتضد بشواهد وبعمل أهل الشام به قديمًا ) ، وأضاف النووي : ( وقد اتفق علماءُ الحديث وغيرهم على المسامحة في أحاديث الفضائل والترغيب ) . ونقل دعوى الاتفاق في غاية الغرابة ، إذ الخلاف في هذه المسألة مشهورٌ معروف ، ثم من هم أهل الشام الذين عناهم ابن الصلاح إلا العوام الذين لا يعرفون قبيلاً من دبير ! وإذا أردنا أن نحرر المسألة فينبغي أن نحدد معنى (( المسامحة )) ، وما هو مفهومُها ، والذي يتحصل من كلام النقاد أن المسامحة مع الراوي أن لا يكون في الدرجة العليا من الضبط والإتقان ، فنقبل أحاديث ابن إسحاق ، وابن عجلان ، وعبد اللَّه بن محمد بن عقيل ، وأضرابهم ، وحديث هؤلاء حسن عند أكثر المتأخرين ، ثم هؤلاء المتأخرون تسامحوا غاية التسامح في تطبيق قاعدة : (( يعمل بالضعيف في فضائل الأعمال )) ، فصاروا لا يفرقون بين الضعيف وشديد الضعف ؛ لأن كثيرًا منهم لم يكن عنده ذوق المحدثين ولا نقد الحفاظ المبرزين ، فاتسع الخَرْق على الراقع ، وكم من حديثٍ جزم أئمة الحديث وفرسانه ببطلانه أو حكموا بوضعه عمل به هؤلاء المتأخرون بدعوى القاعدة السابقة . ثم إنه مما يدلُّ على نكارة حديث التلقين هذا ما أخرجه البخاري (6/283 و10/563 و12/338 و13/68) ، ومسلم (12/42 و43 بشرح النووي ) ، وغيرهم من حديث ابن عمر مرفوعًا : (( إن الغادر يُرفعُ له لواءٌ يوم القيامة ، يقال : هذه غدرةُ فلان ابن فـــلان )) .

وقد بوَّب البخاري على هذا الحديث بقوله : (( باب ما يُدعى الناسُ بآبائهم )) . وقال ابنُ بطَّال : في هذا الحديث ردٌّ لقول من زعم أنهم لا يدعون يوم القيامة إلا بأمهاتهم سترًا على آبائهم . ويشير ابنُ بطال إلى أولاد الزنى ، إذ لا آباء لهم .

وخلاصة البحث : أن الحديث ساقطٌ كما ترى . واللَّه أعلم .

↓↓↓Prophet(saw) said: Convey (knowledge) from me even if it is just one ayah[Bukhari 3461]. Share↓↓↓

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