Praise be to Allah,This article is mainly to answer the islamophobes who say that islam lays many restrictions on women in comparison to men, This Article will deal in these issues
a) The things which men can do and women cannot
Jihad (Jihad bil Saif/fighting)is not obligatory for women, but they can help if men are in need.
Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
In order for jihad to be obligatory there are seven conditions: being Muslim, being an adult, being of sound mind, being free, being male, being physically sound and being able to afford it financially. With regard to being Muslim, adult and of sound mind, these are essential conditions for all Islamic duties, because a kaafir is not to be trusted in jihad, an insane person cannot go for jihad and a child is physically weak. Ibn ‘Umar said: “I presented myself to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the day of Uhud when I was fourteen years old, and he did not let me join the fighting.” Agreed upon. … With regard to being male, this is stipulated because of the report narrated from ‘Aa’ishah who said: “O Messenger of Allaah, do women have to engage in jihad? He said: “Jihad in which there is no fighting: Hajj and ‘Umrah.” And because women are not able to fight because they are (physically) weak.[From al-Mughni, 9/163]
Testimony or bearing witness. The Qur’aan states that the testimony of one man is equivalent to the testimony of two women.Allaah says “And get two witnesses out of your own men. And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women, such as you agree for witnesses, so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her” [al-Baqarah 2:282]
“This ruling – i.e., that prayers should not be made up) is agreed upon by all the Muslims, that menstruating women and women who bleed following childbirth do not have to pray or fast at the times when prayers or fasts are due; they are unanimously agreed that they do not have to make up the prayers, and they are unanimously agreed that they do have to make up the fasts. The scholars said, the difference between them is that the prayers are many and are repeated, so it would be difficult to make them up, unlike the fasts.(end)
Shaykh Muhammad Salih al Munajjid said in IslamQA Fatwa no: 8800
If a woman dies with a child in her womb, or she dies during childbirth or after childbirth but within the period of nifaas (post-partum bleeding), she is considered to be a shaheedah in sha Allaah.
a) Raashid ibn Hubaysh narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered upon 'Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit when he was sick and said, "Do you know who is a shaheed (martyr) in my ummah?" The people remained silent, then 'Ubaadah said, "Help me to sit up." They helped him to sit up, then he said, "O Messenger of Allaah, (is it) the patient one who seeks reward from Allaah for his patience?" The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, "Then the martyrs among my ummah would be very few. Being killed for the sake of Allaah is martyrdom, the plague is martyrdom, drowning is martyrdom, stomach disease is martyrdom, and if a woman dies during the post-partum period, her child will drag her to Paradise by his umbilical cord." The umbilical cord is that which is cut by the midwife when the child is born. [The hadeeth was narrated by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad with a saheeh isnaad. (al-Musnad, 3/489. There is a corroborating report narrated by Maalik (1/233) and Abu Dawood, 3/482)].
b) 'Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit also narrated that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, "Who is counted as a shaheed among you?" They said, "The one who fights and is killed for the sake of Allaah." The Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Then the shaheeds among my ummah would be few. The one who is killed for the sake of Allaah is a shaheed; the one who dies of plague is a shaheed; the one who dies of a stomach disease is a shaheed; the woman who dies with a child in her womb is a shaheed." [This was narrated by Imaam Ahmad, 5/315, and by Ibn Maajah, and by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh, who said its isnaad is saheeh. A report with a similar meaning was narrated by Muslim, as referred to above.](end)
‘Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame), and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allaah with their wealth and their live’ [al-Nisa’ 4:95]
Not one single letter in the Qur’aan enjoins equality, rather it enjoins justice. You will also find that the word justice is acceptable to people, for I feel that if I am better than this man in terms of knowledge, or wealth, or piety, or in doing good, I would not like for him to be equal to me. Every man knows that he find it unacceptable if we say that the male is equal to the female.” [Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitah, 1/180-181]
[004:124] And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a true believer in the Oneness of Allah (Muslim), such will enter Paradise and not the least injustice, even to the size of a Naqeera (speck on the back of a datestone), will be done to them.
[016:097] Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has Faith, verily, to him will We give a new Life, a life that is good and pure and We will bestow on such their reward according to the best of their actions.
[040:040] "He that works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof: and he that works a righteous deed - whether man or woman - and is a Believer- such will enter the Garden (of Bliss): Therein will they have abundance without measure.
[003:195] So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), "Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are (members) one of another,
Ibne Kathir Commented: (You are (members) one of another) means, you are all equal in relation to gaining My reward.(end)
Note:Allah says in Al Hujaraat ayah 13. "O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware."
Hadith says "Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,"Verily, Allah does not look at your shapes or wealth, but he looks at your hearts and actions."
Comment:So whoever Male or female, if he or she has more righteous deeds/actions then he or she is more honorable then others in the sight of Allah.
So men and women both have their field of specialization. Men can not interfere in pregnancy,breastfeeding,wearing gold and silk and other things, and women should not be involved in fighting the enemy (if it is not needed) and other things and they are equal in gaining reward, Whatever is permitted to both of them should be done within the guidelines of Islamic law.